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pharmacist antibiotic

Vicki Hunt, Dave Anderson, Richard Lowrie, Colette Montgomery Sardar, Susan Ballantyne, Graeme Bryson, John Kyle, Peter Hanlon
UK, home-based patients with COPD receive specialist care from respiratory physicians, nurses, and general practitioners (GPs), but increasing complexity of therapeutic options and a GP/Nurse workforce crisis suggests merit in testing the role of home visits by a clinical pharmacist. We conducted a non-randomised intervention study with a contemporaneous comparator group, in Glasgow (Scotland). A clinical pharmacist (working closely with a consultant respiratory physician) visited patients with COPD living at home, assessing respiratory and other co-morbid conditions, and medicines then, with patient approval, agreed treatment modifications with a consultant physician...
October 10, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Amy L Carr, Mitchell J Daley, Kathryn Givens Merkel, Dusten Rose
There are significant clinical and financial consequences to both inadequate and unnecessary exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. As such, antimicrobial stewardship programs seek objective, reliable, and cost-effective tests to identify patients at highest or lowest risk for drug-resistant organisms to guide empiric antimicrobial selection. Utilization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal screening to rule out MRSA in lower respiratory tract infections has led to significant reductions in duration of vancomycin therapy...
October 9, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Eunah Cheon, Harold W Horowitz
It is well-appreciated that patients with documented penicillin allergies often receive broader-spectrum antibiotics. This practice has been associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and cost. In recent years, considerable efforts have been made to spread awareness on the implications of self-reported penicillin allergies. The use of penicillin skin testing to evaluate for true allergies has been strongly recommended by major organizations for decades. However, testing remains underutilized. Current literature has suggested various models incorporating penicillin allergy screening and testing by different health-care practitioners (i...
October 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jake R Morgan, Tamar F Barlam, Mari-Lynn Drainoni
Background: Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major threat to public health, yet improper use of antibiotics remains high. Infectious Diseases (ID) fellows play a major role in antibiotic stewardship efforts, but there is little research on how they view stewardship activities. We performed a qualitative study to explore ID fellows' experiences and perspectives regarding their antibiotic stewardship training and their role as future antibiotic stewards. Methods: We conducted 17 in-depth interviews with ID fellows across the country...
September 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Candace Bishop, Zeeshan Yacoob, Mary Jo Knobloch, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most pressing public health problems, resulting in over 23,000 deaths per year. One of the main contributing factors to antimicrobial resistance is antibiotic misuse and overuse. Community pharmacists can play a role in reducing antibiotic resistance, since they are one of the most accessible healthcare professionals. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to describe community pharmacy interventions and strategies to reduce antibiotic misuse and overuse and to discuss the implications for pharmacy training...
September 26, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Siraj Sundaran, Anjali Udayan, Keerthi Hareendranath, Basil Eliyas, Babu Ganesan, Ashik Hassan, Rajesh Subash, Vishnu Palakkal, Mohammed Saji Salahudeen
Hospital-based adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring and reporting programs intend to identify and quantify the risks associated with the use of medicines. To examine the causality, preventability and severity of ADR in a hospital setting; a prospective cohort study on spontaneous ADR reporting was conducted from December 2015 to May 2016. Incidence of ADRs, causality, type, severity and preventability were assessed using necessary assessment scales. The study included 3157 hospitalized individuals, in whom 51 ADRs were detected among 49 patients...
September 29, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Annelies Colliers, Samuel Coenen, Roy Remmen, Hilde Philips, Sibyl Anthierens
RATIONALE: Antibiotics (ABs) are one of the most prescribed medications in out-of-hours (OOH) care in Belgium. Developing a better understanding of why ABs are prescribed in this setting is essential to improve prescribing habits. OBJECTIVES: To assess AB prescribing and dispensing challenges for general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists in OOH primary care, and to identify context-specific elements that can help the implementation of behaviour change interventions to improve AB prescribing in this setting...
September 28, 2018: BMJ Open
M C Kallen, J Ten Oever, J M Prins, B J Kullberg, J A Schouten, M E J L Hulscher
Background: Stewardship guidelines define three essential building blocks for successful hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs): stewardship prerequisites, stewardship objectives and improvement strategies. Objectives: We systematically developed a survey, based on these building blocks, to evaluate the current state of antimicrobial stewardship in hospitals. We tested this survey in 64 Dutch acute care hospitals. Methods: We performed a literature review on surveys of antimicrobial stewardship...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Rimah A Almohammed, Emma L Bird
The aim of this review was to assess public knowledge and behaviours in relation to antibiotic use in GCC countries. A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and other relevant databases. Cross-sectional studies published from January 2000 to June 2017 relating to public knowledge and behaviours towards antibiotic use were included. Overall nine studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Nearly half of general public respondents in the GCC region reported a lack of knowledge about antibiotic use and showed negative attitudes towards antibiotic utilisation...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Respati W Ranakusuma, Amanda R McCullough, Eka D Safitri, Yupitri Pitoyo, Widyaningsih, Christopher B Del Mar, Elaine M Beller
Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an acute inflammation of the middle ear commonly found in children, for which antibiotics are frequently prescribed. However, antibiotics are beneficial for only one third of AOM cases, and then, with only modest benefit. Since antibiotic use leads to risk of side effects and resistance, effective alternative treatments are required. Corticosteroids are a candidate because of their anti-inflammatory effects, although evidence of their efficacy and harms is insufficient...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Getachew Alemkere
BACKGROUND: Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines are considered as important interventional tools for antimicrobial resistance. Guideline compliance was poor across different countries and thus results in an inappropriate and overuse of antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the selection, timing and duration of prophylactic antibiotic administration among surgical patients in Nekmte referral hospital. METHOD: Prospective, facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st April to 30th June 2017...
2018: PloS One
Haider Mousa Hamzah, Reyam Faris Salah, Mohammed Nadheer Maroof
Finding a safe and broad spectrum medication is a goal of scientists, pharmacists, and physicians, but developing and fabricating the right medicine can be challenging. The current study describes the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Fusarium mangiferae . It involves the antibiofilm activity of the nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus . It also involves cytotoxic effect against mammalian cell lines. Well-dispersed nanoparticles are formed by F. mangiferae . The sizes of the nanoparticles were found to range from 25 to 52 nm, and UV-Vis scan showed absorption around 416-420 nm...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
E H Bergene, L Holst, T B Rø, A Steinsbekk
Background: Finding appropriate medicinal product formulations and dosage forms for children can be challenging. Knowledge about considerations behind which medicinal product to prescribe or dispense for children is lacking. Objective: To explore considerations of formulation characteristics of medicinal products made by GPs when prescribing and by pharmacists when dispensing medicines for children 0-6 years of age. Method: A qualitative study was performed by conducting three semi-structured focus groups with GPs and three with pharmacists, using nearly identical thematic interview guides...
September 5, 2018: Family Practice
Jason C Gallagher, Julie Ann Justo, Elias B Chahine, P Brandon Bookstaver, Marc Scheetz, Katie J Suda, Lynne Fehrenbacher, Kenneth P Klinker, Conan MacDougall
Antimicrobials enable modern medicine, but their efficacy is a limited resource. In the past 20 years, antimicrobial development has slowed dramatically while antimicrobial resistance continues to rise. In response to this, there has been an increased focus on strategically managing antimicrobial use with an approach called "antimicrobial stewardship." Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been endorsed by health systems, professional societies, regulators, and government. These programs have been shown to reduce antimicrobial use, slow the growth of antimicrobial resistance, and improve patient outcomes...
August 2018: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Y Moutaouakkil, S Siah, A Bennana, Y Tadlaoui, S Makram, Y Cherrah, Y Bousliman, J Lamsaouri
Bacterial resistance is a major concern and the proper use of antibiotics is a global public health priority. Inappropriate use of antibiotic therapy can have serious ecological and pharmaco-economic consequences. The objective of our work was to study the reevaluation of probabilistic antibiotherapy in the burns intensive care unit. A prospective study concerning the clinical-biological reassessment of antibiotic therapy was set up in the burns intensive care unit at the Military Hospital Instruction Mohammed V of Rabat...
March 31, 2018: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Sara Mamo, Yohanes Ayele, Mesay Dechasa
Purpose: Self-medication practice is often associated with irrational medication use. The aim of this study was to assess self-medication practices among community of Harar City and its surroundings, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted through exit interview in selected drug outlets of Harar City among 370 clients from March to April, 2017. The data was coded and entered into epi-data and processed and analyzed using SPSS version 20...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutics
Samuel J Ivan, Puneet Sindhwani
PURPOSE: This review assesses guideline discrepancies for urologic surgery antimicrobial prophylaxis and identifies opportunities for improvement of antimicrobial prophylaxis and stewardship. METHODS: Literature search using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and association websites identified guidelines for review from the American Urological Association, Canadian Urological Association, European Association of Urology, Japanese Urological Association, and Association of Health-System Pharmacists/Infectious Disease Society of America/Surgical Infection Society/Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America...
August 25, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Shazia Jamshed, Fadzlan Padzil, Siti Hadijah Shamsudin, Siti Halimah Bux, Abdul Aziz Jamaluddin, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Saira Azhar, Mohamed Azmi Hassali
The increase in antibiotic resistance has frequently been linked to unrestrained antibiotic dispensing. This review was conducted to mainly assess the perception and attitudes of community pharmacists towards antibiotic dispensing. This scoping review was performed between June 2016 and September 2016 to identify published studies related to the perception and attitudes of community pharmacists towards antibiotic dispensing. The combination of terms such as 'antibiotic dispensing', 'antimicrobial resistance', 'community pharmacy', and 'community pharmacists' were searched in electronic databases such as PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Science Direct...
August 23, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Wasim S El Nekidy, Derrick Soong, Albert Kadri, Osama Tabbara, Amina Ibrahim, Islam M Ghazi
Catheter-related blood stream infections comprise a major concern in hemodialysis patients, leading to increased mortality, morbidity, and cost of treatment. Prompt appropriate systemic antibiotics treatment, which includes administration of appropriate systemic antibiotics and, frequently, catheter removal and replacement, is warranted. However, in hemodialysis patients, repeated catheter insertions may cause central vein stenosis and thrombosis which limits the future availability of hemodialysis access. Lock solutions containing antibiotics and anticoagulants, instilled directly into the catheter lumen after each dialysis, have been successfully utilized for catheter salvage but higher rates of recurrence and complications were observed in infections resulting from staphylococcal species...
May 2018: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
Anthony Phan, Bryan Allen, Kevin Epps, Maryam Alikhil, Katherine Kamataris, Calvin Tucker
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the clinical impact of a pharmacist led-penicillin allergy assessment initiative to enhance antibiotic selection is reported. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients with a self-reported penicillin allergy (SRPA) at a 529-bed community teaching hospital and compared clinical response rate before and after implementation of a penicillin allergy assessment initiative, consisting of pharmacy staff education and pocket card development...
September 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
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