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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822835/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mice-involvement-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#1
Filiz Kazak, Gul Fatma Yarim
Neuroinflammation is the inflammation of nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which affects growth, function and survival of neurons, enhances the stabilization of synapses, regulates synaptic function and branching of dendrites and axons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases associated with neuroinflamation. The aim of this study was to investigate new protective and therapeutic effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in neuroinflammation...
August 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821608/the-transmembrane-domain-of-the-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-stimulates-phosphorylation-of-the-trkb-tyrosine-kinase-receptor
#2
Khalil Saadipour, Michael MacLean, Sean Pirkle, Solav Ali, Maria Luisa Lopez-Redondo, David L Stokes, Moses V Chao
The function of protein products generated from intramembraneous cleavage by the γ-secretase complex is not well defined. The γ-secretase complex is responsible for the cleavage of several transmembrane proteins, most notably the amyloid precursor protein which results in Aβ, a transmembrane (TM) peptide. Another protein that undergoes a very similar γ-secretase cleavage is the p75 neurotrophin receptor. However, the fate of the cleaved p75 TM domain is unknown. p75 neurotrophin receptor is highly expressed during early neuronal development and regulates survival and process formation of neurons...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819854/flow-cytometric-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-using-a-candidate-stem-cell-marker-p75-neurotrophin-receptor-p75ntr
#3
Tomoyuki Okumura, Tetsuji Yamaguchi, Toru Watanabe, Takuya Nagata, Yutaka Shimada
The most widely studied detection for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood of cancer patients has been based on immunomagnetic enrichment using antibodies against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), which is overexpressed in epithelial cells. A neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) is expressed in a candidate stem cell fraction in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which shows significantly higher colony formation, enhanced tumor formation in mice, along with strong expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related genes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815576/microrna-and-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-whole-mirnome-profiling-of-human-hippocampus
#4
Petra Bencurova, Jiri Baloun, Katerina Musilova, Lenka Radova, Boris Tichy, Martin Pail, Martin Zeman, Eva Brichtova, Marketa Hermanova, Sarka Pospisilova, Marek Mraz, Milan Brazdil
OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is a severe neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. mTLE is frequently accompanied by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus resulting in hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common morphological correlate of drug resistance in mTLE patients. Incomplete knowledge of pathological changes in mTLE+HS complicates its therapy. The pathological mechanism underlying mTLE+HS may involve abnormal gene expression regulation, including posttranscriptional networks involving microRNAs (miRNAs)...
August 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#5
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806330/nanoci-nanotechnology-based-cochlear-implant-with-gapless-interface-to-auditory-neurons
#6
Pascal Senn, Marta Roccio, Stefan Hahnewald, Claudia Frick, Monika Kwiatkowska, Masaaki Ishikawa, Peter Bako, Hao Li, Fredrik Edin, Wei Liu, Helge Rask-Andersen, Ilmari Pyykkö, Jing Zou, Marika Mannerström, Herbert Keppner, Alexandra Homsy, Edith Laux, Miguel Llera, Jean-Paul Lellouche, Stella Ostrovsky, Ehud Banin, Aharon Gedanken, Nina Perkas, Ute Wank, Karl-Heinz Wiesmüller, Pavel Mistrík, Heval Benav, Carolyn Garnham, Claude Jolly, Filippo Gander, Peter Ulrich, Marcus Müller, Hubert Löwenheim
: Cochlear implants (CI) restore functional hearing in the majority of deaf patients. Despite the tremendous success of these devices, some limitations remain. The bottleneck for optimal electrical stimulation with CI is caused by the anatomical gap between the electrode array and the auditory neurons in the inner ear. As a consequence, current devices are limited through 1) low frequency resolution, hence sub-optimal sound quality and 2), large stimulation currents, hence high energy consumption (responsible for significant battery costs and for impeding the development of fully implantable systems)...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804449/loss-of-leptin-induced-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-trasmission-and-signal-transduction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#7
Marco Mainardi, Matteo Spinelli, Federico Scala, Andrea Mattera, Salvatore Fusco, Marcello D'Ascenzo, Claudio Grassi
Hippocampal plasticity is triggered by a variety of stimuli including sensory inputs, neurotrophins and inflammation. Leptin, whose primary function is to regulate food intake and energy expenditure, has been recently shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity. Interestingly, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibit impaired hippocampal function, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we compared leptin responsiveness of hippocampal neurons in control and HFD-fed mice by combining single-cell electrophysiology and biochemical assays...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798232/conformational-characterization-of-nerve-growth-factor-%C3%AE-reveals-that-its-regulatory-pro-part-domain-stabilizes-three-loop-regions-in-its-mature-part
#8
Esben Trabjerg, Fredrik Kartberg, Søren Christensen, Kasper D Rand
Nerve growth factor-β (NGF) is essential for correct development of the nervous system. NGF exists both in a mature and a pro-form (proNGF). The two forms have opposing effects on neurons, in which NGF induces proliferation, while proNGF induces apoptosis via binding to a receptor complex of the common neurotrophine receptor (p75NTR) and Sortilin. Overexpression of both proNGF and Sortilin has been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. Insights into the conformational differences between proNGF and NGF are central to a better understanding of the opposing mechanisms of action of NGF and proNGF on neurons...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781946/hippocampus-dependent-task-improves-the-cognitive-function-after-ovariectomy-in-rats
#9
Songhee Cheon
OBJECTIVES: Estrogen is an important hormone for cell growth, development, and differentiation by transcriptional regulation and modulation of intracellular signaling via second messengers. The reduction in the estrogen level after ovariectomy may lead to cognitive impairments associated with morphological changes in areas of the brain mediate memory. The aim of the present study was to find out the effect of tasks on the cognitive function after ovariectomy in rats. METHODS: The animals used in the experiment were 50 Sprague-Dawley female rats...
June 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780369/new-method-to-induce-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rodents-produces-differential-outcomes-in-female-and-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#10
Peter Wirth, Waylin Yu, Amanda L Kimball, Jennifer Liao, Paul Berkner, Melissa J Glenn
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are an increasing health concern due to persistent behavioral and neurological effects. To better understand these effects, researchers frequently rely on animal injury models. Existing models, however, may not adequately reproduce the mechanism of injury as it occurs in humans. NEW METHOD: Our new model for inducing mTBI in rodents entails acceleration of the animal toward a stationary impact zone to produce rapid rotational movement of the head...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776905/expression-of-cytokine-and-extracellular-matrix-mrnas-in-fetal-hepatic-stellate-cells
#11
Keai Sinn Tan, Kasem Kulkeaw, Yoichi Nakanishi, Daisuke Sugiyama
In mouse fetal liver, hepatoblasts, sinusoidal endothelial cells and macrophages (or erythroblastic islands) promote differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells through cell-cell interactions and secretion of cytokines and extracellular matrix factors. Until now, we have had little knowledge of the hematopoietic cytokines or extracellular matrix mRNAs expressed in hepatic stellate cells. Using p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) to mark this cell population, we sorted 12.5, 14.5 and 16.5 dpc hepatic stellate cells and analyzed expression of cytokines and extracellular matrix mRNAs...
August 4, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776202/neurotrophin-gene-therapy-in-deafened-ears-with-cochlear-implants-long-term-effects-on-nerve-survival-and-functional-measures
#12
Bryan E Pfingst, Deborah J Colesa, Donald L Swiderski, Aaron P Hughes, Stefan B Strahl, Moaz Sinan, Yehoash Raphael
Because cochlear implants function by stimulating the auditory nerve, it is assumed that the condition of the nerve plays an important role in the efficacy of the prosthesis. Thus, considerable research has been devoted to methods of preserving the nerve following deafness. Neurotrophins have been identified as a potential contributor to neural health, but most of the research to date has been done in young animals and for short periods (less than 3 to 6 months) after the onset of treatment. The first objective of the current experiment was to examine the effects of a neurotrophin gene therapy delivery method on spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) preservation and function in the long term (5 to 14 months) in mature guinea pigs with cochlear implants...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770473/vegf-and-vegfr1-levels-in-different-regions-of-the-normal-and-preeclampsia-placentae
#13
Akriti S Sahay, Anjali T Jadhav, Deepali P Sundrani, Girija N Wagh, Savita S Mehendale, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Sadhana R Joshi
Altered placental angiogenesis is implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. We have earlier reported placental regional differences in oxidative stress markers and neurotrophins. Oxidative stress and neurotrophins are reported to regulate angiogenesis. This study aims to examine protein and mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) in four regions [central maternal (CM), central fetal (CF), peripheral maternal (PM), and peripheral fetal (PF)] of the placenta in normotensive control (NC) women (n = 51) and women with preeclampsia (PE) (n = 43) [18 delivered at term (T-PE) and 25 delivered preterm (PT-PE)]...
August 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769769/transplantation-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-promotes-functional-improvement-associated-with-nt-3-mek-1-activation-in-spinal-cord-transected-rats
#14
Liu-Lin Xiong, Fei Liu, Shi-Kang Deng, Jia Liu, Qi-Qin Dan, Piao Zhang, Yu Zou, Qing-Jie Xia, Ting-Hua Wang
Transected spinal cord injury (SCT) is a devastating clinical disease that strongly affects a patient's daily life and remains a great challenge for clinicians. Stem-cell therapy has been proposed as a potential therapeutic modality for SCT. To investigate the effects of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) on the recovery of structure and function in SCT rats and to explore the mechanisms associated with recovery, 57 adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham (n = 15), SCT (n = 24), and HSC transplantation groups (n = 15)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765645/structure-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-tradd-reveals-a-novel-fold-in-the-death-domain-superfamily
#15
Ning Zhang, Wensu Yuan, Jing-Song Fan, Zhi Lin
The TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) is an intracellular adaptor protein involved in various signaling pathways, such as antiapoptosis. Its C-terminal death domain (DD) is responsible for binding other DD-containing proteins including the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)). Here we present a solution structure of TRADD DD derived from high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The TRADD DD comprises two super-secondary structures, an all-helix Greek key motif and a β-hairpin motif flanked by two α helices, which make it unique among all known DD structures...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762132/electro-acupuncture-at-governor-vessel-improves-neurological-function-in-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Wen-Zhan Tu, Song-He Jiang, Li Zhang, Si-Si Li, Peng-Peng Gu, Rong He, Jie Hu, Li-Ping Gao, Qiang-San Sun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) at Governor Vessel (GV) on the locomotor function in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Thirtytwo male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups namely: the sham group (with sham operation); the untreated group (without treatment after spinal cord impact); the EA-1 group [EA applied at Baihui (GV 20) and Fengfu (GV 16) after spinal cord impact] and the EA-2 group [with EA applied at Dazhui (GV 14) and Mingmen (GV 4) after spinal cord impact]...
July 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761415/dual-and-multi-drug-delivery-nanoparticles-towards-neuronal-survival-and-synaptic-repair
#17
REVIEW
Angelina Angelova, Borislav Angelov
Among the macromolecular drug targets in neurodegenerative disorders, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity tropomyosin-related kinase receptor (TrkB) present strong interest for nanomedicine development aiming at neuronal and synaptic repair. Currently, BDNF is regarded as the neurotrophic factor of highest therapeutic significance. However, BDNF has delivery problems as a protein drug. The enhanced activation of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) has been evidenced to increase the BDNF gene expression and hence the production of endogenous BDNF...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761093/combined-serum-levels-of-multiple-proteins-in-tpa-bdnf-pathway-may-aid-the-diagnosis-of-five-mental-disorders
#18
Suzhen Chen, Haitang Jiang, Yang Liu, Zhenhua Hou, Yingying Yue, Yuqun Zhang, Fuying Zhao, Zhi Xu, Yinghui Li, Xiaodong Mou, Lei Li, Tianyu Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Chongyang Han, Yuxiu Sui, Ming Wang, Zhong Yang, Yan Lu, Yifeng Zhu, Jianhua Li, Xinhua Shen, Fei Sun, Qingsong Chen, Huanxin Chen, Yonggui Yuan
Mental disorders are severe, disabling conditions with unknown etiology and are commonly misdiagnosed when clinical symptomology criteria are solely used. Our previous work indicated that combination of serum levels of multiple proteins in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway improved accuracy of diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we measured serum levels of tPA, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), BDNF, precursor-BDNF (proBDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR) in patients with paranoid schizophrenia (SZ, n = 34), MDD (n = 30), bipolar mania (BM, n = 30), bipolar depression (BD, n = 22), panic disorder (PD, n = 30), and healthy controls (HCs, n = 30) by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757509/diverse-distribution-of-tyrosine-receptor-kinase-b-isoforms-in-rat-multiple-tissues
#19
Kosuke Otani, Muneyoshi Okada, Hideyuki Yamawaki
Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), a receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, includes the alternatively spliced three isoforms specifically in rats. Each isoform, full length TrkB (TrkB FL), truncated TrkB type-1 (TrkB T1) and type-2 (TrkB T2), seems to mediate diverse cellular function. Some studies suggest that TrkB plays a key role in both neural and non-neural systems. In the present study, we examined mRNA and protein expression profile of three TrkB isoforms in normal adult rat multiple tissues...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757258/bdnf-over-expression-induces-striatal-serotonin-fiber-sprouting-and-increases-the-susceptibility-to-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#20
Elisabetta Tronci, Francesco Napolitano, Ana Muñoz, Camino Fidalgo, Francesca Rossi, Anders Björklund, Alessandro Usiello, Manolo Carta
In addition to its role in neuronal survival, the brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to influence serotonin transmission and synaptic plasticity, events strongly implicated in the appearance of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a motor complication occurring in parkinsonian patients after long-term treatment with the dopamine precursor. In order to evaluate a possible influence of BDNF in the appearance of LID, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received a striatal injection of different concentrations of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector over-expressing either BDNF or GFP, as control vector...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
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