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White matter injury

Chenchen Wei, Shuting Zhang, Junfeng Liu, Ruozhen Yuan, Ming Liu
White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), which are common in elderly people and contribute to age-related disability, can coexist with cardiac injury. It remains unclear whether cardiac biomarkers are associated with WMHs.To investigate this question, we prospectively recruited patients with cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Four cardiac biomarkers were measured: myoglobin, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), creatine kinase-MB, and terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sona Saksena, Feroze Mohamed, Devon Middleton, Laura Krisa, Mahdi Alizadeh, Shiva Shahrampour, Christopher Conklin, Adam Flanders, Jürgen Finsterbusch, M J Mulcahey, Scott Faro
There are no studies to date, describing changes in the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of the white matter (WM) regions of the entire cervical and thoracic spinal cord (SC) remote from the lesion in pediatric spinal cord injury (SCI) subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DTI at sites cephalad and caudal to a lesion provides measures of cord abnormalities in children with chronic SCI. A retrospective study included 10 typically developing (TD) and 10 subjects with chronic SCI who underwent SC imaging in 2014-2017...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Dimitrios Makrakis, Stefanos Veneris, Efrosini Papadaki
Multinodular and Vacuolating Neuronal Tumor (MVNT) has been included in the most recent (2016) World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System as unique cytoarchitectural pattern of gangliocytoma. We present a case of a MVNT incidentally discovered in a 22-year old male, who presented with seizures after a head injury. Conventional MRI revealed a left parietal lesion with characteristic tiny, coalescent, well-defined, non-enhancing nodules, located in the juxtacortical white matter with partial involvement of an otherwise normal adjacent cortex and characterized by slight relative increase of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), compared to the contralateral white matter (lesional CBV/contralateral CBV = 1...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Niklas Mattsson, Oscar Eriksson, Olof Lindberg, Michael Schöll, Björn Lampinen, Markus Nilsson, Philip S Insel, Ronald Lautner, Olof Strandberg, Danielle van Westen, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Sebastian Palmqvist, Erik Stomrud, Oskar Hansson
Apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its importance for the clinical and biological heterogeneity in AD is unclear, particularly at the prodromal stage. We analyzed 151 prodromal AD patients (44 APOE ε4-negative and 107 APOE ε4-positive) from the BioFINDER study. We tested cognition, 18F-flutemetamol β-amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Aβ, tau and neurodegeneration, and magnetic resonance imaging of white matter pathology and brain structure...
July 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Jyoti A Chuckowree, Zhendan Zhu, Mariana Brizuela, Ka M Lee, Catherine A Blizzard, Tracey C Dickson
Microtubule dynamics underpin a plethora of roles involved in the intricate development, structure, function, and maintenance of the central nervous system. Within the injured brain, microtubules are vulnerable to misalignment and dissolution in neurons and have been implicated in injury-induced glial responses and adaptive neuroplasticity in the aftermath of injury. Unfortunately, there is a current lack of therapeutic options for treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thus, using a clinically relevant model of mild TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI) in adult male Thy1-YFPH mice, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of the brain-penetrant microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone D...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Aaron Sathyanesan, Srikanya Kundu, Joseph Abbah, Vittorio Gallo
Premature infants are more likely to develop locomotor disorders than term infants. In a chronic sub-lethal hypoxia (Hx) mouse model of neonatal brain injury, we recently demonstrated the presence of cellular and physiological changes in the cerebellar white matter. We also observed Hx-induced delay in Purkinje cell (PC) arborization. However, the behavioral consequences of these cellular alterations remain unexplored. Using the Erasmus Ladder to study cerebellar behavior, we report the presence of locomotor malperformance and long-term cerebellar learning deficits in Hx mice...
August 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Dejan Jakimovski, Sirin Gandhi, Ivo Paunkoski, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Deepa P Ramasamy, David Hojnacki, Channa Kolb, Ralph Hb Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are more frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients when compared to controls. In particular, CVDs are linked with higher accumulation of lesions and advanced brain atrophy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether CVDs contribute to accelerated lesion accumulation and brain atrophy over 5-years in patients with MS. METHODS: 194 MS patients and 43 controls without neurologic disease were followed for 5-years...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Debopam Samanta
Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare X-linked multisystem disease caused because of mutation in the IKBKG (inhibitor of kappa-B kinase gamma, previously NEMO ) gene. Involvement of central nervous system is seen in approximately one-third of these patients. Ischemic strokes, symptomatic seizures, and encephalopathy can be seen during neonatal or early infancy age group. Typically, early bilateral brain involvement is seen with periventricular white matter injury, hemorrhagic infarction, and multifocal cortical injury...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Lewis J Haddow, Claudia Godi, Magdalena Sokolska, M Jorge Cardoso, Ruth Oliver, Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Fabian Chen, Ian G Williams, Margaret Johnson, Nick Paton, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Xavier Golay, Hans Rolf Jäger
Background: Protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIM) for HIV may exert suboptimal viral control in the central nervous system. We determined whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional brain volumes were associated with PIM, and whether specific cognitive domains were associated with imaging biomarkers. Methods: Cognitive assessment and brain MRI were performed after the final visit of a randomized HIV treatment strategy trial. Participants were virologically suppressed on triple therapy at trial entry and followed for 3-5 years...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Robert Zivadinov, Paul Polak, Ferdinand Schweser, Niels Bergsland, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Deepa P Ramasamy, John G Baker, John J Leddy, Barry S Willer
BACKGROUND: Long-term consequences of playing professional football and hockey on brain function and structural neuronal integrity are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate multimodal metabolic and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences in retired professional contact sport athletes compared with noncontact sport athletes. METHODS: Twenty-one male contact sport athletes and 21 age-matched noncontact sport athletes were scanned on a 3 tesla (3T) MRI using a multimodal imaging approach...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Lin Wu, Fuqing Zhou, Yue Zhang, Jian Li, Hongmei Kuang, Jie Zhan, Dechang Peng, Laichang He, Xianjun Zeng, Honghan Gong
Disrupted white matter structure has been established in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), but morphological changes in gray matter and local intrinsic activity in the short and midterm (before 6 months) have not been documented in DAI patients. We hypothesized that regionally selective atrophy observed in deep gray matter in the short-term and mid-term periods in patients with mild-to-moderate DAI, local atrophy, and/or dysfunction would be related to clinical characteristics. We evaluated the changes in regional density and synchronization in 18 DAI patients separately using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie algebra-enhanced voxel-based morphometry and regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
August 3, 2018: Neuroreport
Fei Wang, Yu-Jian Yang, Nian Yang, Xian-Jun Chen, Nan-Xin Huang, Jun Zhang, Yi Wu, Zhi Liu, Xing Gao, Tao Li, Guang-Qiang Pan, Shu-Bao Liu, Hong-Li Li, Stephen P J Fancy, Lan Xiao, Jonah R Chan, Feng Mei
To address the significance of enhancing myelination for functional recovery after white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants, we characterized hypomyelination associated with chronic hypoxia and identified structural and functional deficits of excitatory cortical synapses with a prolonged motor deficit. We demonstrate that genetically delaying myelination phenocopies the synaptic and functional deficits observed in mice after hypoxia, suggesting that myelination may possibly facilitate excitatory presynaptic innervation...
July 25, 2018: Neuron
Vincent J Schmithorst, Jodie K Votava-Smith, Nhu Tran, Richard Kim, Vince Lee, Rafael Ceschin, Hollie Lai, Jennifer A Johnson, Joan Sanchez De Toledo, Stefan Blüml, Lisa Paquette, Ashok Panigrahy
Neonates with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) demonstrate microstructural brain dysmaturation, but the relationship with structural network topology is unknown. We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in term neonates with CHD preoperatively (N = 61) and postoperatively (N = 50) compared with healthy term controls (N = 91). We used network topology (graph) analyses incorporating different weighted and unweighted approaches and subject-specific white matter segmentation to investigate structural topology differences, as well as a voxel-based analysis (VBA) to confirm the presence of microstructural dysmaturation...
August 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Chang-Bin Liu, De-Gang Yang, Xin Zhang, Wen-Hao Zhang, Da-Peng Li, Chao Zhang, Chuan Qin, Liang-Jie Du, Jun Li, Feng Gao, Jie Zhang, Zhen-Tao Zuo, Ming-Liang Yang, Jian-Jun Li
AIM: Exploration of the mechanism of spinal cord degeneration may be the key to treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate the degeneration of white matter and gray matter and pathological mechanism in canine after SCI. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on canine models with normal (n = 5) and injured (n = 7) spinal cords using a 3.0T MRI scanner at precontusion and 3 hours, 24 hours, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks postcontusion...
August 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sunhan Son, Si Hyun Kang, Na Mi Lee, Don-Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Hee Joon Ro
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of an infant with severe white matter injury (WMI), which was serially evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). CASE PRESENTATION: A male infant showed decreased muscle tone and weak breathing. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 10 days after birth (first study) revealed diffuse microhemorrhages and encephalomalacia. DTI revealed lack of reconstruction of corticospinal tract (CSTs), minimal reconstruction of medial lemniscus, and related thalamocortical pathways (MLs) from the brain stem to the internal capsule level on the left side...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jie Zhang, Liang Tian, Li Zhang, Ruidong Cheng, Ruili Wei, Fangping He, Juebao Li, Benyan Luo, Xiangming Ye
OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationships between cognitive domains and white matter changes in different regions in patients with cognitive deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and CENTRAL were searched for studies published before 5 August 2017. Correlation coefficients between cognition and white matter integrity, measured by diffusion metrics, including fractional anisotropy (FA), were pooled from 49 studies including 1405 patients...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Marinos Kontzialis, Thierry A G M Huisman
There are multiple causes of neurotoxicity in children including medications, extrinsic toxins and insults, illicit drugs, built up of toxic metabolites due to genetic or acquired disorders, and metabolic abnormalities. The review is centered on causes of neurotoxicity affecting the pediatric brain and producing typical and easily recognized imaging manifestations. Early identification of common and less common imaging findings may point toward the correct direction, and may facilitate early diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment to reverse or at least limit the injury to the developing brain...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Roh-Eul Yoo, Seung Hong Choi, Byung-Mo Oh, Sang Do Shin, Eun Jung Lee, Dong Jae Shin, Sang Won Jo, Koung Mi Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn
OBJECTIVES: To explore the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MR imaging for quantitative analysis of blood-brain barrier disruption in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS). METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients with PCS after mTBI and 32 controls were included in this retrospective study. Ktrans and ve from DCE MR imaging were analyzed at contrast-enhancing lesions, T2 hyperintense white matter (WM) lesions, normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), and predilection sites for diffuse axonal injury (LocationDAI )...
July 31, 2018: European Radiology
Qian Li, Abigail Weiland, Xuemei Chen, Xi Lan, Xiaoning Han, Frederick Durham, Xi Liu, Jieru Wan, Wendy C Ziai, Daniel F Hanley, Jian Wang
Although intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease worldwide, the pathologic changes in ultrastructure during the acute and chronic phases of ICH are poorly described. In this study, transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the ultrastructure of ICH-induced pathology. ICH was induced in mice by an intrastriatal injection of collagenase. Pathologic changes were observed in the acute (3 days), subacute (6 days), and chronic (28 days) phases. Compared with sham animals, we observed various types of cell death in the injured striatum during the acute phase of ICH, including necrosis, ferroptosis, and autophagy...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Adel Elkbuli, Alyssa Eily, Shaikh Hai, Mark McKenney, Orlando Morejon
Relationship between trauma center patient volume (TCV) and mortality remains inconclusive. Our aim was to determine the relationship between TCVs and observed/expected (O/E) all-cause mortality. This is the first study to evaluate the relationship between trauma center (TC) volumes and O/E all-cause mortality with no exclusion. Review of prospectively collected data from 94 TCs using the National Sample Program from the National Trauma Data Bank 2013. TCs were stratified into five groups based on TCV: <701, 701 to 1200, 1201 to 1700, 1701 to 2200, and >2200 yearly patient encounters...
July 1, 2018: American Surgeon
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