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OTC antibiotic

Faten Alhomoud, Reem Almahasnah, Farah Kais Alhomoud
BACKGROUND: The sale of antibiotics without a prescription poses a global public health concern. Antibiotics dispensed without a prescription are largely recognised as a cause of antibiotic misuse and overuse which may result in antibiotic resistance, recurrent infection, increased cost and adverse effects of treatment. There have been no qualitative studies to explore the reasons for over-the-counter (OTC) sale of antibiotics, despite the fact that non-prescription sale of antibiotics are increasing in Saudi Arabia...
December 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Chong-Jing Gao, Lu-Lu Jia, Ying Guo
Triclosan (TCS) is an endocrine disruptor which may affect endocrine function, antibiotic resistance, and thyroid hormone homeostasis. As a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent used in medical and personal care products, TCS was frequently detected in human urine, indicating widespread human exposure to this chemical. Over-the-counter medicines (OTCs) may be a potential source of human exposure to TCS. In this study, 84 OTCs were collected from Guangzhou, South China, including medicines intended for both children and adults...
November 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yuanyuan Xu, Chenhe Lu, Yangyang Sun, Yingge Shao, Ying Cai, Yuanshu Zhang, Jinfeng Miao, Peng Miao
An aptamer based assay is presented for the determination of the antibiotics oxytetracycline (OTC) and kanamycin (KAN). Magnetic beads were applied for separation, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for signal amplification. DNA aptamers against OTC and KAN were firstly designed. After specific recognition events, the aptamer sequences were released from the surface of magnetic beads and the remaining DNA probes captured horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified AuNPs. Subsequently, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and o-phenylenediamine are catalytically oxidized by HRP, and the generated colorimetric responses can reflect the concentrations of OTC (at 370 nm) and KAN (at 450 nm), respectively...
November 13, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Nan You, Hui Yao, Yun Wang, Hong-Tao Fan, Chang-Song Wang, Ting Sun
The pollution of antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), in aquatic environments has become an issue of concern in recent years. Herein, an in situ sampling of TCs in pig breeding wastewater that utilizes the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), based on commercial nanosized ZnO (nanoZnO) particles as the potential effective binding agent and a polyethersulfone (PES) membrane as the diffusion layer, was developed. The diffusion coefficients of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in a PES membrane at 25 °C were (1...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Dengmiao Cheng, Yao Feng, Yuanwang Liu, Jianming Xue, Zhaojun Li
Understanding the dynamics of veterinary antibiotic and related antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during swine manure composting is crucial in assessing the environmental risk of antibiotics, which could effectively reduce their impact in natural environments. This study investigated the dissipation of oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfamerazine (SM1) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) as well as the behaviour of their corresponding ARGs during swine manure composting. These antibiotics were added at two concentration levels and two different methods of addition (single/mixture)...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
S Rodrigues, S C Antunes, A T Correia, B Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is an antibiotic widely used in human and veterinary medicines. Since the primary toxicity occurs mainly at molecular/biochemical levels, the study of different biological responses corresponds to a sensitive and crucial approach. The aim of the present study was to assess the toxic effects of OTC in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) through the use of multibiomarkers and elucidate about the possible toxicological mechanisms involved. S. aurata were acutely (96 h: 0.04-400 μg/L) and chronically (28 days: 0...
September 11, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
P J Allen, W Baumgartner, E Brinkman, R J Devries, H A Stewart, D L Aboagye, S W Ramee, M A Ciaramella, C M Culpepper, L Petrie-Hanson
Pectoral fin healing in fin spines and rays were examined in juvenile Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus following three different sampling techniques (n = 8-9 fish per treatment): entire leading fin spine removed, a 1-2 cm portion removed near the point of articulation, or a 1-2 cm portion removed from a secondary fin ray. Also, to determine whether antibiotic treatment influences healing, an additional group of fish (n = 8) was not given an injection of an oxytetracycline (OTC)-based antibiotic following removal of the entire leading fin spine...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Xiaoyu Yuan, Shengke Yang, Jie Fang, Xueli Wang, Haizhen Ma, Zongzhou Wang, Runze Wang, Yaqian Zhao
In this study, the interaction between the humus and two antibiotics was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy to describe the interaction mechanism and the effects of different environmental factors on the mechanism. Results showed that humic acid (HA) containing more aromatic groups was easily associated with antibiotics. In the HA-OTC, with the increase of the concentration of OTC, there were obvious absorption peaks in the 230⁻260 nm and 330⁻360 nm range, and the absorption band of the HA ultraviolet spectrum underwent a slight blue shift and the absorption intensity increased, demonstrating that a new ground state complex was generated...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ying Li, Jie Fang, Xiaoyu Yuan, Yangyang Chen, Hongbin Yang, Xiaohua Fei
To examine the residual and distributions of tetracycline antibiotics in the Weihe River, SPE-UPLC (solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis detection) was employed to analyze the oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and minocycline (MC) of 41 surface water and 35 sediment samples collected from main streams, tributaries, and main sewage outlets. The results showed that: (1) The order of residual levels of tetracycline antibiotics in water and sediment from high to low was the following: OTC > CTC > MC...
August 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Lisha Zhen, Jie Gu, Ting Hu, Zhixue Chen
Veterinary antibiotics can enter agricultural fields via the application of livestock manure containing antibiotics. However, the response of soil microorganisms to compost containing antibiotics is not well understood. A 120-day pot experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of compost containing oxytetracycline (OTC) on the enzyme activities and microbial communities in maize rhizosphere soil. Swine manure was artificially spiked with OTC at four concentrations, 35, 70, 105, and 140 mg kg-1 , and combined with straw to produce compost...
October 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Amine Ezzariai, David Riboul, Marlène Z Lacroix, Maialen Barret, Loubna El Fels, Georges Merlina, Alain Bousquet-Melou, Dominique Patureau, Eric Pinelli, Mohamed Hafidi
In this work a fast analytical method for the determination of macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in a compost originating from a mixture of sewage sludge, palm waste and grass was developed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (U-HPLC/MS). Antibiotics were extracted from compost by using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The chromatographic separation was carried out on a T3 Cortecs C18 column using a mobile phase gradient mixture of water acidified with 1% of formic acid and acetonitrile...
November 2018: Chemosphere
Shoufeng Tang, Deling Yuan, Yandi Rao, Jingyi Zhang, Ying Qu, Jianmin Gu
Degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), a primary member of antibiotics in water, was performed by a gas phase dielectric barrier discharge (GPDBD) plasma reactor. The influences of operation conditions including applied voltages, air bubbling rates, initial OTC concentrations and initial pH values on OTC abatement were investigated respectively. The results showed that the decontamination process can be fitted by first order kinetics, and the removal ratio and rate were affected obviously by those parameters...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
S Rodrigues, S C Antunes, A T Correia, B Nunes
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a tetracycline antibiotic, widely used in human and veterinary medicines, including in aquaculture. Given this use, OTC has been detected in different aquatic environments. Some recent works have demonstrated unintentional biological activity of OTC in non-target aquatic organisms. This study investigated the acute and chronic effects of OTC on the physiology of the fish species Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), namely through the quantification of the activity of enzymes involved in different biochemical pathways, such as detoxification (phase II - glutathione S-transferases - GSTs, uridine-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases - UGTs), neurotransmission (acetylcholinesterase - AChE) and energy production (lactate dehydrogenase - LDH)...
August 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Peng Liang, Shengchun Wu, Chan Zhang, Jialin Xu, Peter Christie, Jin Zhang, Yucheng Cao
The role of antibiotics commonly used in fish culture activities in methylmercury (MeHg) formation in mariculture sediments (MS) and in reference sediments (RS) was studied using simulation microcosms. MS and RS were split into three equal batches. Two batches were spiked with Hg(NO3 )2 aqueous solution at levels of 2 and 8 mg kg-1 (dry weight basis) and the remainder served as a control batch. Tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) (2.5 g and 10 g of each) were added to each treatment. Sediment THg concentration decreased during the culture period possibly due to complexation of Hg with the antibiotics resulting in the dissolution of Hg compounds from the sediment...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jia Li, Hua Zhang, Guodong Yuan
The fate and transport of antibiotics in the aquatic environment are usually influenced by the combined effects of environmental factors. In this study, batch-type experiments were conducted to investigate the combined effects of phosphate and salinity on oxytetracycline (OTC) adsorption on, and desorption from, two marine sediments. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the kinetic data better than pseudo-first-order model. The pseudo-second-order kinetic rate (k2 ) of OTC increased significantly with increasing phosphate concentrations...
August 2, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan Xu, Changsheng Guo, Jiapei Lv, Song Hou, Yi Luo, Yuan Zhang, Jian Xu
Tetracyclines and sulfonamides are the two classes of antibiotics commonly used in the medical, industrial and agricultural activities. Their extensive usage has caused the proliferation and propagation of resistant bacteria (ARB) and resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of tetracyclines (TC, OTC and CTC) and sulfonamides (SMX, SCX and TMP), their associated ARB and ARGs were quantified in water and sediments collected from the mainstream of Liaohe River, northeast China...
October 2018: Environmental Pollution
Runze Wang, Shengke Yang, Jie Fang, Zongzhou Wang, Yangyang Chen, Dan Zhang, Chunyan Yang
The method of Three-Dimensional Excitation Emission Matrix Fluorescence Spectrophotometer was used to identify the interaction mechanism between humic acid (HA) and antibiotics. The effects of antibiotic concentration, temperature, and pH on the bonding strength between HA and antibiotics were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of antibiotics concentration, the quenching effect on HA was enhanced. The quenching of HA by both oxytetracycline (OTC) and sulfadiazine (SD) is a single static quenching of the complexes, and the interaction forces are mainly a hydrogen bond and the van der Waals force...
July 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sheng Wei, Fenghe Wang, Yajun Chen, Tao Lan, Shengtian Zhang
Antibiotics and phthalate esters are two kinds of emerging pollutants and are ubiquitous in the aquatic ecosystem. To date, few studies analyzed the combined toxicity of the mixtures of antibiotics and phthalate esters, and their joint toxicity effect mode remains unknown. Here, we investigated the single and joint toxicity of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and five antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC), chlortetracycline hydrochloride (CTC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamerazine (SMR), and sulfadiazine (SD), to luminescent bacteria of Vibrio fischeri...
July 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kathleen Anne Holloway, Anita Kotwani, Gitanjali Batmanabane, Budiono Santoso, Sauwakon Ratanawijitrasin, David Henry
BACKGROUND: Irrational use of medicines is widespread in the South-East Asia Region (SEAR), where policy implementation to encourage quality use of medicines (QUM) is often low. The aim was to determine whether public-sector QUM is better in SEAR countries implementing essential medicines (EM) policies than in those not implementing them. METHODS: Data on six QUM indicators and 25 EM policies were extracted from situational analysis reports of 20 country (2-week) visits made during 2010-2015...
July 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Yu-Feng Chai, Yu-Xiu Zhang, Mei-Xue Chen, Rui Wang, Meng-Meng Liu, Jia-Xi Zheng, Yuan-Song Wei
As a new, persistent pollutant in the environment, antibiotics are one of the most important pollutants in sewage treatment plants. The objective of this work was to investigate the concentration distribution and removal efficiency of antibiotics for three typical wastewater treatment technologies applied in small towns (CASS, A2 /O, and Orbal oxidation ditch) using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sixteen typical antibiotics, including four tetracyclines, three β -lactams, four macrolides, three quinolones, and two sulfonamides, were analyzed in the influent and effluent...
June 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
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