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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910816/mediastinal-and-subcutaneous-chest-fat-are-differentially-associated-with-emphysema-progression-and-clinical-outcomes-in-smokers
#1
Jon Grace, Joseph K Leader, Seyed M Nouraie, Jiantao Pu, Divay Chandra, Yingze Zhang, Frank C Sciurba, Jessica Bon
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated both positive and negative effects of obesity on clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In other chronic diseases, fat location is differentially associated with disease outcomes; however, this relationship has not been well studied in COPD. OBJECTIVE: To determine if fat location explains the differential association of body mass index (BMI) with clinical outcome measures in smokers. METHODS: Baseline and 6-year chest computed tomography scans from 68 current and former smokers were used to quantify mediastinal and subcutaneous fat...
September 15, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906275/vv-ecmo-assisted-high-risk-endobronchial-stenting-as-rescue-for-asphyxiating-mediastinal-mass
#2
Brandon T Nokes, Laszlo Vaszar, Jama Jahanyar, Karen L Swanson
The use of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has traditionally been limited to a narrow set of clinical circumstances, such as acute hypoxic respiratory failure, submassive pulmonary embolism, and cardiopulmonary collapse. Within the pediatric population, there have been cases of VV-ECMO in the context of extrinsic airway compression by a mediastinal mass, typically in the setting of either a lymphoma or germ cell tumors. However, the use of VV-ECMO for adults with extrinsic airway compression is comparatively limited...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904677/-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-immunocompetent-patients-about-2-cases
#3
Yasmina Rhofir, Rachida Zahraoui, Nabil Tiress, Hicham Naji-Amrani, Mouna Soualhi, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi
Nocardiosis is a rare but severe infection caused by bacteria of the genus nocardia, which belong to the order actinomycetales. If they can affect immunocompetent adult, nocardioses are pathologies affecting the individuals with weakened immune system. Pulmonary involvement is the most common manifestation, its correct management is based on diagnosis, which is often delayed due to non-specific symptoms and inconclusive specimens. We here report two cases of nocardiosis in immunocompetent patients. The first case concerns a 24-year old man with a history of smoking and alcoholism, hospitalized for chest pain and hemoptysis of low abundance evolving for two months, associated with the occurrence of dorsal subcutaneous fistulized abscess...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900334/massive-hemoptysis-a-rare-presentation-of-anterior-mediastinal-teratoma-in-an-adolescent
#4
Rajkumar M Meshram, S Abhisheik, Vaidehi Hardas, K Siddharth
Germ cell tumors are predominantly found in the gonads, and the most common extragonadal site is anterior mediastinum. Usual symptoms are cough, dyspnea, and fever, chest pain due to mass effect or intrapulmonary invasion but hemoptysis is rare and may result from either communication with tracheobronchial tree or may result from bronchial bleeding due to irritation by tumor. As in our case, patient presenting with massive hemoptysis and shock are the rarest presentation of a benign teratoma.
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891552/omental-herniation-through-the-diaphragmatic-defect-two-cases-mimicking-mediastinal-lipomas
#5
Z Zhu, Y Chai
Omental herniation through a diaphragmatic defect without involvement of the stomach is rare and has often been misdiagnosed as mediastinal lipoma. We herein report two cases of intrathoracic omental herniation through adiaphragmatic defect in patients that were misdiagnosed as a mediastinal lipoma at presentation. They both underwent successful laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repairs with full resolution of their symptoms. Doctors should pay attention to the differential diagnosis between diaphragmatic hernia and mediastinal lipoma when a fatty mass is found in the mediastinum at the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scan...
August 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888750/primary-mediastinal-pure-seminomatous-germ-cell-tumor-germinoma-as-a-rare-cause-of-precocious-puberty-in-a-9-year-old-patient
#6
Alejandra Bravo-Balado, Lynda Torres Castellanos, Adriana Carrillo Rodríguez, Daniel Gómez Zapata, Juan Javier Lammoglia Hoyos, Rafael Andrade, Jaime Pérez Niño
Less than 5-7% of germ cell tumors (GCTs) are extragonadal, being the central nervous system (CNS) the most common location in children, followed by retroperitoneum and mediastinum. Only 10% of mediastinal tumors are malignant and one third of these are pure seminomas (germinomas). We report the case of a 9 year-old boy with development of secondary sexual characteristics. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) was elevated and a mediastinal mass was found. Final histology showed a pure seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT)...
September 6, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886433/sudden-death-in-a-child-caused-by-a-giant-cavernous-hemangioma-of-the-anterior-mediastinum
#7
Yui Igari, Shirushi Takahashi, Akihito Usui, Yusuke Kawasumi, Masato Funayama
A 4-year-old girl who had been treated for asthma since the age of 2 years had a severe coughing fit and died suddenly. The patient had a history of occasional severe coughing fits, and these fits had been worsening in severity during the week before her death. Prior to death, she was taken to a clinician, and thymic hypertrophy was suspected based on chest X-ray findings. The clinician recommended that she visit a general hospital at a later date; however, she died that night. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum compressing the heart and airway, and no other findings attributable to sudden death were observed...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886389/localized-constrictive-pericarditis-compressing-and-obstructing-the-right-ventricular-inflow-tract-due-to-a-giant-anterior-calcified-cardiac-mass-a-case-report
#8
Klodian Krakulli, Edvin Prifti, Hortensa Gjergo, Endri Hasimi
INTRODUCTION: Localized pericardial constriction is a rare form of constrictive pericarditis CP. Depending on the CP location, clinical presentation may be variable, including compression and obstruction of right ventricular inflow tract(RVIT), coronary obstruction, or pulmonary stenosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man presented a 2-year history of dyspnea and atrial fibrillation. A contrast enhanced angio computerized tomography clearly demonstrated a large spherical mass about 11×9×4cm in the anterior pericardium, presenting as a mediastinal tumor causing compression and obstruction of the RVIT...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877738/sclerosing-thymoma-like-thymic-amyloidoma-with-nephrotic-syndrome-a-case-report
#9
Yuto Kato, Miyuki Okuda, Koji Fukuda, Nobuya Tanaka, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Yoshinori Saika, Yoshisumi Haruna, Shouji Kitaguchi, Ryuji Nohara
BACKGROUND: Primary localized amyloidosis presenting as an isolated mediastinal mass is extremely rare, especially in the thymus. Sclerosing thymoma is also an extremely rare anterior mediastinal tumor, pathologically characterized by extensive sclerotic lesions with hyalinization and calcification. Only 14 cases of sclerosing thymoma and five cases of thymic amyloidosis have been reported to date. CASE PRESENTATION: A 78-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having sclerosing thymoma (Masaoka stage IVa pericardial dissemination)-like thymic amyloidoma...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876532/successful-treatment-with-doxorubicin-and-ifosfamide-for-mediastinal-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-with-loss-of-h3k27me3-expression
#10
Noriko Seno, Toshirou Fukushima, Daisuke Gomi, Takashi Kobayashi, Nodoka Sekiguchi, Hidehiro Matsushita, Takesumi Ozawa, Yoshiko Tsukahara, Keiko Mamiya, Tomonobu Koizumi, Kenji Sano
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in the thorax is an extremely rare disease, and half of all cases of MPNST are associated with neurofibromatosis type I. Sporadic intrathoracic MPNST is difficult to diagnose and treat. Because of the rarity of intrathoracic MPNST, the optimal method of diagnosis and the efficacy of chemotherapy are unknown. Herein, we present a case of inoperable mediastinal MPNST, in which the diagnosis was immunohistochemically made by the loss of H3K27me3 expression in a transbronchial needle biopsy specimen...
September 6, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872098/is-a-diagnostic-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-thymectomy-an-acceptable-first-line-approach-to-the-suspicious-anterior-mediastinal-mass
#11
Ricky Vaja, Vijay Joshi, Alan G Dawson, David A Waller
INTRODUCTION: The incidental early-stage thymic mass presents a diagnostic challenge. Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VAT) thymectomy is an attractive but potentially morbid solution. The aim was to show it can be safely applied as a first-line modality in those with undiagnosed thymic enlargement with acceptable long-term results. METHODS: A total of 45 patients were identified (24 male, median age 52 interquartile range [IQR]: 41-66 years) in a 14-year experience who had CT evidence of an enlarged, possibly malignant thymic mass, but no tissue diagnosis before undertaking VAT thymectomy...
October 2017: Journal of Minimal Access Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868014/first-line-treatment-with-carboplatin-plus-nab-paclitaxel-and-maintenance-monotherapy-with-nab-paclitaxel-for-a-thymic-carcinoma-a-case-report
#12
Kunihiko Funaishi, Masahiro Yamasaki, Naomi Saito, Wakako Daido, Sayaka Ishiyama, Naoko Deguchi, Masaya Taniwaki, Nobuyuki Ohashi
Thymic carcinomas are rare malignant tumors, located in the anterior mediastinum. For the treatment of these carcinomas, several chemotherapy regimens have been suggested, including carboplatin plus paclitaxel. However, because of the rarity of these tumors, the standard chemotherapy regimen has not yet been established. Here, we report a case of thymic carcinoma that responded to first-line carboplatin plus nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) therapy with continuation maintenance nab-paclitaxel monotherapy...
May 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868011/esophagobronchial-fistula-in-a-patient-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung-a-case-report
#13
Taichi Ozeki, Michiko Asano, Nobukazu Fujimoto, Jun Nishimura, Kenji Takada, Yosuke Miyamoto, Yasuko Fuchimoto, Sae Wada, Shinji Ozaki, Takumi Kishimoto
A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital after a 2-week history of bloody sputum and cough. Computed tomography (CT) images of the chest showed a mass grouped with mediastinal lymph nodes, and bronchoscopy showed a projecting mass in the right main bronchus. After a transbronchial biopsy, the patient was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (T4N2M0 stage IIIB). The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy, consisting of cisplatin (40 mg/m(2), days 1 and 8) and docetaxel (30 mg/m(2), days 1 and 8), and concurrent thoracic irradiation at a daily dose of 2 Gy...
May 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861333/successful-treatment-of-limited-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-the-right-mainstem-bronchus-by-a-combination-of-chemotherapy-and-argon-plasma-coagulation
#14
Takayuki Takeda, Hideki Itano, Mayumi Takeuchi, Yurika Nishimi, Masahiko Saitoh, Sorou Takeda
The current standard-of-care treatment for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is concurrent chemoradiotherapy for local and systemic control. However, standard-of-care treatment strategies have not been established for those with limited-stage SCLC who have a history of thoracic radiotherapy due to concerns with complications associated with radiation overdose. A 37-year-old male developed an aspergilloma in the postoperative left thoracic space after he was treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy for mediastinal type lung adenocarcionoma and subsequent left upper lobectomy for heterochronous dual adenocarcinoma...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859023/isolated-third-cranial-nerve-palsy-leading-to-the-diagnosis-of-disseminated-burkitt-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Arens Taga, Marco Russo, Irene Florindo, Giovanni Pavesi
INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction of the third cranial nerve can result from lesions anywhere along its course between the midbrain and the orbit. Lymphoma is a rare cause of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy (OMP), with only 19 cases reported in the literature. We describe a case of an isolated OMP leading to the diagnosis of disseminated Burkitt lymphoma (BL). CASE REPORT: A 37-year-old man presented with acute onset diplopia and right ptosis and was found to have a right pupillary sparing OMP...
September 2017: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856088/syndrome-of-inappropriate-secretion-of-anti-diuretic-hormone-siadh-as-an-initial-presenting-sign-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Praneet Iyer, Mohammad Ibrahim, Waqas Siddiqui, Ahmed Dirweesh
Association of SIADH with malignancy was first reported in 1957, when it was described in two patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. While the association with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is well known, that with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been rarely reported. We report a case of 70 year old male who was found to have hyponatremia secondary to SIADH. Radiological tests revealed right hilar lung mass with mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopic biopsy revealed non-small cell lung cancer of type squamous cell...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854409/spontaneous-regression-of-anterior-mediastinal-seminoma-with-normalization-of-%C3%AE-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-levels
#17
Zaiqiang Yu, Daisuke Kimura, Takao Tsushima, Ikuo Fukuda
INTRODUCTION: Although spontaneous regression (SR) of anterior mediastinal seminoma is very rare with normalization of β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is the most effective solution for definite diagnosis of indeterminate anterior mediastinal masses. DIAGNOSIS, THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS, AND OUTCOMES: A rare case of an asymptomatic 37-year-old man with an anterior mediastinal mass that was detected on a routine chest X-ray is presented...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840845/the-value-of-preoperative-volumetric-analysis-by-computerized-tomography-of-retrosternal-goiter-to-predict-the-need-for-an-extracervical-approach
#18
İsmail Cem Sormaz, Derya S Uymaz, Ahmet Y İşcan, İlker Özgür, Artur Salmaslıoğlu, Fatih Tunca, Yasemin G Şenyürek, Tarik Terzioğlu
BACKGROUND: Thyroidectomy can be performed via a cervical incision in most patients with retrosternal goiter. AIMS: To investigate the correlation between the volume of the mediastinal portion of the thyroid gland and the need for an extra-cervical approach for retrosternal goiter. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic accuracy study. METHODS: The measurement of craniocaudal length and the volume of the mediastinal component of the thyroid gland on computerized tomography images was performed in 47 patients with retrosternal goiter...
August 25, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840026/ectopic-right-parietal-pleural-thymic-carcinoma-a-rare-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Haoshuai Zhu, Yiyan Lei, Jianyong Zou, Chunhua Su, Bo Zeng, Yan Li, Honghe Luo
Ectopic thymic carcinoma is extremely rare. We present a case of a 73-year-old male patient with ectopic right parietal pleural thymic carcinoma and performed a literature review. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated a sharp-edged soft tissue mass with intense enhancement measuring 47 mm × 29 mm with a broader base adjacent to the right axillary chest wall at the level of the 5th rib. There was no hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy or evidence of a mediastinal tumor or pleural nodules. A totally extra-pleural tumor resection and partial right lung resection was performed...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832084/water-clear-cell-adenoma-of-the-mediastinal-parathyroid-gland
#20
Deniz Arik, Emine Dündar, Evrim Yilmaz, Cumhur Sivrikoz
Water-clear cell adenoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare neoplasm that consists of cells with abundant clear-pink cytoplasm. There have only been 19 cases reported in the English literature. Here we report a case of water-clear cell adenoma of the mediastinal parathyroid gland. A 70-year-old male patient presented to the hospital with back pain and a mediastinal mass 6 cm in size was detected. After excision and microscopic evaluation, uniform, large clear cells with fine cytoplasmic vacuolization, without nuclear atypia, and arranged in solid and acinar patterns were revealed...
2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
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