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Jakub Suchánek, Klara Zoe Browne, Sherine Adel Nasry, Tereza Suchánková Kleplová, Nela Pilbauerová, Jan Schmidt, Tomáš Soukup
Recently, human natal dental pulp stem cells (hNDP-SCs) have been characterized in vitro and it has been shown that they satisfy criteria defining human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), as proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. However, these results were reached in the presence of xenogeneic expansion medium, which has the potential to alter the cells' functional capacity. To determine the validity of the previously reported hNDP-SCs characteristics for human cell therapy, we have cultured hNDP-SCs in allogeneic expansion medium...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Hugh C Welles, Madeleine F Jennewein, Rosemarie D Mason, Sandeep Narpala, Lingshu Wang, Cheng Cheng, Yi Zhang, John-Paul Todd, Jeffrey D Lifson, Alejandro B Balazs, Galit Alter, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Mario Roederer
Gene based delivery of immunoglobulins promises to safely and durably provide protective immunity to individuals at risk of acquiring infectious diseases such as HIV. We used a rhesus macaque animal model to optimize delivery of naturally-arising, autologous anti-SIV neutralizing antibodies expressed by Adeno-Associated Virus 8 (AAV8) vectors. Vectored transgene expression was confirmed by quantitation of target antibody abundance in serum and mucosal surfaces. We tested the expression achieved at varying doses and numbers of injections...
December 5, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tim Rahmel, Hartmuth Nowak, Katharina Rump, Winfried Siffert, Jürgen Peters, Michael Adamzik
BACKGROUND: Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression impacts on cellular water transport, renal function but also on key mechanisms of inflammation and immune cell migration that prevail in sepsis and ARDS. Thus, the functionally relevant AQP5 -1364A/C promoter single nucleotide polymorphism could impact on the development and resolution of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that the AQP5 promoter -1364A/C polymorphism is associated with AKI in patients suffering from pneumonia evoked ARDS...
2018: PloS One
Zhongyu Wang, Qian Song, Zuyi Yang, Jianing Chen, Jun Shang, Wen Ju
The kidney renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP) is a relatively rare type of kidney cancer. There has been no investigation to find a robust signature to predict the survival outcome of KIRP patients in the aspect of tumor immunology. In this study, 285 KIRP samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were randomly divided into training and testing set. A total of 1534 immune-related genes from The Immunology Database and Analysis Portal (ImmPort) were used as candidates to construct the signature. Using univariate Cox analysis, we evaluated the relationship between overall survival and immune-related genes expression and found 272 immune-related genes with predicting prognostic ability...
December 5, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Ahmed Ibrahim, Luisa Hugerth, Linnea Hases, Ashish Saxena, Maike Seifert, Quentin Thomas, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Lars Engstrand, Cecilia Williams
Chronic inflammation of the colon (colitis) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hormone-replacement therapy reduces CRC incidences, and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) has been implicated in this protection. Gut microbiota is altered in both colitis and CRC and may influence the severity of both. Here we test the hypothesis that intestinal ERβ impacts the gut microbiota. Mice with and without intestine-specific deletion of ERβ (ERβKOVil ) were generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Colitis and CRC were induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by administration of three cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Soizic Garaud, Pawel Zayakin, Laurence Buisseret, Undine Rulle, Karina Silina, Alexandre de Wind, Gert Van den Eyden, Denis Larsimont, Karen Willard-Gallo, Aija Linē
An important role for tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes (TIL-B) in the immune response to cancer is emerging; however, very little is known about the antigen specificity of antibodies produced in situ . The presence of IgA antibodies in the tumor microenvironment has been noted although their biological functions and clinical significance are unknown. This study used a 91-antigen microarray to examine the IgG and IgA autoantibody repertoires in breast cancer (BC). Tumor and adjacent breast tissue supernatants and plasma from BC patients together with normal breast tissue supernatants and plasma from healthy controls (patients undergoing mammary reduction and healthy blood donors) were analyzed to investigate relationships between autoantibodies and the clinical, histological and immunological features of tumors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mario Salvi, Danila Covelli
B cells have multiple actions on different phases of an immune reaction, mainly resulting in B and T cell-interaction (help), production of cytokines, regulation of dendritic cells and downregulation of regulatory B cells. The effectiveness of B cell depletion therapy is probably due to blockade of the antigen-presenting function of B cells, occurring very early in the setting of autoimmune reactions. B cells undergo a maturation process from stem cells during which the CD 20 antigen, which is the target of rituximab (RTX), is expressed from the stage of pre-B cells to mature and memory B cells, but not on plasma cells...
December 4, 2018: Eye
Anna Maria Trotta, Sara Santagata, Serena Zanotta, Crescenzo D'Alterio, Maria Napolitano, Giuseppina Rea, Rosa Camerlingo, Fabio Esposito, Elvira Lamantia, Annamaria Anniciello, Giovanni Botti, Nicola Longo, Gerardo Botti, Sandro Pignata, Sisto Perdonà, Stefania Scala
BACKGROUND: Previous evidence demonstrated that restoration of wild type VHL in human renal cancer cells decreased in vitro NK susceptibility. To investigate on the role of tumoral VHL status versus NK capability in renal cancer patients, 51 RCC patients were characterized for VHL mutational status and NK function. METHODS: VHL mutational status was determined by direct DNA sequencing on tumor tissue. NK cytotoxicity was measured against specific target cells K562, VHL-wild type (CAKI-1) and VHL-mutated (A498) human renal cancer cells through externalization of CD107a and IFN-γ production...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Naoki Oyama, Katarzyna Winek, Priscilla Bäcker-Koduah, Tian Zhang, Claudia Dames, Martina Werich, Olivia Kershaw, Christian Meisel, Andreas Meisel, Ulrich Dirnagl
Background and Purpose: The gut communicates with the brain bidirectionally via neural, humoral and immune pathways. All these pathways are affected by acute brain lesions, such as stroke. Brain-gut communication may therefore impact on the overall outcome after CNS-injury. Until now, contradictory reports on intestinal function and translocation of gut bacteria after experimental stroke have been published. Accordingly, we aimed to specifically investigate the effects of transient focal cerebral ischemia on intestinal permeability, gut associated lymphoid tissue and bacterial translocation in an exploratory study using a well-characterized murine stroke model...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Zhifeng Chen, Kara S Cox, Aimin Tang, Jeanette Roman, Malorie Fink, Robin M Kaufhold, Liming Guan, Andy Xie, Melissa A Boddicker, Debra Mcguinness, Xiao Xiao, Hualin Li, Julie M Skinner, Thorsten Verch, Mary Retzlaff, Kalpit A Vora
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization. A few vaccines exist to prevent pneumococcal disease in adults, including a pneumococcal polysaccharide unconjugated vaccine and a protein conjugated polysaccharide vaccine. Previous studies on the human immune response to the unconjugated vaccine showed that the vaccine boosted the existing memory B cells. In the present study, we investigated the human B cell immune response following pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccination...
December 4, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yanhua Gao, Ira Bergman
BACKGROUND: Late developing breast cancer metastases are common and lethal despite treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy at the time of primary tumor excision. Stimulation of an antitumor immune response is an alternative strategy for preventing this devastating development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mouse model of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu)-positive mammary cancer was used to compare the antitumor memory T-cell response following tumor cure by viral oncolytic immunotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical excision, or surgical excision plus virus infection...
December 2018: Anticancer Research
Vladimir Lopez, Elisabeth van der Heijden, Margarita Villar, Anita Michel, Pilar Alberdi, Christian Gortázar, Victor Rutten, José de la Fuente
There is an imperative need for effective control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) on a global scale and vaccination of cattle may prove to be pivotal in achieving this. The oral and parenteral use of a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) vaccine has previously been found to confer partial protection against BTB in several species. A role for complement factor C3 has been suggested in wild boar, but the exact mechanism by which this vaccine provides protection remains unclear. In the present study, a quantitative proteomics approach was used to analyze the white blood cell proteome of vaccinated cattle in comparison to unvaccinated controls, prior (T0) and in response to vaccination, skin test and challenge (T9 and T12)...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Huan Wang, Wei Tang, Rui Zhang, Shaoxiong Ding
Recently, mucosal surfaces, especially fish skin and its secreted mucus, have attracted significant interest from immunologists. Amphiprion clarkii, a member of the family Pomacentridae, lives symbiosis with sea anemones and has a good resistance to common seawater bacterial diseases and parasites owing to the protection from its abundant skin mucus. In the present work, the activity of immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, protease, antiprotease, cathepsin B, alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase), the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria and five Gram-negative bacteria, the antiparasitic activity against the pathogen of marine white spot disease (Cryptocaryon irritans theronts) and the physico-chemical stability (to pH and heat) of the skin mucus of A...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Pontus Plaven-Sigray, Martin Schain, Francesca Zanderigo, Ilan Rabiner, Roger Gunn, Todd Ogden, Simon Cervenka
[11C]PBR28 is a positron emission tomography radioligand used to estimate the expression of 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO). TSPO is expressed on glial cells and can function as a marker for immune activation. Since TSPO is expressed throughout the brain, no true reference region exists. For this reason, an arterial input function is required for accurate quantification of [11C]PBR28 binding and the most common outcome measure is the total distribution volume (VT ). Notably, VT reflects both specific binding and non-displaceable binding (VND )...
November 27, 2018: NeuroImage
Jizhong Zhao, Yueqing Wang, Qianjin Liang, Yan Xu, Jianli Sang
Melanoma-associated antigen A1 (MAGEA1) and BORIS are members of the cancer testis antigens (CTA) family. Their functions and expression regulation mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we revealed new functions and regulatory mechanisms of MAGEA1 and BORIS in breast cancer cells, which were investigated in parental and genetically manipulated breast cancer cells via gene overexpression or siRNA interference-mediated down-regulation. We identified the interaction between MAGEA1 and CTCF, which was required for the binding of MAGEA1 to BORIS promoter and critical for the recruitment of DNMT3a...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Kathryn M Emmer, William H Walker, Ning Zhang, A Courtney DeVries
Understanding why breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cognitive and affective disorders is essential for developing targeted treatment plans and improving quality of life. Microglia priming results in chronic neuroinflammation and can contribute to neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, thereby offering a potential mechanism for altered brain function that persists after tumor removal. This study examined whether mammary tumors alter microglia and augment the inflammatory profile and behavior of mice...
November 26, 2018: Brain Research
Pinar Kanlikilicer, Recep Bayraktar, Merve Denizli, Mohammed H Rashed, Cristina Ivan, Burcu Aslan, Rahul Mitra, Kubra Karagoz, Emine Bayraktar, Xinna Zhang, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Amr Ahmed El-Arabey, Nermin Kahraman, Seyda Baydogan, Ozgur Ozkayar, Michael L Gatza, Bulent Ozpolat, George A Calin, Anil K Sood, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein
BACKGROUND: Circulating miRNAs are known to play important roles in intercellular communication. However, the effects of exosomal miRNAs on cells are not fully understood. METHODS: To investigate the role of exosomal miR-1246 in ovarian cancer (OC) microenvironment, we performed RPPA as well as many other in vitro functional assays in ovarian cancer cells (sensitive; HeyA8, Skov3ip1, A2780 and chemoresistant; HeyA8-MDR, Skov3-TR, A2780-CP20). Therapeutic effect of miR-1246 inhibitor treatment was tested in OC animal model...
November 25, 2018: EBioMedicine
Yanzhi Luo, Wei Yu, Yongyao Yu, Shuai Dong, Yaxing Yin, Zhenyu Huang, Xinyu Wan, Liqiang Zhang, Yunzhen Yu, Taoshan Ai, Qingchao Wang, Zhen Xu
In mammalian, T-cell receptors (TCRs) play a key role in recognizing the presented antigen from external to protect organisms against environmental pathogens. To understand the potential roles of TCRγ and TCRδ in dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ cDNAs were cloned and their gene expression profiles were investigated after bacterial, parasitic and fungal challenge. The open reading frame (ORF) of Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ cDNAs contained 948 and 867 bp, encoding 316 and 288 amino acid residues, respectively...
November 25, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zhi Li, Zhe-Feng Chen, Jiu-Xiang Liu, Feng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To compare mid-term clinical results of total hip arthroplasty (THA) with metal-on-metal (MoM) and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings and to evaluate the biological safety of the two kinds of prostheses. METHODS: Thirty-two patients who received a primary THA with an MoM articulation between January 2008 and December 2010 were selected to form the MoM group retrospectively. The MoP group consisted of 32 patients who received a THA with an MoP prosthesis during the same period...
November 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
Stephanie R Beldick, James Hong, Svetlana Altamentova, Mohamad Khazaei, Anisha Hundal, Mohammad-Masoud Zavvarian, Prakasham Rumajogee, Jonathon Chio, Michael G Fehlings
Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses a group of non-progressive brain disorders that are often acquired through perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Injury leads to a cascade of cell death events, resulting in lifetime motor and cognitive deficits. There are currently no treatments that can repair the resulting brain damage and improve functional outcomes. To date, preclinical research using neural precursor cell (NPC) transplantation as a therapy for HI brain injury has shown promise. To translate this treatment to the clinic, it is essential that human-derived NPCs also be tested in animal models, however, a major limitation is the high risk of xenograft rejection...
2018: PloS One
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