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Lung Granuloma

Shigeo Kawase, Rie Matsumoto, Shigeo Imai, Kentaro Kawaguchi, Yusuke Hata, Naokatsu Horita, Yutaro Shiota
We herein report a case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma (PHG), which is a rare pulmonary mass. A 69-year-old man with no symptoms presented to our hospital because of the appearance of an abnormal shadow on chest X-ray. Computed tomography revealed a right middle-lobe mass with spicula and infiltration into the upper lobe. Since a bronchofiberscopic examination showed no malignant cells in the specimen, the patient underwent thoracoscopic surgery, which revealed PHG. Spiculation and interlobar infiltration, which comprise the characteristic features of primary lung cancer, are uncommon presentations of this rare entity...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Jamie Sy Ho, Edwin R Chilvers, Muhunthan Thillai
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease predominantly affecting the lungs, with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), the latter due to direct granuloma infiltration. Sarcoidosis is often managed by chest physicians who need to understand the diagnostic pathways and initial management plans for patients with cardiac involvement. Areas covered: The most serious consequence of CS is sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias or complete atrioventricular block...
August 13, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Manali Mukherjee, Parameswaran Nair
Asthma and autoimmune diseases both result from a dysregulated immune system, and have been conventionally considered to have mutually exclusive pathogenesis. Autoimmunity is believed to be an exaggerated Th1 response, while asthma with a Th2 underpinning is congruent with the well-accepted Th1/Th2 paradigm. The hypothesis of autoimmune involvement in asthma has received much recent interest, particularly in the adult late-onset non-atopic patients (the "intrinsic asthma"). Over the past decades, circulating autoantibodies against diverse self-targets (beta-2-adrenergic receptors, epithelial antigens, nuclear antigens, etc...
September 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Mayumi Hatsuse, Yuka Daikoku, Yoko Taminishi, Shin-Ichi Fuchida, Yoshizumi Takemura, Akira Okano, Satoshi Murakami, Chihiro Shimazaki
A 73-year-old male who underwent splenectomy was diagnosed with splenic non-caseating granuloma in May 201X, and sarcoidosis was disregarded from the differential diagnosis. Owing to the persisting inflammation, the patient was carefully followed up with no treatment. Four months post splenectomy, the patient was hospitalized due to progressive dyspnea. Chest computed tomography revealed an encapsulated pleural effusion and lymphocytic infiltration in the left lower lung, with subclavian and mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Hee Eun Lee, Andrew Churg, Jay H Ryu, Ana Maria Bilawich, Brandon T Larsen, Henry D Tazelaar, Eunhee S Yi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune disease of the liver causing destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, associated with lymphocytic and granulomatous inflammation. PBC has been associated with many extrahepatic manifestations including interstitial lung disease. However, comprehensive pulmonary histopathology in PBC has not been well documented. Sixteen PBC patients who underwent lung biopsies were identified from surgical pathology files in three institutions. Histopathologic review was performed...
July 29, 2018: Human Pathology
Louise van der Weyden, Anneliese O Speak, Agnes Swiatkowska, Simon Clare, Andrea Schejtman, Giorgia Santilli, Mark J Arends, David J Adams
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients and successful colonisation of a secondary organ by circulating tumour cells (CTCs) is the rate-limiting step of this process. We used tail-vein injection of B16-F10 melanoma cells into mice to mimic the presence of CTCs and allow for assessment of host (microenvironmental) factors that regulate pulmonary metastatic colonisation. We found that mice deficient for the individual subunits of the NADPH oxidase of myeloid cells, NOX2 (specifically Cyba, Cybb, Ncf1, Ncf2 and Ncf4), all showed decreased pulmonary metastatic colonisation...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Hsin-Chih Lai, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Tsung-Ru Wu, Ya-Jing Hsu, Ting-Shu Wu, Jang-Jih Lu, Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Cheng-Lung Ku, John D Young, Chia-Chen Lu
In developed countries, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections are more prevalent than Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Given the differences in the pathogenesis of NTM and M. tuberculosis infections, separate studies are needed to investigate the pathological effects of NTM pathogens. Our previous study showed that anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies are detected in NTM-infected patients. However, the role of NK cells and especially NK cell-derived IFN-γ in this context has not been studied in detail...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Andrés Varela, Lucas Hoyos, Alejandra Romero, José Luis Campo-Cañaveral, Silvana Crowley
Airway complication (AC) after lung transplant, although rare nowadays, leads to increased costs, greater morbidity, and decreased quality of life of patients. Over the years, many risk factors have been described, ranging from surgical technique to immunosuppressive regimen. There are essentially 6 major airway complications (necrosis/dehiscence, infection, bronchial stenosis, granulomas, tracheo-bronchomalacia, and fistula) all of which require a multidisciplinary approach based on the performance status of patients...
August 2018: Thoracic Surgery Clinics
Sasha Deutsch-Link, Danielle Fortuna, Ethan M Weinberg
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease, which is characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas amid healthy tissue. While most commonly affecting the mediastinum and/or lungs, sarcoid can also affect the liver, resulting in "hepatic sarcoid." The spectrum of disease in hepatic sarcoid is variable, ranging from asymptomatic or mild liver enzyme abnormalities to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. Because clinically-significant hepatic sarcoid is rare, research on epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment is limited...
August 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Swarna Arumugam, Raghu Raju, Andrew G Nicholson
Here we report a case of Pulmonary Hyalinising Granuloma (PHG) presenting with mild to moderate FDG positive nodules in an individual with a high risk of cancer. We explore the considerations in interpreting imaging findings and assess the benefits and risks of undertaking invasive investigations such as tissue biopsy. We highlight the importance of reaching an accurate diagnosis of this benign condition on our patients and their future outlook.
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Catherine A Foss, Liudmila Kulik, Alvaro A Ordonez, Sanjay K Jain, V Michael Holers, Joshua M Thurman, Martin G Pomper
PURPOSE: Diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of chronic bacterial infection requires methods to detect and localize sites of infection accurately. Complement C3 activation fragments are generated and covalently bound to selective bacterial pathogens during the immune response and can serve as biomarkers of ongoing bacterial infection. We have developed several probes for detecting tissue-bound C3 deposits, including a monoclonal antibody (mAb 3d29) that recognizes the tissue-bound terminal processing fragments iC3b and C3d but does not recognize native circulating C3 or tissue-bound C3b...
July 11, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Dhakshinamoorthy Ganeshan, Christine O Menias, Meghan G Lubner, Perry J Pickhardt, Kumaresan Sandrasegaran, Sanjeev Bhalla
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder characterized by development of noncaseating granulomas in various organs. Although the etiology of this condition is unclear, environmental and genetic factors may be substantial in its pathogenesis. Clinical features are often nonspecific, and imaging is essential to diagnosis. Abnormalities may be seen on chest radiographs in more than 90% of patients with thoracic sarcoidosis. Symmetric hilar and mediastinal adenopathy and pulmonary micronodules in a perilymphatic distribution are characteristic features of sarcoidosis...
July 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Tanner R Henrie, John G Skedros
Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized histologically by noncaseating granulomas. The pathogenesis likely includes genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors. The lungs, skin, and eyes are most commonly affected. Although bone involvement is possible, sarcoidosis of the humerus is rare, with few cases reported. Furthermore, we are unaware of any reports of sarcoidosis of the upper humerus with a coexisting rotator cuff tear. We report the case of a 50-year-old female with sarcoidosis of the humerus and a coexisting tear of the supraspinatus tendon...
2018: Case Reports in Radiology
Sunil Munakomi
Herein, we report a rare case study of a sarcoidosis presenting with the features of compressive myelopathy. There were multiple extra-dural lesions in the thoracic region. Computerized Tomography (CT) of the chest revealed fibrotic changes with a pleural based nodular lesion in the right lung. The patient underwent laminectomy and partial excision of both the lesions. The histology revealed presence of non-caseating granulomas. The patient made a good recovery following adjuvant medical management with steroid and Methotrexate...
2018: F1000Research
Andres L Mora Carpio, Jessica M Stempel, Daniela de Lima Corvino, Veronica Garvia, Antonette Climaco
Pulmonary aspergillosis causes a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from asymptomatic airway colonization to severe invasive disease, contingent on the host's immune status and underlying pulmonary anatomy. The invasive form of aspergillosis is a rare occurrence in the immunocompetent population. Nevertheless, patients with a compromised innate immune response are at greatest risk. We present a case of a patient with known Crohn's disease who developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. His clinical picture was further complicated by an uncommon immune response characterized by the development of granulomas encasing the Aspergillus forms found on his lung biopsy, likely representing a maladaptive response, possibly related to the effects of his granulomatous disease in the lungs...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Priyanka Verma, Sumeet Gujral, Ramesh V Asopa
We present the case of a-55-year-old female patient who presented with dry cough. High-resolution computed tomography chest revealed multiple nodules in both lungs. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was done to look for the unknown primary. It showed hypermetabolic bilateral lung nodules, subcutaneous nodules involving lower limbs, an intramuscular nodule, enlarged paratracheal, and right axillary nodes. There was no primary tumor seen. The biopsy of subcutaneous nodule revealed panniculitis with the foreign body granuloma...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
Ketian Li, Mingge Shen, Hang Geng, Linyi Zheng, Yujie Cao
BACKGROUND 18Fluoro-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)- based positron-emission computed tomography (PET) has less specificity for noncalcified nodules (NNs). Somatostatin receptors affect the expression of normal and malignant cells. The purpose of the study was to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 68Gallium-tagged DOTA-octreotate (Ga-tDO) with that of FDG PET for diagnosis of newly detected and/or untreated NNs in lung cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 45 patients with lung cancer were included in the cross-sectional study and underwent Ga-tDO and FDG PET...
June 30, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Antoine G Sreih, Rana Ezzedine, Lin Leng, Juan Fan, Jie Yao, Duncan Reid, Marta Piecychna, Simon Carette, David Cuthbertson, Paul Dellaripa, Gary S Hoffman, Nader A Khalidi, Curry L Koening, Carol A Langford, Alfred Mahr, Carol A McAlear, Kathleen Maksimowicz-Mckinnon, Paul A Monach, Philip Seo, Ulrich Specks, William St Clair, John H Stone, Steven R Ytterberg, Jeffrey Edberg, Peter A Merkel, Richard Bucala
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and MIF's role in a murine model of granulomatous vasculitis. METHODS: The human study involved 1077 patients with GPA and controls. Genotyping for the MIF -794 CATT5-8 promoter microsatellite (rs5844572) was performed by capillary electrophoresis. MIF promoter CATT-length dependent expression in response to β-glucan was assessed by gene reporter assays...
June 28, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Sonam Grover, Tarina Sharma, Yadvir Singh, Sakshi Kohli, Manjunath P, Aditi Singh, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Karsten Tedin, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain
The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causal organism of tuberculosis (TB), encodes a unique protein family known as the PE/PPE/PGRS family, present exclusively in the genus Mycobacterium and nowhere else in the living kingdom, with largely unexplored functions. We describe the functional significance of the PGRS domain of Rv0297, a member of this family. In silico analyses revealed the presence of intrinsically disordered stretches and putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization signals in the PGRS domain of Rv0297 (Rv0297PGRS)...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Victor Hugo Del Rio-Araiza, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Hugo Aguilar-Díaz, Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán, Pedro Ostoa-Saloma, Maria Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Jorge Morales-Montor
Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease produced by ingestion of larval Toxocara spp. eggs. Prolactin has been considered to have an important role in Toxocara canis infection. Recent evidence has found that prolactin directly can increase parasite growth and differentiation of T. canis The present study, evaluated the effect of high prolactin levels on the immune system's response and parasites clearance in chronic infection. Our results showed that hiperprolactinemia did not affected the number of larvae recovered from several tissues in rats...
June 19, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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