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low carbohydrate high fat diet

Brent C Creighton, Parker Neil Hyde, Carl M Maresh, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney, Jeff S Volek
Objective: A growing number of ultra-endurance athletes have switched to a very low-carbohydrate/high-fat eating pattern. We compared markers of cholesterol and the lipoprotein profile in a group of elite ultra-runners consuming a high-carbohydrate (HC) or low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. Methods: Fasting blood was obtained from competitive male ultra-endurance runners habitually consuming a very low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10) or high-carbohydrate (HC; n=10) diet to determine blood cholesterol profile, lipoprotein particle distribution and sterol biomarkers of cholesterol balance...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Étienne Myette-Côté, Cody Durrer, Helena Neudorf, Tyler Daniel Bammert, José Diego Botezelli, James D Johnson, Christopher A DeSouza, Jonathan P Little
Lowering carbohydrate consumption effectively lowers glucose but impacts on inflammation are unclear. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Determine whether reducing hyperglycemia by following a low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) diet could lower markers of innate immune cell activation in type 2 diabetes (T2D); and 2) Examine if the combination of a LCHF diet with strategically-timed post-meal walking was superior to a LCHF diet alone. Participants with T2D (N=11) completed a randomized crossover study involving three 4-day diet interventions: i) Low-fat low-glycemic index control (CON); ii) LC, and iii) LC with 15-min post-meal walks (LC+Ex)...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
M T Ferguson, M S Hofman, H Ismail, A Melville, K S K Yap, R J Hicks, S Wright, B Riedel
Cardiac events are a common cause of peri-operative morbidity. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing can objectively assess risk, but it does not quantify myocardial ischaemia. With appropriate dietary preparation to suppress basal myocardial glucose uptake, positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose can identify post-ischaemic myocardium, providing an attractive complement to exercise testing. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of this diagnostic algorithm. Patients referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing before major cancer surgery were prospectively recruited...
October 3, 2018: Anaesthesia
Ceren Yarar-Fisher, Adarsh Kulkarni, Jia Li, Paige Farley, Cassandra Renfro, Hammad Aslam, Patrick Bosarge, Landon Wilson, Stephen Barnes
Study design: Longitudinal, randomized study. Objectives: (1) Test the safety and feasibility of a ketogenic diet (KD) intervention in the acute stages of spinal cord injury (SCI), (2) assess the effects of a KD on neurological recovery, and (3) identify potential serum biomarkers associated with KD-induced changes in neurological recovery. Setting: Acute care and rehabilitation facility. Methods: The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that includes ≈70-80% total energy as fat...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Alice Yunzi L Yu, Nancy López-Olmedo, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To examine temporal trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate, protein, sodium and potassium intake of Chinese adolescents aged 12 - 17 years by sex and urbanicity, using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Individual level, consecutive 3 - day 24-hour recalls were analyzed from survey years 1991 (n=504), 2000 (n=665), and 2011 (n=267) from nine provinces representing a range of geography, economic development, and health indicators in China...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Richard M Fleming, Matthew R Fleming, Gordon M Harrington, Keith-Thomas Ayoob, David W Grotto, Andrew McKusick
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by eating behaviours. Adherence to all diets has been extremely poor, thus, comparative data on health effects of different diets over periods of a year or more are limited. This study was designed to treat the root causes of obesity by modifying the eating behaviours and to compare the long-term (one year) cardiovascular health affects using three major diets under isocaloric conditions. METHODS: 120 obese, otherwise healthy, adults were recruited including 63 men and 57 women with a mean age and BMI of 43...
September 27, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Farinaz Raziani, Parvaneh Ebrahimi, Søren Balling Engelsen, Arne Astrup, Anne Raben, Tine Tholstrup
Background: Regular-fat cheese does not seem to increase low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations compared to reduced-fat cheese. However, plasma LDL-C concentrations do not reflect levels and size of LDL particles, which might be a better predictor of cardiovascular risk. Methods: The aim was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese vs reduced-fat cheese and carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL particle size distribution in adults with ≥ 2 metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Karyne L Vinales, Brittany Begaye, Clifton Bogardus, Mary Walter, Jonathan Krakoff, Paolo Piaggi
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) regulates energy expenditure (EE) and influences weight change after low-protein overfeeding in rodent models. The change in EE after low-protein overfeeding diet is a predictor of weight change in humans and a feature of the "thrifty" metabolic phenotype. However, there are no studies showing an association between circulating FGF21 and EE in humans. We assessed the changes in plasma FGF21 concentrations after 24 hours of seven dietary interventions with different macronutrient content while in a whole-room indirect calorimeter in 64 healthy subjects with normal glucose regulation...
September 26, 2018: Diabetes
Hua-Juan Shi, Chao Xu, Ming-Yang Liu, Bing-Ke Wang, Wen-Bin Liu, Dan-Hong Chen, Li Zhang, Chen-Yuan Xu, Xiang-Fei Li
This study investigated the effects of resveratrol on the growth performance, energy sensing, glycolipid metabolism and glucose and insulin load of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala fed high-carbohydrate diets. Fish (39.44 ± 0.06 g) were randomly fed three diets: a control diet (30% carbohydrate), a high-carbohydrate diet (HC, 41% carbohydrate), and the HC diet supplemented with 0.04% resveratrol (HCR) for 12 weeks. Fish fed the HC diet had significantly high values of nitrogen and energy retention efficiency, hepatosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat ratio, whole-body lipid content and intraperitoneal fat glycogen and lipid contents compared to the control group, but showed little difference with the HCR treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Maria J Martin, Manuel Manzano, Pilar Bueno-Vargas, Ricardo Rueda, Rafael Salto, Maria-Dolores Giron, Jose D Vilchez, Elena Cabrera, Ainara Cano, Azucena Castro, Cesar Ramirez-Tortosa, Jose M Lopez-Pedrosa
An obesogenic environment during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of dysregulation on adipogenesis and insulin resistance in the offspring. Being essential for the growing fetus, glucose supply is guaranteed by a number of modifications in the mother's metabolism, and thus, glucose control during pregnancy especially among obese or diabetic women is paramount to prevent adverse consequences in their children. Besides the election of low-glycemic-index carbohydrates, the rate of carbohydrate digestion could be relevant to keep a good glucose control...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Louise M Burke, John A Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P Morton, Trent Stellingwerff, Ronald J Maughan
From the breakthrough studies of dietary carbohydrate and exercise capacity in the 1960s through to the more recent studies of cellular signaling and the adaptive response to exercise in muscle, it has become apparent that manipulations of dietary fat and carbohydrate within training phases, or in the immediate preparation for competition, can profoundly alter the availability and utilization of these major fuels and, subsequently, the performance of endurance sport (events >30 min up to ∼24 hr). A variety of terms have emerged to describe new or nuanced versions of such exercise-diet strategies (e...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Sheffali Gulati
About one-third of childhood epilepsy ultimately becomes drug resistant epilepsy. Only about one-third of drug resistant epilepsy is amenable for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy surgery and vagal nerve stimulation is still beyond the reach of huge proportion of children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been in use for almost a century now all over the world for drug resistant epilepsy, although in between there was a decline in its popularity with advent of newer antiepileptic drugs like valproate, phenytoin and carbamazepine...
September 21, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Theodora Sideratou, Fiona Atkinson, Grace J Campbell, Peter Petocz, Kim S Bell-Anderson, Jennie Brand-Miller
Maternal diet and gestational hyperglycaemia have implications for offspring health. Leptin ( LEP ) and fat mass and obesity-associated ( FTO ) alleles are known to influence body fat mass in humans, potentially via effects on appetite. We hypothesized that expression of Fto , Lep , and other appetite-related genes ( Argp, Npy, Pomc, Cart, Lepr ) in the offspring of female mice are influenced by the glycaemic index (GI) of carbohydrates in the maternal diet. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to low or high GI diets and mated with chow-fed males at eight weeks of age...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Qingyi Huang, Sihui Ma, Takaki Tominaga, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Chunhong Liu
A low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. In our previous study, we found that an eight-week ketogenic high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet increased the capacity of endurance exercise in mice without aggravated muscle injury, despite the decrease of absolute muscle volume. The potential mechanism is most possibly to be enhanced capacity to mobilize and utilize fat. In the present study, we investigated whether a ketogenic diet influences post-exercise recovery by measuring blood biomarkers, muscle and liver oxidative state as well as fatigue recovery 24 h post exercise by employing an open-field locomotion test...
September 20, 2018: Nutrients
Hilde K L Wærp, Sinéad M Waters, Matthew S McCabe, Paul Cormican, Ragnar Salte
Adipose tissue is no longer considered a mere energy reserve, but a metabolically and hormonally active organ strongly associated with the regulation of whole-body metabolism. Knowledge of adipose metabolic regulatory function is of great importance in cattle management, as it affects the efficiency and manner with which an animal converts feedstuff to milk, meat and fat. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating metabolism in bovine adipose tissue are still not fully elucidated. The emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the analysis of metabolic function and regulation at the global gene expression level...
2018: PloS One
Hana Kahleova, Sara Dort, Richard Holubkov, Neal D Barnard
The effects of carbohydrates on body weight and insulin sensitivity are controversial. In this 16-week randomized clinical trial, we tested the role of a low-fat, plant-based diet on body weight, body composition and insulin resistance. As a part of this trial, we investigated the role of changes in carbohydrate intake on body composition and insulin resistance. Participants ( n = 75) were randomized to follow a plant-based high-carbohydrate, low-fat (vegan) diet ( n = 38) or to maintain their current diet ( n = 37)...
September 14, 2018: Nutrients
Tarja Nykänen, Kai Pihlainen, Matti Santtila, Tommi Vasankari, Mikael Fogelholm, Heikki Kyröläinen
Introduction: Optimal diet together with good physical fitness maintains readiness and military performance during longer deployments. The purpose of this study was to describe changes in dietary macronutrient and energy intake, total physical activity and body composition during a 6-month deployment in South Lebanon. Furthermore, associations of diet macronutrient intake and physical activity on body composition were also studied. Materials and Methods: Forty male soldiers kept a 3-day food diary and their body composition was measured via bioimpedance and ultrasonography...
September 12, 2018: Military Medicine
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
Hepatosteatosis is a disease present worldwide, which presents a number of health problems. Recently, thiazolidinedione (TZD) has been used as a therapy for lipid disorders. The present study demonstrates the potential of TZD as a treatment for hepatosteatosis and its mechanism of action, particularly focusing on its role in lipid metabolism. A total of 60 (80-90 g) rats were divided into three groups: A normal group with a standard diet, a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) group or a HFCD+TZD group (n=20/group)...
October 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Elena Philippou, Elena Nikiphorou
Accumulating research evidence suggests that individual dietary factors and dietary patterns might be implicated in the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This narrative review aims to present this evidence and provide nutritional recommendations for reducing RA risk in susceptible individuals. Overall, a 'Western' type diet rich in energy intake, total and saturated fat, an unbalanced ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids, high in refined carbohydrates and sugar and low in fiber and antioxidants might increase the risk of RA both directly through increasing inflammation and indirectly through increasing insulin resistance and obesity, with the latter being a known risk factor for RA...
September 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Ana Carolina Mosca, Markus Stieger, Eric Neyraud, Hélène Brignot, Anne van de Wiel, Jianshe Chen
This study investigated how macronutrient intake, BMI, ethnicity, age, and gender are related to the composition of unstimulated saliva. First, two groups of Caucasian, Dutch subjects varying in daily intake of carbohydrate, fat, and protein were selected. The daily intake of macronutrients differed by two- to threefold between the low (n = 14) and high (n = 16) macronutrient intake groups. The same subjects were divided into two groups based on BMI: normal weight (n = 14, 22.5 ± 2.0 kg/m2 ) and overweight (n = 16, 28...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
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