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Clinical immunology and lung cancer

Rachel Bender Ignacio, Lilie L Lin, Lakshmi Rajdev, Elizabeth Chiao
This review highlights current interventional clinical trials for HIV-associated malignancies (HIVAMs), with emphasis on 4 mechanistic areas: immunomodulatory therapies and gene therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors; cytotoxic therapies; novel tumor-targeted and virally targeted therapies in both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC); and other screening or topical/ablative interventions. A search on located 35 trials, including 12 immunomodulatory or gene therapy trials, 6 cytotoxic therapy trials, 10 trials of therapies with tumor or viral molecular targets, and 7 trials evaluating screening interventions or topical or ablative therapies...
August 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Weijing Cai, Dapeng Zhou, Weibo Wu, Wen Ling Tan, Jiaqian Wang, Caicun Zhou, Yanyan Lou
BACKGROUND: Mutant peptides presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) Class II in cancer are important targets for cancer immunotherapy. Both animal studies and clinical trials in cancer patients showed that CD4 T cells specific to tumor-derived mutant peptides are essential for the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade therapy by PD1 antibody. RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed the next generation sequencing data of 147 lung adenocarcinoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas and predicted neoantigens presented by MHC Class I and Class II molecules...
August 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Yuan Zhuang, Sihan Li, Huihui Wang, Jingbo Pi, Yuhui Xing, Guang Li
PURPOSE: It has become increasingly clear in cancer treatment that radiotherapy can be enhanced by immunotherapy. In the present study, we evaluated a novel triple combination therapy consisting of local radiotherapy, intratumoral CpG, and systemic PD-1 blockade in lung cancer models. METHODS: The efficacy of a novel triple therapy was examined by recording tumor volume and survival time. The immunologic effects of this novel triple therapy were evaluated by the frequency and percentage of immune cells and cytokines using flow cytometry...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Yosuke Miura, Noriaki Sunaga
The clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has led to dramatic changes in the treatment strategy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite the observation of improved overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with ICIs, their efficacy varies greatly among different immune and molecular profiles in tumors. Particularly, the clinical significance of ICIs for oncogene-driven NSCLC has been controversial. In this review, we provide recent clinical and preclinical data focused on the relationship between oncogenic drivers and immunological characteristics and discuss the future direction of immunotherapy in NSCLC patients harboring such genetic alterations...
July 27, 2018: Cancers
Dimitra Kerdidani, Sophia Magkouta, Panagiotis Chouvardas, Vassiliki Karavana, Konstantinos Glynos, Fani Roumelioti, Spyros Zakynthinos, Els Wauters, Wim Janssens, Diether Lambrechts, George Kollias, Maria Tsoumakidou
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder with an increased incidence of lung cancer. The emphysema component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease confers the greatest proportion to lung cancer risk. Although tumors create inflammatory conditions to escape immunity, the immunological responses that control growth of nascent cancer cells in pre-established inflammatory microenvironments are unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue by implanting OVA-expressing cancer cells in the lungs of mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Lucy M De La Cruz, Brian J Czerniecki
BACKGROUND: Although immunotherapy is making rapid inroads as a major treatment method for melanoma, lung, bladder, and hereditary colon cancer, breast cancer (BC) remains one of the tumors yet to experience the cellular immunology explosion despite the fact that heavy lymphocyte responses in breast tumors improve response to therapy and can predict for long-term survival. RESULTS: Immunotherapies in the form of monoclonal antibodies such as trastuzumab and pertuzumab have had an impact on HER2-positive breast cancer (HER2+BC) treatment through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity...
July 16, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Neeraj Bhalla, Rachel Brooker, Michael Brada
Immunotherapy has become standard of care in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a number of settings. Radiotherapy remains an important and potentially curative treatment for localized and locally advanced NSCLC not amenable to surgery. While the principal cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation is via DNA damage, the effect on tumour microenvironment, promoting dendritic cell presentation of tumour-derived antigens to T cells stimulating the host adaptive immune system to mount an immune response against tumours cells, has become of particular interest when combining immunomodulating agents with radiation...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Aubhishek Zaman, Trever G Bivona
In lung cancer, genomics-driven comprehensive molecular profiling has identified novel chemically and immunologically addressable vulnerabilities, resulting in an increasing application of precision medicine by targeted inactivation of tumor oncogenes and immunogenic activation of host anti-tumor surveillance as modes of treatment. However, initially profound response of these targeted therapies is followed by relapse due to therapy-resistant residual disease states. Although distinct mechanisms and frameworks for therapy resistance have been proposed, accounting for and upfront prediction of resistance trajectories has been challenging...
May 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Edwin R Parra, Pamela Villalobos, Carmen Behrens, Mei Jiang, Apar Pataer, Stephen G Swisher, William N William, Jiexin Zhang, Jack Lee, Tina Cascone, John V Heymach, Marie-Andrée Forget, Cara Haymaker, Chantale Bernatchez, Neda Kalhor, Annikka Weissferdt, Cesar Moran, Jianjun Zhang, Ara Vaporciyan, Don L Gibbons, Boris Sepesi, Ignacio I Wistuba
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy observed with inhibitors of programed cell death 1/programed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1/PD-1) in cancer therapy has prompted studies to characterize the immune response in several tumor types, including lung cancer. However, the immunological profile of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is not yet fully characterized, and it may be therapeutically important. The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize and quantify PD-L1/PD-1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) in surgically resected NSCLCs from patients who received NCT or did not receive NCT (non-NCT)...
June 6, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Etienne D Foucher, Clément Ghigo, Salem Chouaib, Jérôme Galon, Juan Iovanna, Daniel Olive
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers with very few available treatments. For many decades, gemcitabine was the only treatment for patients with PDAC. A recent attempt to improve patient survival by combining this chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel failed and instead resulted in increased toxicity. Novel therapies are urgently required to improve PDAC patient survival. New treatments in other cancers such as melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and renal cancer have emerged, based on immunotherapy targeting the immune checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 or programmed death 1 ligand...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Dong Li, Song He
Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy is an optimal cancer treatment, resulting in its emergence as a therapeutic choice; however, there are limited studies investigating dual antigen-pulsed DC immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In order to determine the effect of a recombinant melanoma-associated antigen (rMAGE-3) and recombinant Survivin (rSurvivin) peptide-pulsed DC immunotherapy in patients with NSCLC, the present clinical study was performed. DC immunotherapy was generated from the monocytes of patients with NSCLC and primed with rMAGE-3 and rSurvivin peptides...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Heinz Läubli, Catharina Balmelli, Lukas Kaufmann, Michal Stanczak, Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Dominik Vogt, Astrid Hertig, Beat Müller, Oliver Gautschi, Frank Stenner, Alfred Zippelius, Adrian Egli, Sacha I Rothschild
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibiting antibodies were introduced into routine clinical practice for cancer patients. Checkpoint blockade has led to durable remissions in some patients, but may also induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Lung cancer patients show an increased risk for complications, when infected with influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccination is recommended. However, the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination during checkpoint blockade and its influence on irAEs is unclear...
May 22, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Rachel Evans, Mary Reid, Brahm Segal, Scott I Abrams, Kelvin Lee
In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
Jason Beattie, Lonny Yarmus, Momen Wahidi, M Patricia Rivera, Christopher Gilbert, Fabien Maldonado, Kasia Czarnecka, Angela Argento, Alexander Chen, Felix Herth, Daniel H Sterman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ivana Catacchio, Anna Scattone, Nicola Silvestris, Anita Mangia
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths throughout the world. The majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease when surgery, the best curative option, is no longer feasible. Thus, the prognosis of lung cancer remains poor and heterogeneous and new biomarkers are needed. As the immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer, the study of tumor microenvironment, with regard to the immune component, may provide valuable information for a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and progression of the disease...
June 2018: Translational Oncology
F Graus, D Escudero, L Oleaga, J Bruna, A Villarejo-Galende, J Ballabriga, M I Barceló, F Gilo, S Popkirov, P Stourac, J Dalmau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim was to report the clinical characteristics of 12 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) who were antibody-negative after a comprehensive immunological study. METHODS: The clinical records of 163 patients with LE were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain, cultured neurons and cell-based assays were used to identify neuronal autoantibodies. Patients were included if (i) there was adequate clinical, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging information to classify the syndrome as LE, (ii) magnetic resonance images were accessible for central review and (iii) serum and CSF were available and were confirmed negative for neuronal antibodies...
August 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Puyuan Xing, Hongyu Wang, Sheng Yang, Xiaohong Han, Yan Sun, Yuankai Shi
BACKGROUND: Hu-rhEGF-rP64k/Mont is a biotechnology product for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The vaccine induces a neutralizing antibody-mediated immune response, against the normal circulating self-protein antigen epidermal growth factor (EGF), which prevents its binding to and activation of the EGF receptor, inhibiting the transduction of the signals that drive cancer cell proliferation, survival and spread. This phase I study aimed to evaluate the safety and the immunological response of Hu-rhEGF-rP64k vaccine in NSCLC patients...
April 16, 2018: BMC Immunology
Paolo Tini, Valerio Nardone, Pierpaolo Pastina, Luigi Pirtoli, Pierpaolo Correale, Antonio Giordano
Lung cancer represents the leading cause of cancer mortality across the worlds. At present, less than 30% of the patients can undergo curative surgery, while the majority of them (65%) are diagnosed with metastatic disease and directed to systemic treatments. In this context there is a subset of patients (25%) with locally advanced stage disease whose outcome might be improved by using combined strategies of treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Areas covered: Here we reviewed possible combination strategies aimed to improve the outcome of lung cancer patients, focusing on the role of radiotherapy both in the adjuvant and oligo-metastatic setting and in synergy with immunotherapy, and finally, we afforded the new challenges concerning the advanced RT and precision oncology...
June 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Nathan Esplin, Khadija Fergiani, Timothy B Legare, John W Stelzer, Hammad Bhatti, Sayed K Ali
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous regression has been defined as occurring when the malignant tumor mass partially or completely disappears without any treatment or as a result of a therapy considered inadequate to influence systemic neoplastic disease. Recently, studies have implicated immunological responses as likely being involved. We report a case of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung who experienced spontaneous regression following biopsy without other intervention. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old white man was referred to our pulmonary clinic after an incidental finding of a nodule in the lower lobe of his left lung...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jessica Moskovitz, Jennifer Moy, Robert L Ferris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Discussion of current strategies targeting the immune system related to solid tumors with emphasis on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).This review will outline the current challenges with immunotherapy and future goals for treatment using these agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Agents targeting immune checkpoint receptors (IR) such as program death 1 (PD1) have been used in the clinical realm for melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the use of these agents for these malignancies has provided crucial information about how and why patients respond or not to inhibitory checkpoint receptor blockade therapy (ICR)...
March 3, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
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