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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646200/mesenchymal-stem-cells-secretome-induced-axonal-outgrowth-is-mediated-by-bdnf
#1
Luís F Martins, Rui O Costa, Joana R Pedro, Paulo Aguiar, Sofia C Serra, Fabio G Teixeira, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado, Ramiro D Almeida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, with increasing importance in central and peripheral nervous system repair. However, MSCs grafting present disadvantages, such as, a high number of cells required for transplantation and low survival rate when transplanted into the central nervous system (CNS). In line with this, MSCs secretome which present on its composition a wide range of molecules (neurotrophins, cytokines) and microvesicles, can be a solution to surpass these problems...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641124/neural-repair-by-nt3-chitosan-via-enhancement-of-endogenous-neurogenesis-after-adult-focal-aspiration-brain-injury
#2
Peng Hao, Hongmei Duan, Fei Hao, Lan Chen, Min Sun, Kevin S Fan, Yi Eve Sun, David Williams, Zhaoyang Yang, Xiaoguang Li
The latent regenerative potential of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian brain has been postulated as a likely source for neural repair. However, the inflammatory and inhibitory microenvironment after traumatic brain injury (TBI) prohibits NSCs from generating new functional neurons to restore brain function. Here we report a biodegradable material, chitosan, which, when loaded with neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and injected into the lesion site after TBI, effectively engaged endogenous NSCs to proliferate and migrate to the injury area...
April 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#3
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628896/cholinergic-neuron-gene-expression-differences-captured-by-translational-profiling-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Paul M McKeever, TaeHyung Kim, Andrew R Hesketh, Laura MacNair, Denise Miletic, Giorgio Favrin, Stephen G Oliver, Zhaolei Zhang, Peter St George-Hyslop, Janice Robertson
Cholinergic neurotransmission is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a key component of disease pathogenicity and symptomatology. To explore the molecular basis of this cholinergic dysfunction, we paired translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) with RNA sequencing (TRAP-Seq) to identify the actively translating mRNAs in anterior forebrain cholinergic neurons in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD. Bioinformatic analyses revealed the downregulation of 67 of 71 known cholinergic-related transcripts, consistent with cholinergic neuron dysfunction in TgCRND8 mice, as well as transcripts related to oxidative phosphorylation, neurotrophins, and ribosomal processing...
May 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623429/bdnf-a-key-factor-with-multipotent-impact-on-brain-signaling-and-synaptic-plasticity
#5
REVIEW
Przemysław Kowiański, Grażyna Lietzau, Ewelina Czuba, Monika Waśkow, Aleksandra Steliga, Janusz Moryś
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most widely distributed and extensively studied neurotrophins in the mammalian brain. Among its prominent functions, one can mention control of neuronal and glial development, neuroprotection, and modulation of both short- and long-lasting synaptic interactions, which are critical for cognition and memory. A wide spectrum of processes are controlled by BDNF, and the sometimes contradictory effects of its action can be explained based on its specific pattern of synthesis, comprising several intermediate biologically active isoforms that bind to different types of receptor, triggering several signaling pathways...
June 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614398/5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-regulates-alcohol-related-behavior-and-ntf3-trkc-expression-in-rats
#6
Xiaomeng Qiao, Fangyuan Yin, Yuanyuan Ji, Yunxiao Li, Peng Yan, Jianghua Lai
Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc), an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612959/early-life-decline-in-neurogenesis-markers-and-age-related-changes-of-trkb-splice-variant-expression-in-the-human-subependymal-zone
#7
Christin Weissleder, Mari A Kondo, Chunhui Yang, Samantha J Fung, Debora A Rothmond, Matthew W Wong, Glenda M Halliday, Mary M Herman, Joel E Kleinman, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neurogenesis in the subependymal zone (SEZ) declines across the human lifespan and reduced local neurotrophic support is speculated to be a contributing factor. While tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling is critical for neuronal differentiation, maturation and survival, little is known about subependymal TrkB expression changes during postnatal human life. In this study, we used quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation to determine expression of the cell proliferation marker Ki67, the immature neuron marker doublecortin (DCX) and both full-length (TrkB-TK+) and truncated TrkB receptors (TrkB-TK-) in the human SEZ from infancy to middle age (n=26-35, 41 days-43 years)...
June 14, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606823/alpha-lipoic-acid-attenuates-acute-neuroinflammation-and-long-term-cognitive-impairment-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#8
Amanda Della Giustina, Mariana Pereira Goldim, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Drielly Florentino, Khiany Mathias, Leandro Garbossa, Aloir Neri Oliveira Junior, Maria Eduarda Fileti, Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olívia Martins Laurentino, Jucélia Jeremias Fortunato, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Josiane Budni, Tatiana Barichello, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Fabricia Petronilho
Sepsis is a complication of an infection which imbalance the normal regulation of several organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence points towards inflammation and oxidative stress as major steps associated with brain dysfunction in sepsis. Thus, we investigated the α-lipoic acid (ALA) effect as an important antioxidant compound on brain dysfunction in rats. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) or sham (control) and treated orally with ALA (200 mg/kg after CLP) or vehicle...
June 10, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606780/sexual-dimorphic-expression-of-trkb-trkb-t1-and-bdnf-in-the-medial-preoptic-area-of-the-syrian-hamster
#9
Joe C Brague, Jennifer M Swann
Neurotrophins regulate many aspects of neuronal function and activity. Specifically, the binding of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to Tyrosine receptor kinase-B (TrkB) or its truncated version, TrkB-T1, can cause growth and differentiation or dominant inhibition of receptor signaling, respectively. There is evidence that these neurotropic effects on nervous tissue, in both the central and peripheral nervous system, behave differently between the sexes. This study used western blots to examine the expression of these neurotrophins in the medial preoptic area (MPOA), a sexually dimorphic region of the hamster brain that controls male sex behavior...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606778/hmgb1-promotes-neurovascular-remodeling-via-rage-in-the-late-phase-of-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#10
Xiaodi Tian, Liang Sun, Dongxia Feng, Qing Sun, Yang Dou, Chenglin Liu, Feng Zhou, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
High-mobility group box1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein widely expressed in the central nervous system. Extracellular HMGB1 serves as a proinflammatory cytokine and contributes to brain injury during the acute stage post-stroke. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated beneficial effects of HMGB1 in some types of brain injury, but little is known about its effects during the late phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was designed to explore the potential roles and mechanisms of HMGB1 and its receptor, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (Rage), on brain recovery in the late stage of experimental SAH...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604632/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-induced-elevated-expression-of-the-e1-isoform-of-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2e1-implications-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-induced-neurological-disability-and-associated-myelin-damage
#11
Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Ting Zhou, Khaled AlTaweel, Claudia Cortes, Ryan Lillico, Ted Martin Lakowski, Kiana Gozda, Michael Peter Namaka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by the destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. At present, there is no cure for MS due to the inability to repair damaged myelin. Although the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a beneficial role in myelin repair, these effects may be hampered by the over-expression of a transcriptional repressor isoform of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) called MeCP2E1. We hypothesize that following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced myelin damage, the immune system induction of the pathogenic MeCP2E1 isoform hampers the myelin repair process by repressing BDNF expression...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601428/vegf-production-and-signaling-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-are-critical-to-modulating-vascular-function-and-neuronal-integrity-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-hypoxic-retinal-vascular-diseases
#12
Yun-Zheng Le
Müller glia (MG) are major retinal supporting cells that participate in retinal metabolism, function, maintenance, and protection. During the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a neurovascular disease and a leading cause of blindness, MG modulate vascular function and neuronal integrity by regulating the production of angiogenic and trophic factors. In this article, I will (1) briefly summarize our work on delineating the role and mechanism of MG-modulated vascular function through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and on investigating VEGF signaling-mediated MG viability and neural protection in diabetic animal models, (2) explore the relationship among VEGF and neurotrophins in protecting Müller cells in in vitro models of diabetes and hypoxia and its potential implication to neuroprotection in DR and hypoxic retinal diseases, and (3) discuss the relevance of our work to the effectiveness and safety of long-term anti-VEGF therapies, a widely used strategy to combat DR, diabetic macular edema, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and other hypoxic retinal vascular disorders...
June 21, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600187/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-influences-migration-and-focal-adhesions-but-not-proliferation-or-viability-of-human-neural-stem-progenitor-cells-derived-from-olfactory-epithelium
#13
Gerardo Bernabé Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo Rodrigo Perera-Murcia, Leonardo Ortiz-López, Nelly Maritza Vega-Rivera, Harish Babu, Maria García-Anaya, Jorge Julio González-Olvera
In humans, new neurons are continuously added in the olfactory epithelium even in the adulthood. The resident neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs-OE) in the olfactory epithelium are influenced by several growth factors and neurotrophins. Among these modulators the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has attracted attention due its implicated in cell proliferation, survival and migration of other type of neural/stem progenitor cells. Interestingly, VEGFr2 receptor expression in olfactory epithelium has been described in amphibians but not in humans...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599751/association-between-serum-levels-of-glutamate-and-neurotrophic-factors-and-response-to-clozapine-treatment
#14
Amir Krivoy, Eldar Hochman, Kyra-Verena Sendt, Sarah Hollander, Yael Vilner, Mirjana Selakovic, Abraham Weizman, Michal Taler
Clozapine is the only available therapy for about 30% of schizophrenia patients otherwise refractory to antipsychotics. Unfortunately, the mechanism of action of the drug is still unknown and there are no biomarkers that can predict a positive response to clozapine. We aimed to examine serum neurotrophins and glutamate levels as putative biomarkers for clozapine response based on the hypothesized mode-of-action of the compound. Blood samples of 89 chronic schizophrenia patients maintained on clozapine were analyzed in a cross-sectional design...
June 7, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596120/myelin-induced-inhibition-in-a-spiral-ganglion-organ-culture-approaching-a-natural-environment-in-vitro
#15
Benedikt Kramer, Anke Tropitzsch, Marcus Müller, Hubert Löwenheim
The performance of a cochlear implant depends on the defined interaction between afferent neurons of the spiral ganglion and the inserted electrode. Neurite outgrowth can be induced by neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) via tropomyosin kinase receptor B (TrkB). However, neurotrophin signaling through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75) inhibits neurite outgrowth in the presence of myelin. Organotypic cultures derived from postnatal (P3-5) mice were used to study myelin-induced inhibition in the cochlear spiral ganglion...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593137/msk1-regulates-transcriptional-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-in-response-to-neurotrophins
#16
Chris J Hunter, Judit Remenyi, Sonia A Correa, Lucia Privitera, Kathleen M S E Reyskens, Kirsty J Martin, Rachel Toth, Bruno G Frenguelli, J Simon C Arthur
The immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc)/Arg3.1 and the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in the mammalian brain. However, the mechanisms by which BDNF regulates the expression of Arc/Arg3.1 are unclear. In this study, we show that BDNF acts via the ERK1/2 pathway to activate the nuclear kinase mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 then induces Arc/Arg3.1 expression via the phosphorylation of histone H3 at the Arc/Arg3...
June 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589908/activation-of-trka-receptor-elicits-mastocytosis-in-mice-and-is-involved-in-the-development-of-resistance-to-kit-targeted-therapy
#17
Min Yang, Zengkai Pan, Kezhi Huang, Guntram Büsche, Friedrich Feuerhake, Anuhar Chaturvedi, Danian Nie, Michael Heuser, Felicitas Thol, Nils von Neuhoff, Arnold Ganser, Zhixiong Li
The neurotrophins (NTs) play a key role in neuronal survival and maintenance. The TRK (tropomyosin-related kinase) tyrosine kinase receptors (TRKA, TRKB, TRKC) are high affinity receptors for NTs. There is increasing data demonstrating an important role of the TRK family in cancer initiation and progression. NTs have been known for many years to promote chemotaxis, maturation, and survival of mast cells. However, the role of NT signaling in the pathogenesis of mastocytosis is not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of TRKA by its ligand nerve growth factor (NGF) is potent to trigger a disease in mice with striking similarities to human systemic mastocytosis (SM)...
May 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572757/muscle-contraction-regulates-bdnf-trkb-signaling-to-modulate-synaptic-function-through-presynaptic-cpkc%C3%AE-and-cpkc%C3%AE-i
#18
Erica Hurtado, Víctor Cilleros, Laura Nadal, Anna Simó, Teresa Obis, Neus Garcia, Manel M Santafé, Marta Tomàs, Katherine Halievski, Cynthia L Jordan, Maria A Lanuza, Josep Tomàs
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts via tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (TrkB) to regulate synapse maintenance and function in the neuromuscular system. The potentiation of acetylcholine (ACh) release by BDNF requires TrkB phosphorylation and Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation. BDNF is secreted in an activity-dependent manner but it is not known if pre- and/or postsynaptic activities enhance BDNF expression in vivo at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we investigated whether nerve and muscle cell activities regulate presynaptic conventional PKC (cPKCα and βI) via BDNF/TrkB signaling to modulate synaptic strength at the NMJ...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567989/the-novel-synthetic-microneurotrophin-bnn27-protects-mature-oligodendrocytes-against-cuprizone-induced-death-through-the-ngf-receptor-trka
#19
Giulia Bonetto, Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Achille Gravanis, Domna Karagogeos
BNN27, a member of a chemical library of C17-spiroepoxy derivatives of the neurosteroid DHEA, has been shown to regulate neuronal survival through its selective interaction with NGF receptors (TrkA and p75(NTR) ), but its role on glial populations has not been studied. Here, we present evidence that BNN27 provides trophic action (rescue from apoptosis), in a TrkA-dependent manner, to mature oligodendrocytes when they are challenged with the cuprizone toxin in culture. BNN27 treatment also increases oligodendrocyte maturation and diminishes microglia activation in vitro...
August 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566470/early-life-allergen-induced-mucus-overproduction-requires-augmented-neural-stimulation-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cell-secretion
#20
Juliana Barrios, Kruti R Patel, Linh Aven, Rebecca Achey, Martin S Minns, Yoonjoo Lee, Vickery E Trinkaus-Randall, Xingbin Ai
Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) are the only innervated airway epithelial cells. To what extent neural innervation regulates PNEC secretion and function is unknown. Here, we discover that neurotrophin 4 (NT4) plays an essential role in mucus overproduction after early life allergen exposure by orchestrating PNEC innervation and secretion of GABA. We found that PNECs were the only cellular source of GABA in airways. In addition, PNECs expressed NT4 as a target-derived mechanism underlying PNEC innervation during development...
May 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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