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neurotrophins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227174/gambogic-amide-a-selective-trka-agonist-does-not-improve-outcomes-from-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#1
Maddison R Johnstone, Mujun Sun, Caroline J Taylor, Rhys D Brady, Brian L Grills, Jarrod E Church, Sandy R Shultz, Stuart J McDonald
OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) may reduce neuroinflammation and apoptosis after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). NGF is thought to exert its effects via binding to either TrkA or p75 neurotrophin receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a selective TrkA agonist, gambogic amide (GA), on TBI pathology and outcomes in mice following lateral fluid percussion injury. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were given either a TBI or sham injury, and then received subcutaneous injections of either 2 mg/kg of GA or vehicle at 1, 24, and 48 h post-injury...
December 11, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225336/psychiatric-polygenic-risk-associates-with-cortical-morphology-and-functional-organization-in-aging
#2
Annie Lee, Mojun Shen, Anqi Qiu
Common brain abnormalities in cortical morphology and functional organization are observed in psychiatric disorders and aging, reflecting shared genetic influences. This preliminary study aimed to examine the contribution of a polygenetic risk for psychiatric disorders (PRScross) to aging brain and to identify molecular mechanisms through the use of multimodal brain images, genotypes, and transcriptome data. We showed age-related cortical thinning in bilateral inferior frontal cortex (IFC) and superior temporal gyrus and alterations in the functional connectivity between bilateral IFC and between right IFC and right inferior parietal lobe as a function of PRScross...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224504/mechanisms-of-carnosine-induced-activation-of-neuronal-cells
#3
Shuntaro Yamashita, Mikako Sato, Takashi Matsumoto, Keishi Kadooka, Takanori Hasegawa, Tatsuya Fujimura, Yoshinori Katakura
Carnosine (β-Ala-l-His), an imidazole dipeptide, is known to have many functions. Recently, we demonstrated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial that carnosine is capable of preserving cognitive function in elderly people. In the current study, we assessed the ability of carnosine to activate the brain, and we tried to clarify the molecular mechanisms behind this activation. Our results demonstrate that carnosine permeates the blood brain barrier and activates glial cells within the brain, causing them to secrete neurotrophins, including BDNF and NGF...
December 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224006/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-promotor-region-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-a-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-opioid-maintained-patients
#4
Adrian Groh, Kirsten Jahn, Alexandra Burkert, Alexandra Neyazi, Laura Schares, Eva Janke, Marie Rehme, Rilana Schuster, Thomas Hillemacher, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Annemarie Heberlein
AIMS: The nerve growth factor (NGF) and the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) may be of importance for psychiatric diseases including substance use disorders. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the regulation of both neuropeptides via the DNA-methylation status of the promotor regions of NGF and VEGF-A in different forms of maintenance therapy for opioid dependence and the related stress regulation via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. METHODS: We compared methylation levels of opioid-dependent patients receiving treatment with diamorphine (n = 28) or levomethadone (n = 54) and similar levels in a healthy control group (n = 72)...
December 8, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222790/site-specific-direct-labeling-of-neurotrophins-and-their-receptors-from-biochemistry-to-advanced-imaging-applications
#5
Francesco Gobbo, Fulvio Bonsignore, Rosy Amodeo, Antonino Cattaneo, Laura Marchetti
We describe here a versatile methodological platform to achieve site-directed and stoichiometry-controlled labeling of neurotrophins and their receptors with various probes, ranging from biotin to small organic dyes. This labeling method works in vitro on purified neurotrophins as well as in a living cell context, where it achieves selective labeling of surface-exposed neurotrophin receptors. Here, we list all experimental details of our labeling protocols, along with examples of the wide range of applications in which these can be used...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222787/nerve-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-2-the-quail-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay
#6
Philip Lazarovici, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Dikla Haham, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes
The avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a simple, highly vascularized extraembryonic membrane, which performs multiple functions during embryonic development. Therefore, the models of chicken and quail assays represent robust experimental platforms to study angiogenesis, which reflects perturbation of the entire vascular tree. This experimental approach, when combined with fractal morphometry, is sensitive to changes in vascular branching pattern and density. Nerve growth factor is a neurotrophin promoting angiogenesis in CAM models...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222786/nerve-growth-factor-induced-angiogenesis-1-endothelial-cell-tube-formation-assay
#7
Philip Lazarovici, Adi Lahiani, Galit Gincberg, Dikla Haham, Arnon Fluksman, Ofra Benny, Cezary Marcinkiewicz, Peter I Lelkes
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin promoting survival, proliferation, differentiation, and neuroprotection in the embryonal and adult nervous system. NGF also induces angiogenic effects in the cardiovascular system, which may be beneficial in engineering new blood vessels and for developing novel anti-angiogenesis therapies for cancer. Angiogenesis is a cellular process characterized by a number of events, including endothelial cell migration, invasion, and assembly into capillaries. In vitro endothelial tube formation assays are performed using primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human aortic endothelial cells, and other human or rodent primary endothelial cells isolated from the vasculature of both tumors and normal tissues...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222770/ocular-nerve-growth-factor-ngf-and-ngf-eye-drop-application-as-paradigms-to-investigate-ngf-neuroprotective-and-reparative-actions
#8
Paola Tirassa, Pamela Rosso, Angela Iannitelli
The eye is a central nervous system structure that is uniquely accessible to local treatment. Through the ocular surface, it is possible to access the retina, optic nerve, and brain. Animal models of retina degeneration or optic nerve crush could thus serve as tools to investigate whether and how factors, which are anterogradely or retrogradely transported through the optic nerve, might contribute to activate neuroprotection and eventually regeneration. Among these factors, nerve growth factor (NGF) plays a crucial role during development of the visual system, as well as during the entire life span, and in pathological conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222769/neurotrophic-factors-an-overview
#9
Stephen D Skaper
The neurotrophins are a family of closely related proteins that were first identified as survival factors for sympathetic and sensory neurons and have since been shown to control a number of aspects of survival, development, and function of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Limiting quantities of neurotrophins during development control the numbers of surviving neurons to ensure a match between neurons and the requirement for a suitable density of target innervation. Biological effects of each of the four mammalian neurotrophins are mediated through activation of one or more of the three members of the tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217485/developmental-origins-of-adult-health-and-disease-the-metabolic-role-of-bdnf-from-early-life-to-adulthood
#10
REVIEW
Despina D Briana, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process...
December 4, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215199/neurotrophically-induced-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-derived-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-enhance-neuritogenesis-via-neurotrophin-and-cytokine-production
#11
Rachel M Brick, Aaron X Sun, Rocky S Tuan
Adult tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to produce a number of bioactive factors, including neurotrophic growth factors, capable of supporting and improving nerve regeneration. However, with a finite culture expansion capacity, MSCs are inherently limited in their lifespan and use. We examined here the potential utility of an alternative, mesenchymal-like cell source, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells, termed induced mesenchymal progenitor cells (MiMPCs). We found that several genes were upregulated and proteins were produced in MiMPCs that matched those previously reported for MSCs...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215065/toll-like-receptor-activation-induces-degeneration-of-human-intervertebral-discs
#12
Emerson Krock, Derek H Rosenzweig, J Brooke Currie, Daniel G Bisson, Jean A Ouellet, Lisbet Haglund
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are activated by endogenous alarmins such as fragmented extracellular matrix compounds found in the degenerating disc. TLRs regulate cytokine, neurotrophin, and protease expression in human disc cells in vitro, and thus control key factors in disc degeneration. However, whether TLR activation leads to degenerative changes in intact human discs is unclear. Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells isolated from non-degenerating discs increase IL-1β and nerve growth factor gene expression following treatment with Pam2CSK4 (TLR2/6 agonist) but not Pam3CSK4 (TLR1/2 agonist)...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215016/low-neurotrophin-receptor-cd271-regulates-phenotype-switching-in-melanoma
#13
Gaetana Restivo, Johanna Diener, Phil F Cheng, Gregor Kiowski, Mario Bonalli, Thomas Biedermann, Ernst Reichmann, Mitchell P Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Lukas Sommer
Cutaneous melanoma represents the most fatal skin cancer due to its high metastatic capacity. According to the "phenotype switching" model, the aggressive nature of melanoma cells results from their intrinsic potential to dynamically switch from a high-proliferative/low-invasive to a low-proliferative/high-invasive state. Here we identify the low affinity neurotrophin receptor CD271 as a key effector of phenotype switching in melanoma. CD271 plays a dual role in this process by decreasing proliferation, while simultaneously promoting invasiveness...
December 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#14
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209164/differential-expression-of-sox11-and-bdnf-mrna-isoforms-in-the-injured-and-regenerating-nervous-systems
#15
Felix L Struebing, Jiaxing Wang, Ying Li, Rebecca King, Olivia C Mistretta, Arthur W English, Eldon E Geisert
In both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), axonal injury induces changes in neuronal gene expression. In the PNS, a relatively well-characterized alteration in transcriptional activation is known to promote axonal regeneration. This transcriptional cascade includes the neurotrophin Bdnf and the transcription factor Sox11. Although both molecules act to facilitate successful axon regeneration in the PNS, this process does not occur in the CNS. The present study examines the differential expression of Sox11 and Bdnf mRNA isoforms in the PNS and CNS using three experimental paradigms at different time points: (i) the acutely injured CNS (retina after optic nerve crush) and PNS (dorsal root ganglion after sciatic nerve crush), (ii) a CNS regeneration model (retina after optic nerve crush and induced regeneration); and (iii) the retina during a chronic form of central neurodegeneration (the DBA/2J glaucoma model)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203442/n-3-pufa-diet-enrichment-prevents-amyloid-beta-induced-depressive-like-phenotype
#16
M G Morgese, S Schiavone, E Mhillaj, M Bove, P Tucci, L Trabace
Among neuropsychiatric diseases, depression is one of the most prevalent. Many pathologies have been indicated as comorbid with depression and in particular, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD). In this regard, several evidences endorse a strong relationship between depression and AD, so much that this mental illness has been proposed either as a risk factor for AD or as a prodromic AD phase. Furthermore, amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, the main constituent of amyloid plaques commonly considered the principal hallmark of AD brains, has been shown to be increased, in its soluble form, in depressed patients...
December 1, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202822/the-p75ntr-mediated-effect-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-l6c5-myogenic-cells
#17
Alessandra de Perini, Ivan Dimauro, Guglielmo Duranti, Cristina Fantini, Neri Mercatelli, Roberta Ceci, Luigi Di Luigi, Stefania Sabatini, Daniela Caporossi
OBJECTIVE: During muscle development or regeneration, myocytes produce nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as its tyrosine-kinase and p75-neurotrophin (p75NTR) receptors. It has been published that the p75NTR receptor could represent a key regulator of NGF-mediated myoprotective effect on satellite cells, but the precise function of NGF/p75 signaling pathway on myogenic cell proliferation, survival and differentiation remains fragmented and controversial. Here, we verified the role of NGF in the growth, survival and differentiation of p75NTR-expressing L6C5 myogenic cells, specifically inquiring for the putative involvement of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) αB-crystallin and Hsp27 in these processes...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200666/prevention-of-memory-impairment-and-neurotrophic-factors-increased-by-lithium-in-wistar-rats-submitted-to-pneumococcal-meningitis-model
#18
Lutiana R Simões, Roberta R E S Abreu, Jaqueline S Generoso, Jéssica A Goularte, Allan Collodel, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Anitha Christy Sigamani Arumanayagam, Samira S Valvassori, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in the hippocampus and on memory in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The mood-stabilizer lithium is known as a neuroprotective agent with many effects on the brain. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 109 CFU/mL...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186135/regulation-of-actions-and-habits-by-ventral-hippocampal-trkb-and-adolescent-corticosteroid-exposure
#19
Elizabeth T Barfield, Kyle J Gerber, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Kerry J Ressler, Ryan G Parsons, Shannon L Gourley
In humans and rodents, stress promotes habit-based behaviors that can interfere with action-outcome decision-making. Further, developmental stressor exposure confers long-term habit biases across rodent-primate species. Despite these homologies, mechanisms remain unclear. We first report that exposure to the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) in adolescent mice recapitulates multiple neurobehavioral consequences of stressor exposure, including long-lasting biases towards habit-based responding in a food-reinforced operant conditioning task...
November 29, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182610/bdnf-expression-in-cat-striate-cortex-is-regulated-by-binocular-pattern-deprivation
#20
Karolina Laskowska-Macios, Lutgarde Arckens, Małgorzata Kossut, Kalina Burnat
Deprivation of patterned visual information, as in early onset congenital cataract patients, results in a severe impairment in global motion perception. Previously we reported a delayed maturation of the peripheral visual field representation in primary visual area 17, based on a 2-D DIGE screen for protein expression changes and in situ hybridization for the activity reporter gene ZIF268. To corroborate these findings we here explore the binocular pattern deprivation (BD)-regulated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a well-described neurotrophin precipitously regulated by early visual experience...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
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