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pharmacist antibiotic

Faten Alhomoud, Reem Almahasnah, Farah Kais Alhomoud
BACKGROUND: The sale of antibiotics without a prescription poses a global public health concern. Antibiotics dispensed without a prescription are largely recognised as a cause of antibiotic misuse and overuse which may result in antibiotic resistance, recurrent infection, increased cost and adverse effects of treatment. There have been no qualitative studies to explore the reasons for over-the-counter (OTC) sale of antibiotics, despite the fact that non-prescription sale of antibiotics are increasing in Saudi Arabia...
December 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Stephanie J Tang, Renuka Gupta, Jennifer I Lee, Adrian M Majid, Parimal Patel, Leigh Efird, Angela Loo, Shawn Mazur, David P Calfee, Alexi Archambault, Deanna Jannat-Khah, Savira Kochhar Dargar, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20%-50% of antimicrobial use in hospitals is inappropriate. Limited data exist on the effect of frontline provider engagement on antimicrobial stewardship outcomes. METHODS: A three-arm pre-post quality improvement study was conducted on three adult internal medicine teaching services at an urban academic hospital. Data from September through December 2016 were compared to historic data from corresponding months in 2015. Intervention arms were (1) Educational bundle (Ed-only); (2) Educational bundle plus antimicrobial stewardship rounds twice weekly with an infectious disease-trained clinical pharmacist (Ed+IDPharmDx2); and (3) Educational bundle plus internal medicine-trained clinical pharmacist embedded into daily attending rounds (Ed+IMPharmDx5)...
October 25, 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Pius G Horumpende, Tolbert B Sonda, Marco van Zwetselaar, Magreth L Antony, Filemon F Tenu, Charles E Mwanziva, Elichilia R Shao, Stephen E Mshana, Blandina T Mmbaga, Jaffu O Chilongola
Antibiotic dispensing without a prescription poses a threat to public health as it leads to excessive antibiotic consumption. Inappropriate antibiotic availability to the community has been documented to be amongst drivers of antimicrobial resistance emergence. Community pharmacies are a source of antibiotics in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed at assessing antibiotic dispensing practices by community pharmacy retailers in Moshi urban, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania and recommend interventions to improve practice...
2018: PloS One
Stacey K Dull, Brooke D Havlat, Michael J Sanley, Mark A Malesker
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 43-year-old male with asthma who was hospitalized for an exacerbation of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB), a chronic lung disease that is characterized by dilation of the airways, persistent cough, chronic sputum production, and recurrent respiratory infections. He was treated with oral and inhaled antibiotics, inhaled bronchodilators, and aggressive airway-clearance techniques including nebulized 7% sodium chloride, flutter valve, and high-frequency chest wall oscillation...
November 1, 2018: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
Kerina J Denny, Jessica G Gartside, Kylie Alcorn, Jack W Cross, Samuel Maloney, Gerben Keijzers
Background: Antibiotics are some of the most commonly prescribed drugs in the Emergency Department (ED) and yet data describing the overall appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in the ED is scarce. Objectives: To describe the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in the ED. Methods: A retrospective, observational study of current practice. All patients who presented to the ED during the study period and were prescribed at least one antibiotic were included...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
E Charani, R Ahmad, T M Rawson, E Castro-Sanch├Ęz, C Tarrant, A H Holmes
Background: Cultural and social determinants influence antibiotic decision-making in hospitals. We investigated and compared cultural determinants of antibiotic decision-making in acute medical and surgical specialties. Methods: An ethnographic observational study of antibiotic decision-making in acute medical and surgical teams at a London teaching hospital was conducted (August 2015-May 2017). Data collection included 500 hours of direct observations, and face-to-face interviews with 23 key informants...
November 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lama Zahreddine, Souheil Hallit, Shadia Shakaroun, Amal Al-Hajje, Sanaa Awada, Nathalie Lahoud
Objectives: to assess the knowledge of both parents and community pharmacists regarding antibiotics use and resistance in pediatrics in Lebanon. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2017 in community pharmacies. A pre-established questionnaire targeting knowledge of parents and pharmacists regarding antibiotics use/misuse was carried out. An index of knowledge was computed to assess factors associated with good knowledge on antibiotics use/misuse...
July 2018: Pharmacy Practice
Thamir M AlShammari, Mohammed J Almoslem
Introduction: Adverse drug reactions ( ADRs) are a major global clinical problem, causing substantial mortality and morbidity especially in hospitals. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) knowledges', attitude and practices are crucial points to evaluate the hospital safety environment. Objective of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HCPs regarding the ADRs reporting system. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and February of 2013 in nine tertiary care hospitals (governmental and private) that provide highly specialized medical services in Riyadh, Qassim, and the Eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia...
November 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Diane Ashiru-Oredope, Anne Doble, Mary Richard Akpan, Sejal Hansraj, Nada Atef Shebl, Raheelah Ahmad, Susan Hopkins
The aim of this study was to assess antimicrobial stewardship activities in Community Healthcare Organisations (CHOs) with focus on the implementation of the two national antimicrobial stewardship toolkits, TARGET (Treat Antibiotics Responsibly, Guidance, Education, Tools) and SSTF (Start Smart, then Focus). The study utilised a web-based survey comprising 34 questions concerning antimicrobial policies and awareness and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship toolkits. This was distributed to pharmacy teams in all 26 CHOs in England...
November 7, 2018: Antibiotics
B Pradines, C Rogier
Historically, infectious diseases have caused more casualties than battle. The French military health service therefore developed a range of research on vector-borne diseases such as malaria and arboviruses, antibiotic resistance, infectious agents that can be used as biological weapons and vaccines. The main objective is to control naturally acquired or provoked infectious diseases and limit their impact on armed forces as well as on civilian populations in France or abroad, particularly in Africa and anywhere French armies may be deployed...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Mohamed Zakaa El-Din, Fatma Samy, Alaa Mohamed, Fatma Hamdy, Salwa Yasser, Moataz Ehab
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is an increasing worldwide crisis. In Egypt, it is prohibited by law to dispense antibiotics with no prescription; however, there are no active and enforced governmental policies and lows to regulate such process. This led to increased antibiotic dispensing and consumption. AIMS: To assess some basic knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic resistance and practice of antibiotic dispensing among Egyptian community pharmacists in Greater Cairo...
November 2, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Inayat Ur Rehman, Malik Muhammad Asad, Allah Bukhsh, Zahid Ali, Humera Ata, Juman Abdulelah Dujaili, Ali Qais Blebil, Tahir Mehmood Khan
Background: The irrational use, "over the counter supply", and unregulated supply chains of antimicrobials are contributing toward antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programs regulate antimicrobials usage to prevent resistance and reduce health care burden. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practice of pharmacists' working in various healthcare settings toward antimicrobial stewardship in Pakistan. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacists working in different sectors between March to June 2017...
October 23, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Fatemeh Keihanian, Amin Saeidinia, Keivan Abbasi, Faeze Keihanian
Introduction: Septicemia is an emergency in medicine due to various dangers and lethality. In patients with septicemia, blood culture and other cultures should be done before antibiotic therapy. Determination of each isolated bacterium from blood culture and pattern of antibiotic sensitivity have an important role epidemiologically in a region and can assist physicians in the determination of primary antimicrobial agents. In this study, the researchers evaluated the schema of resistance of antibiotics in blood culture during the years 2014-2015 at eight educational hospitals in Rasht, North of Iran...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ali Masoud, Somayeh Noori Hekmat, Reza Dehnavieh, Naser Haj-Akbari, Atousa Poursheikhali, Zhaleh Abdi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) aims to promote strategies that ensure efficacy, safety, suitability, and cost-effectiveness of medicine prescription. Health systems should design effective mechanisms to monitor prescription and rational use of medicines at all healthcare settings. This study aimed to determine and analyze prescription patterns of general practitioners and specialists in Kerman/Iran from 2005 to 2015. METHODS: This is an explanatory mixed method study...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Vicki Hunt, Dave Anderson, Richard Lowrie, Colette Montgomery Sardar, Susan Ballantyne, Graeme Bryson, John Kyle, Peter Hanlon
UK, home-based patients with COPD receive specialist care from respiratory physicians, nurses, and general practitioners (GPs), but increasing complexity of therapeutic options and a GP/Nurse workforce crisis suggests merit in testing the role of home visits by a clinical pharmacist. We conducted a non-randomised intervention study with a contemporaneous comparator group, in Glasgow (Scotland). A clinical pharmacist (working closely with a consultant respiratory physician) visited patients with COPD living at home, assessing respiratory and other co-morbid conditions, and medicines then, with patient approval, agreed treatment modifications with a consultant physician...
October 10, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Amy L Carr, Mitchell J Daley, Kathryn Givens Merkel, Dusten T Rose
Significant clinical and financial consequences are associated with both inadequate and unnecessary exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. As such, antimicrobial stewardship programs seek objective, reliable, and cost-effective tests to identify patients at highest or lowest risk for drug-resistant organisms to guide empirical antimicrobial selection. Use of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal screening to rule out MRSA in lower respiratory tract infections has led to significant reductions in duration of vancomycin therapy...
October 9, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Eunah Cheon, Harold W Horowitz
It is well-appreciated that patients with documented penicillin allergies often receive broader-spectrum antibiotics. This practice has been associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and cost. In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to spread awareness on the implications of self-reported penicillin allergies. The use of penicillin skin testing to evaluate for true allergies has been strongly recommended by major organizations for decades. However, testing remains underutilized. Current literature has suggested various models incorporating penicillin allergy screening and testing by different health-care practitioners (i...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jake R Morgan, Tamar F Barlam, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
Background: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major threat to public health, yet improper use of antibiotics remains high. Infectious Diseases (ID) fellows play a major role in antibiotic stewardship efforts, but there is little research on how they view stewardship activities. We performed a qualitative study to explore ID fellows' experiences and perspectives regarding their antibiotic stewardship training and their role as future antibiotic stewards. Methods: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews with ID fellows across the country...
September 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Candace Bishop, Zeeshan Yacoob, Mary Jo Knobloch, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most pressing public health problems, resulting in over 23,000 deaths per year. One of the main contributing factors to antimicrobial resistance is antibiotic misuse and overuse. Community pharmacists can play a role in reducing antibiotic resistance, since they are one of the most accessible healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to describe community pharmacy interventions and strategies to reduce antibiotic misuse and overuse and to discuss the implications for pharmacy training...
September 26, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Siraj Sundaran, Anjali Udayan, Keerthi Hareendranath, Basil Eliyas, Babu Ganesan, Ashik Hassan, Rajesh Subash, Vishnu Palakkal, Mohammed Saji Salahudeen
Hospital-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting programs intend to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of medicines. To examine the causality, preventability and severity of ADR in a hospital setting; a prospective cohort study on spontaneous ADR reporting was conducted from December 2015 to May 2016. Incidence of ADRs, causality, type, severity and preventability were assessed using necessary assessment scales. The study included 3157 hospitalized individuals, in whom 51 ADRs were detected among 49 patients...
September 29, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
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