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White matter injury

Jérôme Mairesse, Manuela Zinni, Julien Pansiot, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Charlie Demene, Marina Colella, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Mickael Tanter, Stefania Maccari, Pierre Gressens, Daniel Vaiman, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas, Olivier Baud
Prematurity and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are frequent conditions associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes. We have previously identified early deregulation of genes controlling neuroinflammation as a putative mechanism linking FGR and abnormal trajectory of the developing brain. While the oxytocin system was also found to be impaired following adverse perinatal events, its role in the modulation of neuroinflammation in the developing brain is still unknown. We used a double-hit rat model of perinatal brain injury induced by gestational low protein diet (LPD) and potentiated by postnatal injections of subliminal doses of interleukin-1β (IL1β) and a zebrafish model of neuroinflammation...
December 2, 2018: Glia
Rafael Monteiro Fernandes, Priscila Cunha Nascimento, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Ana Carolina Alves de Oliveira, Bruna Puty, Luana Ketlen Reis Leão, Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes, Sabrina Cartágenes, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia, Rafael Rodrigues Lima
Ethanol (EtOH) consumption is a risk factor for central nervous system damage, especially during adolescence. This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of chronic EtOH forced administration on gray and white matter of the spinal cord, from adolescence to adulthood. For this, male Wistar rats were administered EtOH by gavage (6.5 g/kg/day; 22.5% w/v) from the 35th to the 90th day of life, while control animals received only distilled water. After exposure, animals were euthanized and their spinal cords processed to obtain cervical and thoracic segments for histological analyses...
December 2018: Tissue & Cell
Lars M Rimol, Violeta L Botellero, Knut J Bjuland, Gro C C Løhaugen, Stian Lydersen, Kari Anne I Evensen, Ann-Mari Brubakk, Live Eikenes, Marit S Indredavik, Marit Martinussen, Anastasia Yendiki, Asta K Håberg, Jon Skranes
Development of the cerebral cortex may be affected by aberrant white matter development. Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW) has been associated with reduced fractional anisotropy of white matter and changes in cortical thickness and surface area. We use a new methodological approach to combine white and gray matter data and test the hypothesis that white matter injury is primary, and acts as a mediating factor for concomitant gray matter aberrations, in the developing VLBW brain. T1 and dMRI data were obtained from 47 young adults born preterm with VLBW and 73 term-born peers (mean age = 26)...
November 28, 2018: NeuroImage
Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Peng Sun, Mitchell Hallman, Fay C Hwang, Mihael Wallendorf, Wilson Z Ray, William M Spees, Sheng-Kwei Song
Neuroimaging plays an important role in assessing axonal pathology after traumatic spinal cord injury. However, coexisting inflammation confounds imaging assessment of the severity of axonal injury. Herein, we applied diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to quantitatively differentiate and quantify underlying pathologies in traumatic spinal cord injury at 3 days post-injury. Results reveal that DBSI was capable of detecting and differentiating axonal injury, demyelination, and inflammation-associated edema and cell infiltration in contusion injured spinal cords...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Christelle Ackermann, Ronald van Toorn, Savvas Andronikou
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic seems largely controlled by anti-retroviral treatment with resultant large numbers of children growing up with the disease on long-term treatment, placing them at higher risk to develop HIV-related brain injury, ongoing cognitive impairment and treatment-related neurological complications. Cerebral white matter involvement is a common radiologic finding in HIV infection and the causes of this have overlapping appearances, ranging from diffuse widespread involvement to focal lesions...
November 29, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
H Grover, Y Qian, F E Boada, K Lakshmanan, S Flanagan, Y W Lui
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mild traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide with 42 million cases reported annually, increasing the need to understand the underlying pathophysiology because this could help guide the development of targeted therapy. White matter, particularly the corpus callosum, is susceptible to injury. Animal models suggest stretch-induced mechanoporation of the axonal membrane resulting in ionic shifts and altered sodium ion distribution...
November 29, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEGray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are vulnerable to ischemic-edematous insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The extent of secondary insult after brain injury is quantifiable using quantitative CT analysis. One conventional quantitative CT measure, the gray-white matter ratio (GWR), and a more recently proposed densitometric analysis are used to assess the extent of these insults. However, the prognostic capacity of the GWR in patients with TBI has not yet been validated. This study aims to test the prognostic value of the GWR and evaluate the alternative parameters derived from the densitometric analysis acquired during the acute phase of TBI...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Kenneth A Rostowsky, Alexander S Maher, Andrei Irimia
With the advent of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), the ability to identify cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has become increasingly commonplace. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of post-traumatic CMBs remains controversial partly because it is unclear whether mTBI-related CMBs entail brain circuitry disruptions which, although structurally subtle, are functionally significant. This study combines magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (MRI and DTI) to map white matter (WM) circuitry differences across 6 months in 26 healthy control volunteers and in 26 older mTBI victims with acute CMBs of traumatic etiology...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Lokesh Rana, Dinesh Sood, Raman Chauhan, Roshni Shukla, Pooja Gurnal, Himanshu Nautiyal, Manvendra Tomar
Background and purpose: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes hypoxic brain injury. Due to differences in brain maturity at time of insult, severity of hypotension and duration of insult, there are four distinct patterns of brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive modality for evaluating these patterns of brain injury. Additional role of Diffusion weighted imaging and ADC values can be useful in the evaluation of such cases. We conducted this study to analyse the usefulness of ADC values in the brain tissue affected by hypoxic-ischemic injury...
2018: European Journal of Radiology Open
Robert Fern, Carlos Matute
White matter (WM) damage during ischemia occurs at multiple sites including myelin, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and axons. A major driver of WM demise is excitoxicity as a consequence of excessive glutamate release by vesicular and non-vesicular mechanisms from axons and glial cells. This results in over-activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors profusely expressed by all cell compartments in WM. Thus, blocking excitotoxicity in WM with selective antagonists of those receptors has a potential therapeutic value...
November 23, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Lucette A Cysique, Lauriane Juge, Matthew J Lennon, Thomas M Gates, Simon P Jones, Michael D Lovelace, Caroline D Rae, Tory P Johnson, Avindra Nath, Bruce J Brew
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether HIV brain latency was associated with brain injury in virally suppressed HIV infection. DESIGN: observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study. METHODS: The study included 26 virally-suppressed HIV+ men (61.5% with HAND) who undertook cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses at baseline. They also completed a proton MR Spectroscopy (H MRS) and neuropsychological assessments at baseline and 18-months. To quantify whether there was residual brain HIV transcription, we measured CSF HIV-tat...
November 19, 2018: AIDS
Takuro Saitoh, Rei Enatsu, Takeshi Mikami, Yuto Suzuki, Aya Kanno, Mayumi Kitagawa, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Peri-electrode edema can occur after deep brain stimulation (DBS). The diagnosis and management of peri-electrode edema may be challenging. We herein report non-infectious peri-electrode edema after the placement of DBS electrodes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen patients who underwent DBS surgery between 2010 and 2018 at Sapporo Medical University were included to identify post-operative peri-electrode edema. Pre- and post-operative CT and MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Six patients showed hyperintensity around the electrodes on FLAIR/T2 MRI without neurological deficits...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Karin M E Forsberg, Yingshuang Zhang, Johanna Reiners, Martina Ander, Alexandra Niedermayer, Lubin Fang, Hermann Neugebauer, Jan Kassubek, Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis, Albert C Ludolph, Kelly Del Tredici, Heiko Braak, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke
White matter lesions (WMLs) are a common manifestation of small vessel disease (SVD) in the elderly population. They are associated with an enhanced risk of developing gait abnormalities, poor executive function, dementia, and stroke with high mortality. Hypoperfusion and the resulting endothelial damage are thought to contribute to the development of WMLs. The focus of the present study was the analysis of the microvascular bed in SVD patients with deep WMLs (DWMLs) by using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence...
November 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Jeong Bin Lee, Bethann M Affeldt, Yaritxa Gamboa, Mary Hamer, Jeff F Dunn, Andrea C Pardo, Andre Obenaus
Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is often accompanied by long-term behavioral and neuropsychological deficits. Emerging data suggest that these deficits can be exacerbated following repeated injuries. However, despite the overwhelming prevalence of mTBI in children due to falls and sports-related activities, the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) structure and its development in children have not been extensively examined. Moreover, the effect of repeated mTBI (rmTBI) on developing WM has not yet been studied, despite the possibility of exacerbated outcomes with repeat injuries...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Emma G Duerden, Sheliza Halani, Karin Ng, Ting Guo, Justin Foong, Torin J A Glass, Vann Chau, Helen M Branson, John G Sled, Hilary E Whyte, Edmond N Kelly, Steven P Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the spatial extent and location of early-identified punctate white matter injury (WMI) is associated with regionally-specific disruptions in thalamocortical-connectivity in very-preterm born neonates. METHODS: 37 very-preterm born neonates (median gestational age: 28.1 weeks; interquartile range [IQR]: 27-30) underwent early MRI (median age 32.9 weeks; IQR: 32-35), and WMI was identified in 13 (35%) neonates. Structural T1-weighted, resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI, n = 34) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI, n = 31) sequences were acquired using 3 T-MRI...
November 13, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Guohua Wang, Lingzhi Ding, Chunyi Gao, Nianjiao Zhang, Deqiang Gan, Yechao Sun, Lihua Xu, Qianqian Luo, Zhenglin Jiang
Demyelination in white matter is the end product of numerous pathological processes. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of l-serine and the underlying mechanisms against the demyelinating injury of white matter. A model of focal demyelinating lesions (FDL) was established using the two-point stereotactic injection of 0.25% lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, 10 μg per point) into the corpus callosum of mice. Mice were then intraperitoneally injected with one of three doses of l-serine (114, 342, or 1026 mg/kg) 2 h after FDL, and then twice daily for the next five days...
November 16, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Gen Hamanaka, Ryo Ohtomo, Hajime Takase, Josephine Lok, Ken Arai
There are currently no adequate treatments for white-matter injury, which often follows central nervous system maladies and their accompanying neurodegenerative processes. Indeed, the white matter is compromised by the deterioration of the blood-brain barrier and the demyelination of neuronal axons. Key repairs to the white matter are mediated by oligodendrocyte lineage cells after damaging events. Oligodendrocytes are supported by other cells in the neurovascular unit and these cells collaborate in processes such as angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis...
July 2018: Brain Circulation
Anfeng Cui, Meng Xiang, Ming Xu, Peng Lu, Shun Wang, Yajuan Zou, Ke Qiao, Chengyu Jin, Yijun Li, Meng Lu, Alex F Chen, Sifeng Chen
BACKGROUND: Fine ambient particle matter (PM2.5) induces inflammatory lung injury; however, whether intratracheal administration of PM2.5 increases pulmonary polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration, the mechanism of infiltration, and if these cells exacerbate PM2.5-induced lung injury are unknown. METHODS: Using 32,704 subjects, the association between blood PMNs and ambient PM2.5 levels on the previous day was retrospectively analyzed. Neutropenia was achieved by injecting mice with PMN-specific antibodies...
November 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jennifer Saunders, Helen L Carlson, Filomeno Cortese, Bradley G Goodyear, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong disability, particularly hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are large, cortical, and subcortical injuries acquired near birth due to acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Periventricular venous infarctions (PVI) are smaller, subcortical strokes acquired prior to 34 weeks gestation involving injury to the periventricular white matter. Both stroke types can damage motor pathways, thus, we investigated resulting alterations in functional motor networks and probed function...
November 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Yu-Xi Zhou, Xin Wang, Dan Tang, Yan Li, Ying-Fu Jiao, Yu Gan, Xiao-Ming Hu, Li-Qun Yang, Wei-Feng Yu, Ruth Anne Stetler, Pei-Ying Li, Da-Xiang Wen
AIMS: Demyelination, one of the major pathological changes of white matter injury, is closely related to T-cell-mediated immune responses. Thus, we investigate the role of an IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2mAb, JES6-1) in combatting demyelination during the late phase of stroke. METHODS: IL-2mAb or IgG isotype antibody (0.25 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 2 and 48 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery. Infarct volume, peripheral immune cell infiltration, microglia activation, and myelin loss were measured by 2,3,5-triphenyte trazoliumchloride staining, immunofluorescence staining, flow cytometry, and Western blot...
November 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
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