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low carbohydrate high fat diet

Conor P Kerley
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity...
August 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
Lone V Nielsen, Signe Nyby, Lars Klingenberg, Nicole Juul-Hindsgaul, Jullie Rudnicki, Christian Ritz, Bjørn Liaset, Karsten Kristiansen, Lise Madsen, Anne Raben
The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of meals containing protein from either cod or veal in combination with high or low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates, on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (primary endpoint), appetite, energy intake (EI), as well as postpranidal ghrelin, glucose, and insulin responses. Twenty-three overweight men and women (mean ± SD age: 30.0 ± 7.6 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 1.4 kg/m2 ) consumed 4 test meals: cod with mashed potatoes (high GI carbohydrate), cod with wholegrain pasta (low GI carbohydrate), veal with mashed potatoes, and veal with wholegrain pasta (∼2010 kJ, ∼25...
August 8, 2018: Appetite
Matthew C L Phillips, Deborah K J Murtagh, Linda J Gilbertson, Fredrik J S Asztely, Christopher D P Lynch
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests that diet manipulation may influence motor and nonmotor symptoms in PD, but conflict exists regarding the ideal fat to carbohydrate ratio. OBJECTIVES: We designed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to compare the plausibility, safety, and efficacy of a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet versus a ketogenic diet in a hospital clinic of PD patients. METHODS: We developed a protocol to support PD patients in a diet study and randomly assigned patients to a low-fat or ketogenic diet...
August 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Yun Jung Lee, SuJin Song, YoonJu Song
PURPOSE: Although an Asian diet is typically high in carbohydrate and low in fat, there has been a steady increase in the rate of cardiometabolic disease in Asian countries over the past decade. We evaluated food patterns of a high-carbohydrate diet and examined their associations with metabolic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from the 2013-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we included a total of 13106 subjects aged 20 years or older in this study...
September 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Gerald Grandl, Leon Straub, Carla Rudigier, Myrtha Arnold, Stephan Wueest, Daniel Konrad, Christian Wolfrum
KEY POINTS: A ketogenic diet is known to lead to weight loss and is considered metabolically healthy; however there are conflicting reports on its effect on hepatic insulin sensitivity. KD fed animals appear metabolically healthy in the fasted state after 3 days of dietary challenge, whereas obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) fed animals show elevated insulin levels. A glucose challenge reveals that both KD and HFD fed animals are glucose intolerant. Glucose intolerance correlates with increased lipid oxidation and lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER); however, all animals respond to glucose injection with an increase in RER...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Rahul Gokarn, Samantha Solon-Biet, Neil A Youngson, Devin Wahl, Victoria C Cogger, Aisling C McMahon, Gregory J Cooney, J William O Ballard, David Raubenheimer, Margaret J Morris, Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur
Macronutrients and dietary energy influence aging, age-related health, and life span. Reduction in telomere length has been proposed as one mechanism for aging. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of varying ratios of dietary macronutrients and energy on telomere length in older adult mice. C57Bl/6 mice were fed ad libitum their entire life on one of 25 diets varying in protein, carbohydrates, fat, and energy. Average telomere length ratio (ATLR) was measured by polymerase chain reaction in livers of a subset of 161 mice aged 15 months...
March 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Wan-Hui Liao, Claudia Suendermann, Andrea Eva Steuer, Gustavo Pacheco Lopez, Alex Odermatt, Nourdine Faresse, Maciej Henneberg, Wolfgang Langhans
Aldosterone synthase inhibitors (ASIs) should alleviate obesity-related cardiovascular and renal problems resulting partly from aldosterone excess, but their clinical use may have limitations. To improve knowledge for the use of ASIs, we investigated physiology in aldosterone synthase-knockout (ASKO) mice. On regular chow diet (CD), ASKO mice ate more and weighed less than WT mice, largely because they hyperventilated to eliminate acid as CO2. Replacing CD with high-fat diet (HFD) lessened the respiratory burden in ASKO mice, as did 12- to 15-hour fasting...
July 26, 2018: JCI Insight
Adam Włodarczyk, Mariusz S Wiglusz, Wiesław Jerzy Cubała
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that mostly appears in the second or third decade of life with no consistent appearance. The first-line pharmacological treatment are antipsychotic drugs, which mainly act by suppressing the activity of dopamine. Unfortunately many of schizophrenic patients suffer from persistent positive or negative symptoms that cannot be fully treated with available medication. With exploration on the possible causes of the disease there is evidence on dopaminergic transmission defects, there is a need to find more holistic way in treating the disease and a diet regimen could be one of them...
September 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Md Mahdi Hasan-Olive, Knut H Lauritzen, Mohammad Ali, Lene Juel Rasmussen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen
A ketogenic diet (KD; high-fat, low-carbohydrate) can benefit refractory epilepsy, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used mice inducibly expressing a mutated form of the mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme UNG1 (mutUNG1) to cause progressive mitochondrial dysfunction selectively in forebrain neurons. We examined the levels of mRNAs and proteins crucial for mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics. We show that hippocampal pyramidal neurons in mutUNG1 mice, as well as cultured rat hippocampal neurons and human fibroblasts with H2 O2 induced oxidative stress, improve markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and function when fed on a KD, and when exposed to the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate, respectively, by upregulating PGC1α, SIRT3 and UCP2, and (in cultured cells) increasing the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the NAD+ /NADH ratio...
July 19, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Csilla Ari, Zsolt Kovács, Cem Murdun, Andrew P Koutnik, Craig R Goldhagen, Christopher Rogers, David Diamond, Dominic P D'Agostino
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diet (KD) and exogenous ketone supplements can evoke sustained ketosis, which may modulate sleep and sleep-like effects. However, no studies have been published examining the effect of ketosis on the onset of general isoflurane induced anesthesia. Therefore, we investigated the effect of the KD and different exogenous ketogenic supplements on the onset of akinesia induced by inhalation of isoflurane. METHODS: We used a high fat, medium protein and low carbohydrate diet (KD) chronically (10 weeks) in the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency (G1D) syndrome mice model and sub-chronically (7 days) in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats...
July 18, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Ton Kuijpers, Hanno Pijl
Background: It remains uncertain which diet is best for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: We compared the effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with fat restriction on markers of metabolic syndrome and quality of life in people with T2D. Design: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) compares the effects of a low-carbohydrate [≤40% of energy (%)] diet with those of a low-fat (≤30%) diet over a period of ≥4 wk in patients with T2D...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gabriela Pocovi-Gerardino, María Correa-Rodríguez, José Luis Callejas-Rubio, Raquel Ríos-Fernández, Norberto Ortego-Centeno, Blanca Rueda-Medina
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Despite the influence of diet on inflammation, dietary habits in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are not well established. The study objective was to assess dietary intake and nutritional status in SLE patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 patients with SLE. Nutritional status was determined by body mass index (BMI) and energy/nutrient distribution of diet was analyzed and compared to a control group...
July 8, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Yen-Ming Chan, Susanne Aufreiter, Stephen J O'Keefe, Deborah L O'Connor
How dietary patterns impact colonic bacterial biosynthesis of vitamins and utilization by humans is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate whether a reciprocal dietary switch between rural South Africans (traditionally high fibre, low fat) and African Americans (Western diet of low fibre, high fat) affects colonic folate synthesis. Colonic evacuants were obtained from 20 rural South Africans and 20 African Americans consuming their usual diets at baseline. For two weeks thereafter, rural South Africans were provided with a Western diet (protein 27%, fat 52%, carbohydrate 20% and fibre 8 g/d) and African Americans were provided with a high fibre, low fat diet (protein 16%, fat 17%, carbohydrate 63% and fiber 43 g/d)...
July 11, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Qi Liu, Xiaomeng Wang, Zucheng Huang, Junhao Liu, Jianyang Ding, Xiaolin Xu, Ganggang Kong, Xiuhua Wu, Zhou Yang, Qingan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diet (KD), a low-carbohydrate-and-high-fat diet, causes a metabolic state of ketogenesis and has been used to treat drug-resistance epilepsy. Our recent studies showed KD neuroprotective after spinal cord injury and causing bone loss. Effects of KD on spinal fusion were still unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate effects of KD on spinal fusion in rats. METHODS: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into KD and standard diet (SD) groups...
July 7, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
David S Ludwig, Cara B Ebbeling
Despite intensive research, the causes of the obesity epidemic remain incompletely understood and conventional calorie-restricted diets continue to lack long-term efficacy. According to the carbohydrate-insulin model (CIM) of obesity, recent increases in the consumption of processed, high-glycemic-load carbohydrates produce hormonal changes that promote calorie deposition in adipose tissue, exacerbate hunger, and lower energy expenditure. Basic and genetic research provides mechanistic evidence in support of the CIM...
July 2, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Prasad S Dalvi, Steven Yang, Nathan Swain, Junsoo Kim, Senjuti Saha, Celine Bourdon, Ling Zhang, Rose Chami, Robert H J Bandsma
Early postnatal-life malnutrition remains prevalent globally, and about 45% of all child deaths are linked to malnutrition. It is not clear whether survivors of childhood malnutrition suffer from long-term metabolic effects, especially when they are later in life exposed to a fat and carbohydrate rich obesogenic diet. The lack of knowledge around this dietary "double burden" warrants studies to understand the long-term consequences of children previously exposed to malnutrition. We hypothesized that an early-life nutritional insult of low protein consumption in mice would lead to long-term metabolic disturbances that would exacerbate the development of diet-induced insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2018: PloS One
Fariza Fadzil, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Azmi Mohd Tamil, Shuhaila Ahmad, Noor Shaheeran Abdul Hayi, Azah Abdul Samad, Ruhaini Ismail, Nor Izzah Ahmad Shauki
BACKGROUND: Women of childbearing age are predisposed to becoming overweight or obese. This study determines the mean, prevalence and factors associated with 6 months postpartum weight retention among urban Malaysian mothers. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at baseline (after delivery), 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. From 638 eligible mothers initially recruited, 420 completed until 6 months. Dependent variable was weight retention, defined as difference between weight at 6 months postpartum and pre-pregnancy weight, and weight retention ≥5kg was considered excessive...
June 27, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Chrysi Koliaki, Theodoros Spinos, Μarianna Spinou, Μaria-Eugenia Brinia, Dimitra Mitsopoulou, Nicholas Katsilambros
Various dietary approaches with different caloric content and macronutrient composition have been recommended to treat obesity in adults. Although their safety and efficacy profile has been assessed in numerous randomized clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses, the characteristics of the optimal dietary weight loss strategy remain controversial. This mini-review will provide general principles and practical recommendations for the dietary management of obesity and will further explore the components of the optimal dietary intervention...
June 28, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Jeffrey F Horowitz, Juan F Ortega, Alexander Hinko, Minghua Li, Rachael K Nelson, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez
PURPOSE: Diets high in saturated fat acids (SFA) have been linked with cardio-metabolic disease risk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether only 1-2 weeks of a high SFA diet could impact disease risk factors in overweight adults who normally eat a relatively low proportion of SFA (i.e., <40% of dietary fat). METHODS: Twelve overweight (BMI: 27±1 kg/m2) young adults were studied before and after a 2-week diet that increased the proportion of SFA (<40% to 60% of dietary fat), while maintaining their daily intake of total fat, carbohydrate, protein, and calories...
2018: PloS One
J K Kagya-Agyemang, L M Vaanholt, C Hambly, E Król, S E Mitchell, J R Speakman
Maximal animal performance may be limited by the ability of animals to dissipate heat; the heat dissipation limitation (HDL) theory. Since diets vary in the incidental heat produced during digestion (specific dynamic action, SDA), the HDL theory predicts lactating female mice consuming diets with lower SDA should have increased reproductive performance. Dietary fat has a lower SDA than dietary carbohydrate. Female mice were fed low (LF), medium (MF) or high fat (HF) diets (10%, 45% and 60% energy from fat respectively) from days 4-18 of lactation...
June 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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