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Lung Granuloma

Gabriella Guarnieri, Rosana Bizzotto, Ottorino Gottardo, Emanuela Velo, Mauro Cassaro, Stefania Vio, Maria Grazia Putzu, Federica Rossi, Paolo Zuliani, Filippo Liviero, Paola Mason, Piero Maestrelli
INTRODUCTION: Clusters of silicosis cases have been reported in the fabrication of quartz conglomerate, a new high-silica-content artificial stone for kitchen and bathroom benchtops (countertops). AIM: We describe two cases of accelerated-type silicosis with hepatic granulomas arising in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates. METHODS: A confident diagnosis of multiorgan silicosis was based on high level of respirable silica in the workplace, typical radiological alterations in chest high-resolution CT, histological findings in the lung and liver, and detection of silica crystals in both tissues by phase-contrast polarising light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy...
December 4, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Tatiana K Kondratieva, Marina A Kapina, Elvira I Rubakova, Elena V Kondratieva, Boris V Nikonenko, Konstantin B Majorov, Alexander V Dyatlov, Irina A Linge, Alexander S Apt
TB infection in mice develops relatively rapidly which interferes with experimental dissection of immune responses and lung pathology features that differ between genetically susceptible and resistant hosts. Earlier we have shown that the M. tuberculosis strain lacking four of five Rpf genes (ΔACDE) is seriously attenuated for growth in vivo. Using this strain, we assessed key parameters of lung pathology, immune and inflammatory responses in chronic and reactivation TB infections in highly susceptible I/St and more resistant B6 mice...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Jinrong Liu, Baolin Tian, Qi Zeng, Chenghao Chen, Chunju Zhou, Huimin Li, Yuelin Shen, Shunying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal teratoma is uncommon in children. It can be very difficult to diagnose especially in early stage. Rarely, teratoma may rupture into adjacent structures and lead to lung lesions or pleuritis. The main rarity of our reported cases was the dynamic imaging findings very similar to the developmental process of tuberculosis in patients 1 and 2, the pachypleuritis in patients 2 and 3, the extremely elevated inflammatory markers very similar to empyema in patient 3, and the extremely atypical tumor shape in all patients...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Aneliya Dimitrova, Michael Dam Jensen, Kirse Bock, Ole Hilberg
Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in adults, and multiple organs may be involved. This is a case report of a 49-year-old female patient with granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and rectal cancer. Examinations showed non-necrotic granulomas in her lungs, mediastinal glands and liver, and she was seen in six different specialities. The multifaceted manifestation of CVID calls for multidisciplinary collaboration...
November 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Marcus O D Sjödin, Antonio Checa, Mingxing Yang, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Åsa M Wheelock, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Craig E Wheelock
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory multi-organ disease almost always affecting the lungs. The etiology remains unknown, but the hallmark of sarcoidosis is formation of non-caseating epithelioid cells granulomas in involved organs. In Scandinavia, > 30% of sarcoidosis patients have Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute disease onset mostly indicating a favorable prognosis. The impact of dysregulation of lipid mediators, which has been investigated in other inflammatory disorders, is still unknown...
December 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Müge Erbay, Savaş Özsu, Emine Sevil Ayaydın Mürtezaoğlu, Atila Türkyılmaz, Neslihan Özçelik, Yılmaz Bülbül, Şafak Ersöz
Introduction: Granulomatous lung disease (GLD) is caused by a wide range of conditions and it is challenge for pulmonologist. A detailed history of exposures is fundamental in GDL and has been found pivotal to reach a precise diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Between September 2014 and December 2016, the distribution of patients diagnosed with granulomatous lymphadenitis in the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or mediastinoscopy was analyzed...
September 2018: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Caroline Maria Marcos, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Patricia Akemi Assato, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain downregulated the expression of adhesin Pb14-3-3 (Pb14-3-3 aRNA) was evaluated in a murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Pb14-3-3 aRNA displays attenuated virulence and triggered the formation of fewer granulomas by lowering the fungal burden in the lungs. Additionally, the Pb14-3-3 aRNA showed more elongated yeast cells and less ability to induce pneumocytes apoptosis in vitro. Our results show that 14-3-3 is an important virulence factor in P. brasiliensis-induced pulmonary infection...
November 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Bérengère Dequéant, Quentin Pascal, Héloïse Bilbault, Elie Dagher, Maria-Laura Boschiroli, Nathalie Cordonnier, Edouard Reyes-Gomez
A 6-y-old neutered male ferret ( Mustela putorius furo) was presented because of a 1-mo history of progressive weight loss, chronic cough, and hair loss. On clinical examination, the animal was coughing, slightly depressed, moderately hypothermic, and had bilateral epiphora. Thoracic radiography was suggestive of severe multinodular interstitial pneumonia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and mesenteric and pancreaticoduodenal lymphadenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration of the pancreaticoduodenal lymph node, followed by routine Romanowsky and Ziehl-Neelsen stains, revealed numerous macrophages containing myriad acid-fast bacilli, leading to identification of mycobacteriosis...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
S Salah, S Abad, D Monnet, A P Brézin
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis characterized by the formation of epithelioid and giant cell granulomas without caseous necrosis. To make the diagnosis, it is necessary to prove systemic granulomatosis involving at least two organs; but in practice, a combination of clinical, paraclinical and histologic findings is used. It affects predominantly women with a bimodal age distribution: 25-29 years and 65-69 years. The most commonly affected organs are the mediastinal lymphatic system, lungs, skin and eyes...
November 15, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Paul A Greenberger
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a TH 1 lymphocyte biased fibrosing alveolitis that is caused by antigens ranging from avian excreta, fungi, thermophilic bacteria, and protozoa to reactive chemicals found in the workplace. Mimicking a viral syndrome, acute exposures to inciting antigens cause abrupt onset of non-productive cough, dyspnea, chills, with arthralgias or malaise usually from 4-8 hours later so that the temporal relationship between antigen exposure and symptoms may be unsuspected. The histology of HP reveals prominent lymphocyte infiltrates that thicken the alveolar septa with poorly formed granulomas or giant cells...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Landry Blanc, Isaac B Daudelin, Brendan K Podell, Pei-Yu Chen, Matthew Zimmerman, Amanda J Martinot, Rada M Savic, Brendan Prideaux, Véronique Dartois
Understanding the distribution patterns of antibiotics at the site of infection is paramount to selecting adequate drug regimens and developing new antibiotics. Tuberculosis (TB) lung lesions are made of various immune cell types, some of which harbor persistent forms of the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis . By combining high resolution MALDI MSI with histology staining and quantitative image analysis in rabbits with active TB, we have mapped the distribution of a fluoroquinolone at high resolution, and identified the immune-pathological factors driving its heterogeneous penetration within TB lesions, in relation to where bacteria reside...
November 14, 2018: ELife
Neha Agrawal, Ioana Streata, Gang Pei, January Weiner, Leigh Kotze, Silke Bandermann, Laura Lozza, Gerhard Walzl, Nelita du Plessis, Mihai Ioana, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Anca Dorhoi
Tuberculosis (TB) has tremendous public health relevance. It most frequently affects the lung and is characterized by the development of unique tissue lesions, termed granulomas. These lesions encompass various immune populations, with macrophages being most extensively investigated. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been recently identified in TB patients, both in the circulation and at the site of infection, however their interactions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) and their impact on granulomas remain undefined...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Youyu Sheng, Yuxin Yang, Yun Wu, Qinping Yang
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving the growth of abnormal inflammatory granulomas and affecting multisystems. It has an unknown etiology. The lung and the skin are the most commonly involved organs. Although large amounts of research have focused on the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, little is known about the link between cutaneous sarcoidosis and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Moreover, the gene expression profiles provide a novel way to find diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pulmonary sarcoidosis and cutaneous sarcoidosis patients and to compare them to healthy individuals...
October 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Yawovi Mawufemo Tsevi, Selda Aydin, Patrick Durez, Laura Labriola
Drug-induced sarcoidosis-like disease is a rare, but not exceptional, side effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents. The organs most commonly involved are lungs, skin and lymph nodes. Kidney involvement is exceptional. Histology usually reveals non-caseating granulomas. Some of the biological features usually described in sarcoidosis are very infrequent in drug-induced granulomatosis. We report a case of sarcoid-like granulomatosis manifesting as life-threatening hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury in a woman treated with etanercept for a rheumatoid arthritis...
November 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Sharie Keanne C Ganchua, Anthony M Cadena, Pauline Maiello, Hannah P Gideon, Amy J Myers, Beth F Junecko, Edwin C Klein, Philana Ling Lin, Joshua T Mattila, JoAnne L Flynn
Tuberculosis is commonly considered a chronic lung disease, however, extrapulmonary infection can occur in any organ. Even though lymph nodes (LN) are among the most common sites of extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, and thoracic LNs are frequently infected in humans, bacterial dynamics and the effect of Mtb infection in LN structure and function is relatively unstudied. We surveyed thoracic LNs from Mtb-infected cynomolgus and rhesus macaques analyzing PET CT scans, bacterial burden, LN structure and immune function...
November 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Xaver Baur, Soma Sanyal, Jerrold L Abraham
Environmental aerosolized particulates pose a potential risk to human health worldwide. Among others, high amounts of contaminants are generated especially in newly industrializing countries in the vicinity of industrial manufacturing, mining operations, but also during agricultural and natural processes. As an example of the needed multi-disciplinary diagnostic and differential diagnostic approach, we report a case of a 59-year old industrial worker who has suffered from chronic bronchitis and progressive dyspnea on exertion for 8 years...
October 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ashish K Jain, Vishal K Chitikeshi, Pritha Nayyar, Nitin Dayal, Anuja Anand
In TB endemic regions, granulomatous inflammation in the samples from a tumour in the lung or in the draining lymph nodes will not be sufficient to diagnose TB as granulomas can also arise as a reaction to tumour cells
September 2018: Breathe
Mario Juárez-Ortega, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Alejandro Hernández-Solís, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Sergio Islas-Trujillo, Raúl Cicero-Sabido
Background: Resident alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells, and immigrating neutrophils (NEU) are the first cells to contact Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lung. These cells, and additional lymphoid cells in the developing granuloma, release a series of components that may concentrate in the serum and affect disease progression. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the serum from tuberculosis (TB) patients and their household contacts (HHC) on the nuclear morphology of NEU...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Stephen Andrew Deppen, Pierre P Massion, Jeffrey Blume, Ronald C Walker, Sanja Antic, Heidi Chen, Michelle M Durkin, L Joseph Wheat, Eric L Grogan
BACKGROUND: Granulomas caused by infectious lung diseases present as indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) on radiography. Newly available serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for histoplasmosis has not been studied for the evaluation of IPNs. We investigated serum biomarkers of histoplasmosis antibodies as an indication of benign disease in IPNs from a highly endemic region. METHODS: 152 serum samples from patients presenting with pulmonary nodules ≤30mm in maximum diameter were analyzed for histoplasmosis antibodies by immunodiffusion and EIA IgG and IgM tests...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Mehdi Alilou, Mahdi Orooji, Niha Beig, Prateek Prasanna, Prabhakar Rajiah, Christopher Donatelli, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Sagar Rakshit, Michael Yang, Frank Jacono, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Anant Madabhushi
Adenocarcinomas and active granulomas can both have a spiculated appearance on computed tomography (CT) and both are often fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, making them difficult to distinguish. Consequently, patients with benign granulomas are often subjected to invasive surgical biopsies or resections. In this study, quantitative vessel tortuosity (QVT), a novel CT imaging biomarker to distinguish between benign granulomas and adenocarcinomas on routine non-contrast lung CT scans is introduced...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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