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White matter injury

Madeleine J Nichols, Thomas M Gates, James R Soares, Kirsten J Moffat, Caroline D Rae, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of evidence for the neurobiological underpinning of Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI) and Mild Neurocognitive disorders (MND) in virally-suppressed HIV + persons. We hypothesized that such mild impairment would be associated with focal brain atrophy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: 85 virally-suppressed HIV + and 44 geographically, demographically, and lifestyle comparable HIV- men underwent anatomical MRI, neuropsychological evaluation, and HIV laboratory tests...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Albert Leung, Eric Yang, Michael Lim, Valerie Metzger-Smith, Rebecca Theilmann, David Song, Lisa Lin, Alice Tsai, Roland Lee
The occurrence of debilitating chronic persistent (24/7) headache after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) represents a central neuropathic pain state. Previous studies suggest that this chronic headache (HA) state can be attributed to altered supraspinal modulatory functional connectivity in both resting and evoked pain states. Abnormalities in the myelin sheaths along the supraspinal Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) and Anterior Thalamic Radiation (ATR) are frequently associated with alteration in pain modulation related to functional connectivity deficit with the prefrontal cortex...
October 16, 2018: Molecular Pain
Kaori L Ito, Amit Kumar, Artemis Zavaliangos-Petropulu, Steven C Cramer, Sook-Lei Liew
Lesion analyses are critical for drawing insights about stroke injury and recovery, and their importance is underscored by growing efforts to collect and combine stroke neuroimaging data across research sites. However, while there are numerous processing pipelines for neuroimaging data in general, few can be smoothly applied to stroke data due to complications analyzing the lesioned region. As researchers often use their own tools or manual methods for stroke MRI analysis, this could lead to greater errors and difficulty replicating findings over time and across sites...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Dileep P Chandrasekhar, Mohan L Noone, S P Harish Babu, V T Chandra Bose
We report a case of high-voltage electrical injury to scalp, focusing on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in brain. A 51-year-old male suffered burns to the right side of scalp and loss of consciousness following electric shock. Brain abnormalities were detected on MRI taken 4 days after the insult. Right parietal lobe neuroparenchyma beneath the scalp burn defect demonstrated homogeneous hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images, while T2-weighted images depicted hyperintensity mainly in white matter forming finger-like projections...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
Pratibha Issar, Maya Nehra, Gurmeet Singh, S K Issar
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive hemolytic disorder; its cerebrovascular complications include silent cerebral ischemia, infarct, and brain atrophy. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often underestimates the extent of injury. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can demonstrate and quantify microstructural brain changes in SCD cases having normal routine MRI. Objective: To identify various neurological abnormalities in asymptomatic sickle cell patients using routine MRI and to evaluate the microstructure of various regions of the brain using DTI...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
John Ibrahim, Imran Mir, Lina Chalak
The aim is to review the evidence about the utility of term-equivalent age (TEA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm neonates. Preterm birth accounts for ~12% of all deliveries in the United States and is the leading cause of neurologic disabilities in children. From the neonatologist perspective, it is critically important to identify preterm infants at risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental disability who may benefit from early intervention services. However "the choose wisely campaign" also emphasizes the need to have ongoing cost/benefit discussions regarding care of preterm newborns to avoid waste that comes from subjecting infants to procedures that do not help...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Yohsuke Makino, Nobutaka Arai, Yumi Hoshioka, Maiko Yoshida, Masatoshi Kojima, Takuro Horikoshi, Hiroki Mukai, Hirotaro Iwase
In forensic investigations, it is important to detect traumatic axonal injuries (TAIs) to reveal head trauma that might otherwise remain occult. These lesions are subtle and frequently ambiguous on macroscopic evaluations. We present a case of TAI revealed by pre-autopsy postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR). A man in his sixties was rendered unconscious in a motor vehicle accident. CT scans revealed traumatic mild subarachnoid hemorrhage. Two weeks after the accident he regained consciousness, but displayed an altered mental state...
October 1, 2018: Legal Medicine
Natalia Gonzalez Caldito, Shiv Saidha, Elias S Sotirchos, Blake E Dewey, Norah J Cowley, Jeffrey Glaister, Kathryn C Fitzgerald, Omar Al-Louzi, James Nguyen, Alissa Rothman, Esther Ogbuokiri, Nicholas Fioravante, Sydney Feldman, Ohemaa Kwakyi, Hunter Risher, Dorlan Kimbrough, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot Frohman, Laura Balcer, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Peter C M Van Zijl, Ellen M Mowry, Daniel S Reich, Jiwon Oh, Dzung L Pham, Jerry Prince, Peter A Calabresi
On average, African Americans with multiple sclerosis demonstrate higher inflammatory disease activity, faster disability accumulation, greater visual dysfunction, more pronounced brain tissue damage and higher lesion volume loads compared to Caucasian Americans with multiple sclerosis. Neurodegeneration is an important component of multiple sclerosis, which in part accounts for the clinical heterogeneity of the disease. Brain atrophy appears to be widespread, although it is becoming increasingly recognized that regional substructure atrophy may be of greater clinical relevance...
October 11, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Madeleine D Hunter, Yeseon Park Moon, Charles DeCarli, Jose Gutierrez, Clinton B Wright, Marco R Di Tullio, Ralph L Sacco, Hooman Kamel, Mitchell S V Elkind
HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that P wave terminal Force in the V1 lead (PTFV1) would be associated with leukoaraiosis and subclinical infarcts, especially cortical infarcts, in a population-based, multi-ethnic cohort. METHODS: PTFV1 was collected manually from baseline electrocardiograms of clinically stroke-free Northern Manhattan Study participants. Investigators read brain MRIs for superficial infarcts, deep infarcts, and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV)...
2018: PloS One
Regina von Rennenberg, Bob Siegerink, Ramanan Ganeshan, Kersten Villringer, Wolfram Doehner, Heinrich J Audebert, Matthias Endres, Christian H Nolte, Jan F Scheitz
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT) is a sensitive marker of myocardial injury and has been linked to incident dementia. The underlying mechanism of that observation is still unknown. Given that severity of cerebral small vessel disease is a predictor of cognitive decline, we aimed to explore whether there is an association between hs-cTnT and severity of white matter lesions (WML) as a marker of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to Charité-University Hospital, Berlin from 2011 to 2013...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Xiongsong Lu, Pengfei Xue, Luyu Fu, Jinlong Zhang, Jiawei Jiang, Xiaofeng Guo, Guofeng Bao, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Jiajia Chen, Zhiming Cui
HS1-associated protein X-1 (HAX1) is a class of multifunctional protein, participated in various physiological processes such as cell apoptosis, proliferation and motility. However, the HAX1 expression and function in the spinal cord injury (SCI) pathological process have not been investigated. In our current research, the rat model of SCI was established, and then we explored the possible role of HAX1 after SCI. The results of western blot indicated that HAX1 was present in sham operated control group and significantly elevated at 3 days post SCI, then declined gradually...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Cynthia M Ortinau, Kathryn Mangin-Heimos, Joseph Moen, Dimitrios Alexopoulos, Terrie E Inder, Ali Gholipour, Joshua S Shimony, Pirooz Eghtesady, Bradley L Schlaggar, Christopher D Smyser
Altered brain development is a common feature of the neurological sequelae of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). These alterations include abnormalities in brain size and growth that begin prenatally and persist postnatally. However, the longitudinal trajectory of changes in brain volume from the prenatal to postnatal environment have not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the trajectory of brain growth in a cohort of patients with complex CHD (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 15) to test the hypothesis that patients with complex CHD would have smaller total brain volume (TBV) prenatally, which would become increasingly prominent by three months of age...
September 27, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Jordan L Wright, Hannah X Chu, Brett J Kagan, Charlotte M Ermine, Jessica A Kauhausen, Clare L Parish, Christopher G Sobey, Lachlan H Thompson
Cerebral palsy is an irreversible movement disorder resulting from cerebral damage sustained during prenatal or neonatal brain development. As survival outcomes for preterm injury improve, there is increasing need to model ischemic injury at earlier neonatal time-points to better understand the subsequent pathological consequences. Here we demonstrate a novel neonatal ischemic model using focal administration of the potent vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1), in newborn rats. The functional and histopathological outcomes compare favourably to those reported following the widely used hypoxic ischemia (HI) model...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Li-Qiang Liu, Xiang-Rong Liu, Jing-Yan Zhao, Feng Yan, Rong-Liang Wang, Shao-Hong Wen, Lei Wang, Yu-Min Luo, Xun-Ming Ji
INTRODUCTION: The neuroprotective effects of hypothermia in acute ischemic stroke are well documented. However, the mechanisms involved in the effects remain to be clearly elucidated and the role of hypothermia on long-term white matter integrity after acute ischemic stroke has yet to be investigated. AIMS: To investigate the role of mild focal hypothermia on long-term white matter (WM) integrity after transient cerebral ischemia. RESULTS: Mild focal hypothermia treatment immediately after ischemic stroke significantly promotes WM integrity 28 days after the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in mice...
September 16, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jian Zhang, Shengpan Chen, Weilong Shi, Manzhong Li, Yu Zhan, Le Yang, Haiyan Zou, Jianfeng Lei, Xinlou Chai, Kuo Gao, Junjie Liu, Wei Wang, Yong Wang, Hui Zhao
Xiaoshuan enteric-coated capsule (XSECC) is a drug approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of stroke. This study was to investigate the effects of XSECC on white and gray matter injury in a rat model of ischemic stroke by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and histopathological analyses. The ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The cerebral blood flow measured by arterial spin labeling was improved by treatment with XSECC on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 30th days after MCAO...
October 4, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Gaëtan Rensonnet, Benoît Scherrer, Gabriel Girard, Aleksandar Jankovski, Simon K Warfield, Benoît Macq, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Maxime Taquet
Many closed-form analytical models have been proposed to relate the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) signal to microstructural features of white matter tissues. These models generally make assumptions about the tissue and the diffusion processes which often depart from the biophysical reality, limiting their reliability and interpretability in practice. Monte Carlo simulations of the random walk of water molecules are widely recognized to provide near groundtruth for DW-MRI signals. However, they have mostly been limited to the validation of simpler models rather than used for the estimation of microstructural properties...
September 30, 2018: NeuroImage
Natalie E Scholpa, Hannah Williams, Wenxue Wang, Daniel Corum, Aarti Narang, Stephen Tomlinson, Patrick G Sulllivan, Alexander G Rabchevsky, Rick G Schnellmann
A hallmark of the progressive cascade of damage referred to as secondary spinal cord injury (SCI) is vascular disruption resulting in decreased oxygen delivery and loss of mitochondria homeostasis. While therapeutics targeting restoration of single facets of mitochondrial function have proven largely ineffective clinically post-SCI, comprehensively addressing mitochondrial function via pharmacological stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is an underexplored strategy. This study examined the effects of formoterol, a mitochondrial biogenic FDA-approved selective and potent β<sub>2</sub>-adrenoreceptor (ADRB2) agonist, on recovery from SCI in mice...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Lihua Zhu, Ruibin Zhao, Li Huang, Sisi Mo, Zhangbin Yu, Li Jiang, Lixing Qiao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Periventricular white matter damage (PWMD) is the predominant neurologic lesion in preterm infants who survive brain injury. In this study, we assessed the global changes in and characteristics of the transcriptome of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in the brain tissues of rats with PWMD. METHODS: We compared the expression profiles of circRNAs in brain samples from three rats with PWMD and three paired control tissues using deep RNA sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis was applied to investigate these differentially expressed circRNAs, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was performed to confirm the results...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Nishanth Lakshman, Wenjun Xu, Cindi M Morshead
Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mammalian spinal cord are a relatively mitotically quiescent population of periventricular cells that can be studied in vitro using the neurosphere assay. This colony-forming assay is a powerful tool to study the response of NSCs to exogenous factors in a dish; however, this can also be used to study the effect of in vivo manipulations with the proper understanding of the strengths and limitations of the assay. One manipulation of the clinical interest is the effect of injury on endogenous NSC activation...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Niccolò Piaggio, Simona Schiavi, Matteo Martino, Giulia Bommarito, Matilde Inglese, Paola Magioncalda
Bipolar disorder (BD), especially in its active phases, has shown some neuroimaging and immunological similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to compare white matter (WM) alterations in BD patients in manic phase (M-BD) and MS patients at early stage of disease and with low lesion burden. We compared diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-derived fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in a priori selected WM regions (i.e., corpus callosum and cingulum) betwixt 23 M-BD, 23 MS patients and 46 healthy controls...
September 22, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
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