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low carbohydrate high fat diet

Thais Regina Mezzomo, Isabella Ruckl Sampaio, Lize Stangarlin Fiori, Maria Eliana Madalozzo Schieferdecker
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that commercial enteral formulas with low FODMAP (FO, fermentable oligosaccharides; D, disaccharides; M, monosaccharides; AP, and polyols) content decrease diarrhea of individuals receiving enteral nutrition therapy (ENT). There is no information, however, regarding the content of FODMAP in homemade enteral formula. The objective of this study was to assess energy and macronutrient content, and to quantify the amount of FODMAP content in homemade enteral formula, commonly prescribed for home use after hospital discharge...
December 5, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
H Pontzer, B M Wood, D A Raichlen
Hunter-gatherer populations are remarkable for their excellent metabolic and cardiovascular health and thus are often used as models in public health, in an effort to understand the root, evolutionary causes of non-communicable diseases. Here, we review recent work on health, activity, energetics and diet among hunter-gatherers and other small-scale societies (e.g. subsistence farmers, horticulturalists and pastoralists), as well as recent fossil and archaeological discoveries, to provide a more comprehensive perspective on lifestyle and health in these populations...
December 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Rose N Mafiana, Ahmed S Al Lawati, Mostafa I Waly, Yahya Al Farsi, Maimouna Al Kindi, Mansour Al Moundhri
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. CRC vary on the basis of both the biologic features of the disease and its associated lifestyle characteristics. The risk of CRC increases with several modifiable factors including obesity, physical inactivity, a diet high in red or processed meat, heavy alcohol consumption, and possibly inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables. We aimed to establish a baseline data for dietary and lifestyle characteristics of Omani adults diagnosed with CRC...
November 29, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
B Sgard, P-Y Brillet, D Bouvry, S Djelbani, H Nunes, C Meune, D Valeyre, M Soussan
AIM: To compare combined 2-[18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients with sarcoidosis and a suspicion of CS who underwent PET and CMR were included retrospectively. PET was undertaken after a low-carbohydrate-high-fat diet in all patients using a combined 16-section PET/computed tomography (CT) camera...
October 25, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Ann-Katrin Kraeuter, Maarten van den Buuse, Zoltán Sarnyai
Recent transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomics studies have highlighted an abnormal cerebral glucose and energy metabolism as one of the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. This raises the possibility that a metabolically-based intervention might have therapeutic value in the management of schizophrenia, a notion supported by our recent results that a low carbohydrate/high-fat therapeutic ketogenic diet (KD) prevented a variety of behavioural abnormalities induced by pharmacological inhibition of NMDA glutamate receptors...
November 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
José M S Fernández-Calleja, Lianne M S Bouwman, Hans J M Swarts, Annemarie Oosting, Jaap Keijer, Evert M van Schothorst
Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter...
November 17, 2018: Nutrients
Huifeng Jin, Jessie Nicodemus-Johnson
Dyslipidemia is a precursor to a myriad of cardiovascular diseases in the modern world. Age, gender, and diet are known modifiers of lipid levels, however they are not frequently investigated in subset analyses. Food and nutrient intakes from National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001⁻2013 were used to assess the correlation between lipid levels (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC):HDL cholesterol ratio) and nutritional intake using linear regression...
November 14, 2018: Nutrients
Wen-Ting Zhao, Yu Luo, Ying Zhang, Yun Zhou, Ting-Ting Zhao
Currently, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is still increasing worldwide and has become a major public health burden.This meta-analysis was performed to further assess high protein (HP) diet on body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes.A literature search was conducted in PubMed and Embase databases up to June 2018. The pooled standard mean difference (SMD) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using RevMan 5.3 software.In total, 18 randomized control trials involving 1099 adults with type 2 diabetes were included...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cara B Ebbeling, Henry A Feldman, Gloria L Klein, Julia M W Wong, Lisa Bielak, Sarah K Steltz, Patricia K Luoto, Robert R Wolfe, William W Wong, David S Ludwig
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of diets varying in carbohydrate to fat ratio on total energy expenditure. DESIGN: Randomized trial. SETTING: Multicenter collaboration at US two sites, August 2014 to May 2017. PARTICIPANTS: 164 adults aged 18-65 years with a body mass index of 25 or more. INTERVENTIONS: After 12% (within 2%) weight loss on a run-in diet, participants were randomly assigned to one of three test diets according to carbohydrate content (high, 60%, n=54; moderate, 40%, n=53; or low, 20%, n=57) for 20 weeks...
November 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Patricia Markham Risica, Meghan McCarthy, Katherine Barry, Susan P Oliverio, Anne S De Groot
Purpose: and Objectives: The risk of diseases associated with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is higher for Hispanics living in the northeastern United States than for other racial and ethnic groups. Higher risk of diabetes, high blood lipids, obesity and limited access to continuity of care are all factors that also contribute to disproportionately poorer chronic disease outcomes for Hispanics. Intervention approach: This article describes the planning and implementation of, and evaluation plans for the Vida Sana Program (VSP), a community-based group intervention created to address the identified MetS risks by encouraging healthier diet and physical activity behaviors among a low-income, largely Spanish speaking, and literacy limited uninsured population...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Kjetil Retterstøl, Mette Svendsen, Ingunn Narverud, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The effects of a low carbohydrate/high fat (LCHF) diet on health are debated. This study aims to explore the effects of a diet with less than 20 g carbohydrates per day (LCHF) on plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in young and healthy adults. The secondary aim is the assessment of lipid profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) gene expression. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled parallel-designed intervention study...
October 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Sihui Ma, Qingyi Huang, Takaki Tominaga, Chunhong Liu, Katsuhiko Suzuki
Adjusting dietary fat intake is reported to affect mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and thus may enhance exercise capacity. However, a high-fat diet where carbohydrate intake is not limited enough also makes it difficult for athletes to maintain weight, and may fail to force the body to utilize fat. As such, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketogenic diet (KD) may be viable. We have previously reported that an eight-week KD enhances exercise capacity, and suggested the mechanism to be enhanced lipolysis and ketolysis...
November 7, 2018: Nutrients
Kirsty J Martin-McGill, Cerian F Jackson, Rebecca Bresnahan, Robert G Levy, Paul N Cooper
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets (KDs), being high in fat and low in carbohydrates, have been suggested to reduce seizure frequency in people with epilepsy. At present, such diets are mainly recommended for children who continue to have seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (drug-resistant epilepsy). Recently, there has been interest in less restrictive KDs, including the modified Atkins diet (MAD), and the use of these diets has extended into adult practice. This is an update of a review first published in 2003 and last updated in 2016...
November 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ju Hye Ok, Hosun Lee, Hae-Yun Chung, Sung Hwan Lee, Eun Jeong Choi, Chang Moo Kang, Song Mi Lee
BACKGROUND/AIM: High-carbohydrate diets are generally provided to post-pancreatectomy cancer patients. Low energy density of this diet may obstruct proper energy intake and recovery. This study aimed to assess the effects of high-fat, high-energy ketogenic diet (KD) in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After pancreatectomy, 9 patients were provided with general diet (GD) while 10 were served KD. Meal compliance, energy intake rate, meal satisfaction and presence of complications were monitored throughout hospital stay...
November 2018: Anticancer Research
Stefan Gerardus Camps, Huann Rong Koh, Nan Xin Wang, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
OBJECTIVES: Fructose is often recommended due to its ability to lower glycemic response and its increased thermogenic effect. Additionally, proteins can reduce the glycemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods and have a high diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the inclusion of fructose in a high-protein meal would demonstrate metabolic advantages. METHODS: Nineteen Asian women (body mass index 17-28 kg/m2 ) consumed a low-glycemic index (GI; fructose) or high GI (glucose), high-protein breakfast followed by a standardized lunch in a randomized crossover design...
July 20, 2018: Nutrition
Thomas S Kraft, Jonathan Stieglitz, Benjamin C Trumble, Melanie Martin, Hillard Kaplan, Michael Gurven
Background: Traditional diets are often credited for the robust cardiometabolic health of subsistence populations. Yet, rural subsistence populations are undergoing nutrition transitions that have been linked to the increase in chronic noncommunicable diseases. Few studies have presented detailed dietary estimates in transitioning populations. Objectives: We aimed to 1) characterize and compare dietary profiles of 2 neighboring subsistence populations in Bolivia who vary in market integration and 2) identify dietary factors contributing to low cardiovascular disease risk...
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Corinna Koebnick, Mary Helen Black, Jun Wu, Yu-Hsiang Shu, Adrienne W MacKay, Richard M Watanabe, Thomas A Buchanan, Anny H Xiang
Diet, obesity and adipokines play important roles in diabetes and CVD; yet, limited studies have assessed the relationship between diet and multiple adipokines. This cross-sectional study assessed associations between diet, adiposity and adipokines in Mexican Americans. The cohort included 1128 participants (age 34·7±8·2 years, BMI 29·5±5·9 kg/m2, 73·2 % female). Dietary intake was assessed by 12-month food frequency questionnaire. Adiposity was measured by BMI, total percentage body fat and percentage trunk fat using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
December 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Alannah K A McKay, Peter Peeling, David B Pyne, Marijke Welvaert, Nicolin Tee, Jill J Leckey, Avish P Sharma, Megan L R Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Dorine W Swinkels, Coby M Laarakkers, Louise M Burke
PURPOSE: The short-term restriction of carbohydrate (CHO) can potentially influence iron regulation via modification of post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin levels. This study examined the impact of a chronic ketogenic low CHO-high fat (LCHF) diet on iron status and iron-regulatory markers in elite athletes. METHODS: International-level race walkers (n=50) were allocated to one of three dietary interventions; i) a high CHO diet (HCHO; n=16), ii) periodized CHO availability (PCHO; n=17) or iii) a LCHF diet (n=17) while completing a periodized training program for 3 weeks...
October 22, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
R Seckold, E Fisher, M deBock, B R King, C E Smart
Dietary management has been a mainstay of care in Type 1 diabetes since before the discovery of insulin when severe carbohydrate restriction was advocated. The use of insulin facilitated re-introduction of carbohydrate into the diet. Current management guidelines focus on a healthy and varied diet with consideration of glycaemic load, protein and fat. As a result of frustration with glycaemic outcomes, low-carbohydrate diets have seen a resurgence in popularity. To date, low-carbohydrate diets have not been well studied in the management of Type 1 diabetes...
October 25, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Cynthia Rocha, Olivia H Koury, Celena Scheede-Bergdahl, Andreas Bergdahl
Low-carbohydrate diets are considered to be an effective approach to weight loss and have, subsequently, grown in popularity. Despite the apparent health benefits that these diets may provide for insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, their implications on cardiomyocyte oxidative capacity have yet to be investigated. To evaluate the adaptations induced by a 6-week low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet on mitochondrial respiration, two groups of male mice were investigated: Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a LCHF diet (L-DIET) and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice on a regular rodent diet (CON)...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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