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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956550/infection-contagion-and-causality-in-colonial-britain-the-1889-90-influenza-pandemic-and-the-british-medical-journal
#1
Antonis A Kousoulis, Gregory Tsoucalas
The influenza pandemic of 1889 was the first truly global flu outbreak in scope. Characterised by high morbidity and low mortality, it spread rapidly across Europe and the rest of the world along trading routes. It reached mainland Britain in December 1889. The responses of medical practitioners in Britain and the British colonies to the pandemic were heavily featured in the British Medical Journal and reveal a confusing picture around causality, contagion and infection. Cases from the colonies (Cape Town, India, Australia, Samoan Islands, Hong Kong) as presented in the journal are explored in an attempt to reconstruct the mainstream medical belief of the time...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928463/widespread-prevalence-of-a-crebrf-variant-amongst-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-children-is-associated-with-weight-and-height-in-early-childhood
#2
S D Berry, C G Walker, K Ly, R G Snell, P E Atatoa Carr, D Bandara, J Mohal, T G Castro, E J Marks, S M B Morton, C C Grant
OBJECTIVE: Investigating a large and ethnically diverse cohort from the Pacific region, we aimed to replicate and extend the recently reported findings that a CREBRF genetic variant is strongly associated with body mass index in Samoans. METHODS: A birth cohort of more than six thousand children was utilised. In this study, genotyping of two markers (rs12513649 and rs373863828) was undertaken in Māori, Pacific, European and Asian individuals in the cohort. RESULTS: We report that these CREBRF genetic variants are not confined to Samoans but are prevalent in all other Pacific populations sampled, including Māori...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756353/a-birth-cohort-study-of-asian-and-pacific-islander-children-reported-for-abuse-or-neglect-by-maternal-nativity-and-ethnic-origin
#3
Megan Finno-Velasquez, Lindsey Palmer, John Prindle, Christina C Tam, Emily Putnam-Hornstein
Research identifying racial and ethnic disparities in child protective services (CPS) involvement in the U.S. has focused on the overrepresentation of Black children and the growing Latino child population. Little attention has been paid to children of Asian origin, the most underrepresented group of children in the U.S. CPS system. The objective of this analysis was to examine subgroup patterns of CPS involvement in California for Asian and Pacific Islander (API) children prospectively based on maternal nativity and ethnic origin...
October 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673031/samoan-smokers-talk-about-smoking-and-quitting-a-focus-group-study
#4
Helen Tanielu, Judith McCool, Elaine Umali, Robyn Whittaker
Introduction: Samoa, like other Pacific Island countries, faces a persistent challenge to reduce smoking use with relatively limited resources. As a signatory to the WHO FCTC, Samoa is obligated to introduce measures to reduce tobacco use and is currently trialling a text message smoking cessation programme (mCessation) to achieve this outcome. Cigarettes remain relatively cheap and are widely available, but little is known about how smoking is initiated or why and how people quit smoking in the Samoa...
June 29, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662836/conceptions-of-pregnancy-health-and-motivations-for-healthful-behavior-change-among-women-in-american-samoa
#5
Erica L Kocher, Jeanette M Sternberg Lamb, Stephen T McGarvey, Mata'uitafa Faiai, Bethel T Muasau-Howard, Nicola L Hawley
BACKGROUND: American Samoan women are particularly at risk of obesity-related non-communicable disease (NCD), requiring efficacious interventions to protect their health and that of their infants. Prior studies have identified pregnancy as an ideal time for behavior change interventions related to NCD. AIM: This study aimed to understand American Samoan women's conceptions of health during pregnancy, their motivations for pregnancy behavior change, and the role of their family in both enabling and preventing these changes...
June 26, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609936/-i-cinachyrella-anatriaenilla-i-sp-nov-a-new-tetillid-sponge-with-microacanthoxeas-from-american-samoa-in-the-south-pacific
#6
Julio C C Fernandez, Michelle Kelly, Lori J Bell
Several sponges from American Samoa, collected by the Coral Reef Research Foundation, Republic of Palau, were tentatively identified by one of us as Acanthotetilla cf seychellensis (Thomas 1973), due to the possession of relatively small acanthose oxeas, compared to those of other species of the genus Acanthotetilla Burton 1959. These sponges were later compared to Cinachyrella australiensis (Carter 1886), taking into account the lack of conspicuous spination on the acanthose oxeas and general features of spiculation and skeletal organisation...
April 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606163/tobacco-smoking-trends-in-samoa-over-four-decades-can-continued-globalization-rectify-that-which-it-has-wrought
#7
Christine Linhart, Take Naseri, Sophia Lin, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell, Stephen T McGarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
June 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525801/social-and-built-environment-factors-related-to-children-s-independent-mobility-the-importance-of-neighbourhood-cohesion-and-connectedness
#8
En-Yi Lin, Karen Witten, Melody Oliver, Penelope Carroll, Lanuola Asiasiga, Hannah Badland, Karl Parker
This study examines aspects of neighbourhood social environments (namely, neighbourhood safety, cohesion and connection) and child-specific built environment attributes in relation to children's independent mobility. The results suggest that children aged 8-13 years with parents who perceive their neighbourhood as more cohesive and more connected, and are located closer to school, engaged in higher levels of independently mobile trips. The qualitative component of this research revealed that for NZ European, Māori, Samoan and other Pacific parents, 'people danger' was the most common concern for letting their children go out alone, whereas for Asian and Indian parents, 'traffic danger' was the most common reason for their concern...
May 17, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516404/screening-for-diabetic-eye-disease-among-samoan-adults-a-pilot-study
#9
V Swetha E Jeganathan, Tim Langford, Lucilla Ah-Ching Sefo, Alex W Hewitt, Nitin Verma
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Samoa by piloting a retinal photography screening programme. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes who presented to the Tupua Tamasese Meaole eye clinic in Apia, Samoa, between May 2011 and September 2011. Study approval was granted by the National Health Service Board of Samoa, the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee, and the study adhered to the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki...
June 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449013/suicide-mortality-among-pacific-peoples-in-new-zealand-1996-2013
#10
Jemaima Tiatia-Seath, Roy Lay-Yee, Martin von Randow
AIM: The aim of this study was to describe trends in suicide mortality for Pacific peoples in New Zealand by reviewing official data over the period 1996-2013. METHOD: Death registrations where the underlying causes of death were intentional self-harm was examined and area of interest was identified and presented. RESULTS: Over a 17-year period (1996-2013), there were 380 total Pacific suicides (4.1%) out of 9,307 suicides nationally for New Zealand's total population...
April 28, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429791/social-and-anthropometric-factors-explaining-racial-ethnical-differences-in-birth-weight-in-the-united-states
#11
Naho Morisaki, Ichiro Kawachi, Emily Oken, Takeo Fujiwara
Though disparities in birth weight by race/ethnicity have been extensively reported in the United States, few studies have systematically investigated factors attributing to its variability. For 10,638,415 singleton infants born during 2009-2012 in the United States, we examined birth weight differences among 14 races and ethnicities (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic Black, American Indian, Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Hawaiian, Guamanian, Mexican, Puerto Rican and Cuban), after sequentially adjusting for maternal, socio-economic and behavioral factors...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409055/enhanced-surveillance-for-the-third-united-nations-conference-on-small-island-developing-states-apia-samoa-september-2014
#12
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Alexis Durand, Saine Vaai-Nielsen, Tile Ah Leong-Lui, Take Naseri, Ailuai Matalima, Filipina Amosa, Alize Mercier, Christelle Lepers, Vjesh Lal, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Adam Roth, Yvan Souares, Onofre Edwin Merilles, Damian Hoy
The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa's weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics...
January 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405013/a-missense-variant-rs373863828-a-p-arg457gln-of-crebrf-and-body-mass-index-in-oceanic-populations
#13
Izumi Naka, Takuro Furusawa, Ryosuke Kimura, Kazumi Natsuhara, Taro Yamauchi, Minato Nakazawa, Yuji Ataka, Takafumi Ishida, Tsukasa Inaoka, Yasuhiro Matsumura, Ryutaro Ohtsuka, Jun Ohashi
It has been suggested that a 'thrifty' genotype hypothesis can account for high prevalence of obesity in the island populations of Oceania. A recent genome-wide association study revealed that a missense variant, rs373863828-A (p.Arg457Gln), of the CREBRF gene (encoding CREB3 regulatory factor) was associated with an excessive increase in body mass index (BMI) in Samoans. In the present study, the association of rs373863828-A with an increase in BMI was examined in four Austronesian (AN)-speaking populations in Oceania...
September 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286653/diffuse-panbronchiolitis-in-a-samoan-man
#14
Justine Gibson, Harrison King, Mahendra Singh, Khoa Tran
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is an idiopathic inflammatory disease which is predominantly recognised in the Japanese population with only isolated case reports in Western populations. This is the first reported case of DPB in a Samoan man with typical radiological and histopathological features. He had an excellent response to long-term erythromycin and this case highlights the importance of recognising this rare disease.
May 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280865/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-samoa-over-1978-2013
#15
Sophia Lin, Take Naseri, Christine Linhart, Stephen Morrell, Richard Taylor, Stephen T Mcgarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
OBJECTIVES: This study estimates type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in Samoans aged 25-64 years from sequential, irregularly spaced, cross-sectional population prevalence surveys. METHODS: T2DM prevalence from eight population surveys conducted over 1978-2013 (n = 12,516) was adjusted for census region, sex, and 5-year age group to the nearest previous census. Annual T2DM incidence was calculated from adjusted prevalences (by sex), using birth cohorts constructed from age-period matrices...
July 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279139/the-feagaiga-and-faife-au-kids-fks-an-examination-of-the-experiences-of-parsonage-children-of-the-samoan-congregational-denomination-in-new-zealand
#16
Sadat Petelo Muaiava
This article examines the experiences of faife'au 'kids' (clergy children) of the Samoan Congregational Christian Church denomination in New Zealand. The paper investigates the effects the indigenous concept of feagaiga (covenant) has on faife'au kids (FKs) parsonage experiences. Additionally, the Eurocentric concept of 'tagata'ese' (stranger) is also investigated. As part of a master's research study, Talanoa sessions were conducted with eight FKs of the Congregational denomination in New Zealand. Participants were mainly from the Wellington and Auckland regions...
March 2017: Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling: JPCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261795/birth-order-and-recalled-childhood-gender-nonconformity-in-samoan-men-and-fa-afafine
#17
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202634/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-metabolic-outcomes-among-adult-samoans-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Dongqing Wang, Nicola L Hawley, Avery A Thompson, Viali Lameko, Muagatutia Sefuiva Reupena, Stephen T McGarvey, Ana Baylin
Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns...
April 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162141/child-maternal-and-household-level-correlates-of-nutritional-status-a-cross-sectional-study-among-young-samoan-children
#19
Courtney C Choy, Mayur M Desai, Jennifer J Park, Elizabeth A Frame, Avery A Thompson, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham, Nicole C Deziel, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. DESIGN: A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l)...
February 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080101/racial-discrimination-and-psychological-health-among-polynesians-in-the-u-s
#20
G E Kawika Allen, Hokule'a Conklin, Davis K Kane
OBJECTIVES: There is a dearth of research on the mental health of Polynesians residing in the United States. The aims of this study were to examine experiences of racial discrimination, self-esteem, trait anger, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being among 628 Polynesians (e.g., Native Hawaiian, Tongan, Samoan, Fijian, Tahitian, Maori; 60% women (n = 378) and 40% men (n = 249); mean age = 28.7). METHOD: Measures were administered through an online survey to 628 Polynesians residing in the United States...
January 12, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
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