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Lung Granuloma

Stephen Andrew Deppen, Pierre P Massion, Jeffrey Blume, Ronald C Walker, Sanja Antic, Heidi Chen, Michelle M Durkin, L Joseph Wheat, Eric L Grogan
BACKGROUND: Granulomas caused by infectious lung diseases present as indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) on radiography. Newly available serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for histoplasmosis has not been studied for the evaluation of IPNs. We investigated serum biomarkers of histoplasmosis antibodies as an indication of benign disease in IPNs from a highly endemic region. METHODS: 152 serum samples from patients presenting with pulmonary nodules ≤30mm in maximum diameter were analyzed for histoplasmosis antibodies by immunodiffusion and EIA IgG and IgM tests...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mehdi Alilou, Mahdi Orooji, Niha Beig, Prateek Prasanna, Prabhakar Rajiah, Christopher Donatelli, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Sagar Rakshit, Michael Yang, Frank Jacono, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Anant Madabhushi
Adenocarcinomas and active granulomas can both have a spiculated appearance on computed tomography (CT) and both are often fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, making them difficult to distinguish. Consequently, patients with benign granulomas are often subjected to invasive surgical biopsies or resections. In this study, quantitative vessel tortuosity (QVT), a novel CT imaging biomarker to distinguish between benign granulomas and adenocarcinomas on routine non-contrast lung CT scans is introduced...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Volker Schmidt, Linus Klasen, Juliane Schneider, Jens Hübel, Kerstin Cramer
In contrast to fungal dermatitis, fungal glossitis and disseminated visceral mycosis, fungal infection of the lung has so far rarely been described in reptiles. Pulmonary fungal granulomas were diagnosed histopathologically within the scope of post mortem examinations. Fragments of the 18S-internal transcribed spacer1-5.8S rDNA (SSU-ITS1-5.8S) and 28S rDNA (LSU), including domains (D)1 and D2 as well as the protein coding gene translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF) were used for phylogenetical analysis after isolation of the fungal pathogen by culturing...
November 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Daniel Soukup, Alma Kuechler, Joachim Roesler, Leopold Pichlmaier, Maximillian Eckerland, Margarete Olivier, Florian Stehling
We report the case of a 19-years-old patient who presented with a perplexing variety of symptoms which included remarkable facial features, intellectual disability, granulomatous upper lip swelling (previously diagnosed as Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome), Crohn's-like disease, non-productive cough, and a granulomatous mass localized in the left lung. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) was diagnosed using dihydrorhodamine 123 assay that showed low levels of phagocytic NADPH-oxidase. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous mutation in the NCF-1 gene on chromosome 7...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Katherine S Duke, Elizabeth A Thompson, Mark D Ihrie, Alexia J Taylor-Just, Elizabeth A Ash, Kelly A Shipkowski, Jonathan R Hall, Debra A Tokarz, Mark F Cesta, Ann F Hubbs, Dale W Porter, Linda M Sargent, James C Bonner
The fiber-like shape of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is reminiscent of asbestos, suggesting they pose similar health hazards when inhaled, including pulmonary fibrosis and mesothelioma. Mice deficient in the tumor suppressor p53 are susceptible to carcinogenesis. However, the chronic pathologic effect of MWCNTs delivered to the lungs of p53 heterozygous (p53+/- ) mice has not been investigated. We hypothesized that p53+/- mice would be susceptible to lung tumor development after exposure to either tangled (t-) or rod-like (r-) MWCNTs...
October 14, 2018: Nanotoxicology
H Martin, M Mariano-Bourin, L Antunes, A Bonhomme, J-F Cuny, L Dubouis, F Truchetet, A Schoeffler
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases (CM) on the extremities are rare complication of cancer with poor prognosis. In general, lesions simulate an infection. Herein, we report two new cases with atypical presentation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Case no 1: a 71-year-old man consulted for suspicion of left hand pyogenic granuloma present for 3 months. His history revealed two treated squamous-cell carcinomas (tongue and lung). On physical examination, he presented three budding and foul-smelling lesions on his left hand...
October 9, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Anthony M Cadena, Forrest F Hopkins, Pauline Maiello, Allison F Carey, Eileen A Wong, Constance J Martin, Hannah P Gideon, Robert M DiFazio, Peter Andersen, Philana Ling Lin, Sarah M Fortune, JoAnne L Flynn
For many pathogens, including most targets of effective vaccines, infection elicits an immune response that confers significant protection against reinfection. There has been significant debate as to whether natural Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection confers protection against reinfection. Here we experimentally assessed the protection conferred by concurrent Mtb infection in macaques, a robust experimental model of human tuberculosis (TB), using a combination of serial imaging and Mtb challenge strains differentiated by DNA identifiers...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Christian Blume, Izabela Tuleta, Kay Nolte, Klaus W Eichhorn, Mark Jakob, Hans Clusmann, Thorsten Send
OBJECTIVE: Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown cause which affects the lung or bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy in over 90% of the cases. Neurosarcoidosis (NS) is rare and accounts for approximately 5 - 15% of the cases. Involvement of all parts of the central and peripheral nervous system is possible with various clinical symptoms, e. g. seizures, hydrocephalus, optic/facial nerve palsy or hearing loss. METHODS: We screened the neuropathological data bases and the medical records of two neurosurgical university hospitals for cases of NS...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
YanLing Ma, Anthony Gal, Michael Koss
Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown etiology, usually affecting the respiratory tract and other organs, and is characterized by the formation of nonnecrotizing epithelioid granulomas. The diagnosis depends on a combination of a typical clinicoradiological presentation, the finding of nonnecrotizing epithelioid granulomas in a tissue biopsy, and exclusion of other possible diseases, especially those of infectious etiology. The granulomas contain epithelioid cells, giant cells, CD4+ T cells in their center, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes at their periphery...
September 24, 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Stephanie A Montgomery, Ellen F Young, Phillip G Durham, Katelyn E Zulauf, Laura Rank, Brittany K Miller, Jennifer D Hayden, Feng-Chang Lin, John T Welch, Anthony J Hickey, Miriam Braunstein
New therapeutic strategies are needed to treat drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) and to improve treatment for drug sensitive TB. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a critical component of current first-line TB therapy. However, the rise in PZA-resistant TB cases jeopardizes the future utility of PZA. To address this problem, we used the guinea pig model of TB and tested the efficacy of an inhaled dry powder combination, referred to as Pyrazinoic acid/ester Dry Powder (PDP), which is comprised of pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active moiety of PZA, and pyrazinoic acid ester (PAE), which is a PZA analog...
2018: PloS One
Nicanor Obaldía, Marlon Nuñez, Santiago Montilla, William Otero, Jose Camilo Marin
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a devastating and terminal disease in non-human primates (NHPs). Regular TB screenings using the intradermal tuberculin test (TST) have been the mainstay of TB surveillance and control in NHPs. Historically, Aotus monkeys have been considered less susceptible to TB than other NHPs. Here we present the diagnosis and epidemiology of a TB outbreak at The Gorgas Memorial Institute Aotus colony in Panama, and the results of two cross-sectional randomized TB screening studies, using antibody (Ab) and IFN-gamma release assay testing...
June 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Honorata Marczak, Edyta Heropolitańska-Pliszka, Renata Langfort, Danuta Roik, Katarzyna Grzela
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, severe immunodeficiency, and predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. In this report, we describe a case of a 9-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with NBS and symptoms of dyspnea, dry cough, and fever. Despite initial recognition of pneumonia, there was no response to broad spectrum antimicrobial treatment, negative results from microbiological tests, and unclear changes in lung imaging were observed...
October 2018: Pediatrics
Achraf Machan, Tarik Hanafi, Naoufal Hjira, Mohammed Boui
Tuberculous gummas are an unusual form of tuberculosis (TB) accounting for 1%-2% of all cutaneous TB cases. The aim of this article was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, bacteriological, immunological, and therapeutic features of this form upon a case report and a literature review. Forty-eight case reports were identified through a PubMed and Google Scholar search using the following keywords: "tuberculous gumma" and "metastatic tuberculous abscesse." Tuberculous gumma can occur at any age...
July 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Paula P M van Lümig, Marcel C Pasch
A 37-year-old woman presented with progressive longitudinal erythronychia and onychorrhexis of the toenails. She had a history of sarcoidosis of the lung and nose, which was silent without treatment at the time of presentation. Histopathological examination of a nail matrix biopsy revealed granulomas with palisading histiocytes in the connective tissue and a lymphocytic infiltrate in and around the granulomas without necrosis. Based on the clinical presentation, medical history, and histopathological examination, the diagnosis of nail sarcoidosis was made...
August 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Bin Zhang, Fan Zhao, Huimin Mao, Wenyan Ma, Yang Zhang, Xinyu Zhang, Jingjing Ding, Qian Gao, Yanting Wen
The feature of pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by a Th1/Th17/regulatory T cells (Tregs) -driven inflammatory process in lung, resulting in noncaseating granulomas containing CD4+ T cells. Tregs increase in both lung and peripheral blood, with damaged immunoregulatory function. The current study investigated the effects of IL33 or anti-IL23 antibody on restoring the homeostasis and functions of Tregs in mycobacterial superoxide dismutase A (SodA)-induced pulmonary sarcoidosis. IL33 or anti-IL23 antibody was administered to mice with late-stage pulmonary sarcoidosis...
September 6, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Susumu Noguchi, Hiroaki Kawachi, Hiroshi Yoshida, Akari Fukao, Satoshi Terashita, Tatsuyoshi Ikeue, Sadao Horikawa, Takakazu Sugita
Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, inhibits binding between PD-1 and PD-1 ligand and activates antigen-specific T cells that have become unresponsive to cancer cells. Although it is recommended as a second-line therapy in gene mutation-negative non-small-cell lung cancer, interstitial pneumonia is a well-known side effect of the drug; however, granulomatous lesions have rarely been reported. We describe the case of an 81-year-old male with cT1aN2M1b stage IV pleomorphic carcinoma of the left upper lobe of the lung...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Hiroki Tomizawa, Katsuhiko Enomoto, Hirokazu Kurokawa, Hideki Kawai, Yoshitaro Saito, Ryo Demura
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) negative pulmonary limited-form granulomatous with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare type of GPA. A 53-year-old female had been followed as the possible pulmonary infarction of bilateral lungs for 4 years without any therapy. Chest computed tomography(CT) examination of the patient showed newly appeared nodular lesions in the lungs, which were suspected as malignancy by positron emission tomography (PET) -CT. Thoracoscopic lung biopsy of the lesions was performed and histopathological diagnosis was GPA showing multiple granulomas with vasculitis...
September 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Yuzo Suzuki, Masahiro Shirai, Kazuhiro Asada, Hideki Yasui, Masato Karayama, Hironao Hozumi, Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Toshihiro Shirai, Hiroshi Hayakawa, Takafumi Suda
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of fatal infectious disease. Accumulations of macrophages are found in infected sites; thus, we hypothesized that a marker of activated macrophages may be related to prognosis of pulmonary TB (PTB). This study investigated serum soluble macrophage mannose receptor, sCD206, in PTB and examined its clinical significance. First, the concentration of sCD206 was measured in the sera of 96 patients with PTB (Tenryu cohort), and in pleural effusions from 29 patients with TB pleurisy...
September 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristina B Knudsen, Trine Berthing, Petra Jackson, Sarah S Poulsen, Alicja Mortensen, Nicklas R Jacobsen, Vidar Skaug, Józef Szarek, Karin S Hougaard, Henrik Wolff, Håkan Wallin, Ulla Vogel
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are widely used nanomaterials that cause pulmonary toxicity upon inhalation. The physicochemical properties of MWCNT vary greatly, which makes general safety evaluation challenging to conduct. Identification of the toxicity-inducing physicochemical properties of MWCNT is therefore of great importance. We have evaluated histological changes in lung tissue 1 year after a single intratracheal instillation of 11 well-characterized MWCNT in female C57BL/6N BomTac mice. Genotoxicity in liver and spleen was evaluated by the comet assay...
August 31, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Tao Lu, Cheng Zhan, Yiwei Huang, Mengnan Zhao, Xiaodong Yang, Di Ge, Yu Shi, Qun Wang
OBJECTIVES: A small pulmonary granuloma (SPG) is often misdiagnosed as lung cancer in diabetic patients by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The present study was conducted to investigate whether diabetes is the influencing factor and to determine other related factors that have an impact on the diagnostic results following PET/CT examination. METHODS: All clinical, imaging and pathological data of patients diagnosed with pulmonary nodules by PET/CT from January 2004 to December 2017 in our department were collected...
August 27, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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