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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525801/social-and-built-environment-factors-related-to-children-s-independent-mobility-the-importance-of-neighbourhood-cohesion-and-connectedness
#1
En-Yi Lin, Karen Witten, Melody Oliver, Penelope Carroll, Lanuola Asiasiga, Hannah Badland, Karl Parker
This study examines aspects of neighbourhood social environments (namely, neighbourhood safety, cohesion and connection) and child-specific built environment attributes in relation to children's independent mobility. The results suggest that children aged 8-13 years with parents who perceive their neighbourhood as more cohesive and more connected, and are located closer to school, engaged in higher levels of independently mobile trips. The qualitative component of this research revealed that for NZ European, Māori, Samoan and other Pacific parents, 'people danger' was the most common concern for letting their children go out alone, whereas for Asian and Indian parents, 'traffic danger' was the most common reason for their concern...
May 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516404/screening-for-diabetic-eye-disease-among-samoan-adults-a-pilot-study
#2
V Swetha E Jeganathan, Tim Langford, Lucilla Ah-Ching Sefo, Alex W Hewitt, Nitin Verma
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Samoa by piloting a retinal photography screening programme. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes who presented to the Tupua Tamasese Meaole eye clinic in Apia, Samoa, between May 2011 and September 2011. Study approval was granted by the National Health Service Board of Samoa, the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee, and the study adhered to the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki...
May 17, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449013/suicide-mortality-among-pacific-peoples-in-new-zealand-1996-2013
#3
Jemaima Tiatia-Seath, Roy Lay-Yee, Martin von Randow
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe trends in suicide mortality for Pacific peoples in New Zealand by reviewing official data over the period 1996-2013. METHOD: Death registrations where the underlying causes of death were intentional self-harm was examined and area of interest was identified and presented. RESULTS: Over a 17-year period (1996-2013), there were 380 total Pacific suicides (4.1%) out of 9,307 suicides nationally for New Zealand's total population...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429791/social-and-anthropometric-factors-explaining-racial-ethnical-differences-in-birth-weight-in-the-united-states
#4
Naho Morisaki, Ichiro Kawachi, Emily Oken, Takeo Fujiwara
Though disparities in birth weight by race/ethnicity have been extensively reported in the United States, few studies have systematically investigated factors attributing to its variability. For 10,638,415 singleton infants born during 2009-2012 in the United States, we examined birth weight differences among 14 races and ethnicities (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Black, American Indian, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban), after sequentially adjusting for maternal, socio-economic and behavioral factors...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409055/enhanced-surveillance-for-the-third-united-nations-conference-on-small-island-developing-states-apia-samoa-september-2014
#5
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Alexis Durand, Saine Vaai-Nielsen, Tile Ah Leong-Lui, Take Naseri, Ailuai Matalima, Filipina Amosa, Alize Mercier, Christelle Lepers, Vjesh Lal, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Adam Roth, Yvan Souares, Onofre Edwin Merilles, Damian Hoy
The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa's weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics...
January 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405013/a-missense-variant-rs373863828-a-p-arg457gln-of-crebrf-and-body-mass-index-in-oceanic-populations
#6
Izumi Naka, Takuro Furusawa, Ryosuke Kimura, Kazumi Natsuhara, Taro Yamauchi, Minato Nakazawa, Yuji Ataka, Takafumi Ishida, Tsukasa Inaoka, Yasuhiro Matsumura, Ryutaro Ohtsuka, Jun Ohashi
It has been suggested that a 'thrifty' genotype hypothesis can account for high prevalence of obesity in the island populations of Oceania. A recent genome-wide association study revealed that a missense variant, rs373863828-A (p.Arg457Gln), of the CREBRF gene (encoding CREB3 regulatory factor) was associated with an excessive increase in body mass index (BMI) in Samoans. In the present study, the association of rs373863828-A with an increase in BMI was examined in four Austronesian (AN)-speaking populations in Oceania...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286653/diffuse-panbronchiolitis-in-a-samoan-man
#7
Justine Gibson, Harrison King, Mahendra Singh, Khoa Tran
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease which is predominantly recognised in the Japanese population with only isolated case reports in Western populations. This is the first reported case of DPB in a Samoan man with typical radiological and histopathological features. He had an excellent response to long-term erythromycin and this case highlights the importance of recognising this rare disease.
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280865/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-samoa-over-1978-2013
#8
Sophia Lin, Take Naseri, Christine Linhart, Stephen Morrell, Richard Taylor, Stephen T Mcgarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
OBJECTIVES: This study estimates type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in Samoans aged 25-64 years from sequential, irregularly spaced, cross-sectional population prevalence surveys. METHODS: T2DM prevalence from eight population surveys conducted over 1978-2013 (n = 12,516) was adjusted for census region, sex, and 5-year age group to the nearest previous census. Annual T2DM incidence was calculated from adjusted prevalences (by sex), using birth cohorts constructed from age-period matrices...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279139/the-feagaiga-and-faife-au-kids-fks-an-examination-of-the-experiences-of-parsonage-children-of-the-samoan-congregational-denomination-in-new-zealand
#9
Sadat Petelo Muaiava
This article examines the experiences of faife'au 'kids' (clergy children) of the Samoan Congregational Christian Church denomination in New Zealand. The paper investigates the effects the indigenous concept of feagaiga (covenant) has on faife'au kids (FKs) parsonage experiences. Additionally, the Eurocentric concept of 'tagata'ese' (stranger) is also investigated. As part of a master's research study, Talanoa sessions were conducted with eight FKs of the Congregational denomination in New Zealand. Participants were mainly from the Wellington and Auckland regions...
March 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261795/birth-order-and-recalled-childhood-gender-nonconformity-in-samoan-men-and-fa-afafine
#10
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202634/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-metabolic-outcomes-among-adult-samoans-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
Dongqing Wang, Nicola L Hawley, Avery A Thompson, Viali Lameko, Muagatutia Sefuiva Reupena, Stephen T McGarvey, Ana Baylin
Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns...
April 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162141/child-maternal-and-household-level-correlates-of-nutritional-status-a-cross-sectional-study-among-young-samoan-children
#12
Courtney C Choy, Mayur M Desai, Jennifer J Park, Elizabeth A Frame, Avery A Thompson, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham, Nicole C Deziel, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. DESIGN: A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l)...
February 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080101/racial-discrimination-and-psychological-health-among-polynesians-in-the-u-s
#13
G E Kawika Allen, Hokule'a Conklin, Davis K Kane
OBJECTIVES: There is a dearth of research on the mental health of Polynesians residing in the United States. The aims of this study were to examine experiences of racial discrimination, self-esteem, trait anger, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being among 628 Polynesians (e.g., Native Hawaiian, Tongan, Samoan, Fijian, Tahitian, Maori; 60% women (n = 378) and 40% men (n = 249); mean age = 28.7). METHOD: Measures were administered through an online survey to 628 Polynesians residing in the United States...
January 12, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055219/integrating-molecular-networking-and-biological-assays-to-target-the-isolation-of-a-cytotoxic-cyclic-octapeptide-samoamide-a-from-an-american-samoan-marine-cyanobacterium
#14
C Benjamin Naman, Ramandeep Rattan, Svetlana E Nikoulina, John Lee, Bailey W Miller, Nathan A Moss, Lorene Armstrong, Paul D Boudreau, Hosana M Debonsi, Frederick A Valeriote, Pieter C Dorrestein, William H Gerwick
Integrating LC-MS/MS molecular networking and bioassay-guided fractionation enabled the targeted isolation of a new and bioactive cyclic octapeptide, samoamide A (1), from a sample of cf. Symploca sp. collected in American Samoa. The structure of 1 was established by detailed 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS data, and chemical degradation/chromatographic (e.g., Marfey's analysis) studies. Pure compound 1 was shown to have in vitro cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines in both traditional cell culture and zone inhibition bioassays...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987088/elevated-kin-directed-altruism-emerges-in-childhood-and-is-linked-to-feminine-gender-expression-in-samoan-fa-afafine-a-retrospective-study
#15
Doug P VanderLaan, Lanna J Petterson, Paul L Vasey
Androphilia refers to sexual attraction toward adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to sexual attraction toward adult females. The kin selection hypothesis posits that androphilic males help kin increase their reproductive output via kin-directed altruism, thus offsetting their own lowered reproduction and contributing to the fitness of genes underpinning male androphilia. Support for this hypothesis has been garnered in several Samoan studies showing that feminine androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) report elevated willingness to invest in nieces and nephews in adulthood...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846814/lack-of-direct-evidence-for-natural-selection-at-the-candidate-thrifty-gene-locus-ppargc1a
#16
Murray Cadzow, Tony R Merriman, James Boocock, Nicola Dalbeth, Lisa K Stamp, Michael A Black, Peter M Visscher, Phillip L Wilcox
BACKGROUND: The gene PPARGC1A, in particular the Gly482Ser variant (rs8192678), had been proposed to be subject to natural selection, particularly in recent progenitors of extant Polynesian populations. Reasons include high levels of population differentiation and increased frequencies of the derived type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk 482Ser allele, and association with body mass index (BMI) in a small Tongan population. However, no direct statistical tests for selection have been applied. METHODS: Using a range of Polynesian populations (Tongan, Māori, Samoan) we re-examined evidence for association between Gly482Ser with T2D and BMI as well as gout...
November 15, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829473/a-qualitative-kaupapa-m%C3%A4-ori-approach-to-understanding-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-of-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-grandparents-in-auckland-new-zealand
#17
Rachel Tapera, Matire Harwood, Anneka Anderson
OBJECTIVE: The present research sought to better understand the barriers, facilitators, attitudes and beliefs that influence the way Māori and Samoan grandparents feed their grandchildren in a deprived urban neighbourhood in New Zealand. DESIGN: The research adopted a qualitative methodology that was consistent with a Kaupapa Māori research approach. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with grandparents to collect narrative data. SETTING: Sampling occurred in one Auckland suburb...
November 10, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785648/a-comparison-of-the-reproductive-output-among-the-relatives-of-samoan-androphilic-fa-afafine-and-gynephilic-men
#18
Scott W Semenyna, Lanna J Petterson, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
The sexually antagonistic gene hypothesis (SAGH) for male androphilia posits that genes associated with androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) will result in lowered reproduction when present in males, but increased reproduction when present in females. Findings derived from some Western European samples furnish support for the SAGH; however, results from studies conducted in other regions of the world have been more equivocal. Our previous research in Samoa indicated that the mothers as well as the maternal and paternal grandmothers of androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) exhibit elevated reproductive output when compared to the relatives of gynephilic men (i...
October 26, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744355/decision-making-for-pap-testing-among-pacific-islander-women
#19
Jie W Weiss, Michele Mouttapa, Lola Sablan-Santos, Jasmine DeGuzman Lacsamana, Lourdes Quitugua, Sora Park Tanjasiri
This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and past behaviour. The three MAU parameters of subjective value, subjective probability and momentary salience were measured for eight anticipated consequences of having a Pap test (e...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593894/familial-patterning-and-prevalence-of-male-androphilia-in-samoa
#20
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Lanna J Petterson, Paul L Vasey
Previous research established that male androphilia (i.e., sexual arousal and attraction to adult males) clusters in families. Some studies find that male androphilia clusters in both the paternal and maternal lines, while others find that it clusters only in the latter. Most of the research investigating the familial nature of male androphilia has taken place in Western cultural contexts that are problematic for such research because they are characterized by low fertility. To address this, our previous work has examined familial patterning of male androphilia in Samoa, a high-fertility population in which androphilic males are readily identified due to their public status as fa'afafine (a third gender category)...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
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