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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846814/lack-of-direct-evidence-for-natural-selection-at-the-candidate-thrifty-gene-locus-ppargc1a
#1
Murray Cadzow, Tony R Merriman, James Boocock, Nicola Dalbeth, Lisa K Stamp, Michael A Black, Peter M Visscher, Phillip L Wilcox
BACKGROUND: The gene PPARGC1A, in particular the Gly482Ser variant (rs8192678), had been proposed to be subject to natural selection, particularly in recent progenitors of extant Polynesian populations. Reasons include high levels of population differentiation and increased frequencies of the derived type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk 482Ser allele, and association with body mass index (BMI) in a small Tongan population. However, no direct statistical tests for selection have been applied. METHODS: Using a range of Polynesian populations (Tongan, Māori, Samoan) we re-examined evidence for association between Gly482Ser with T2D and BMI as well as gout...
November 15, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829473/a-qualitative-kaupapa-m%C3%A4-ori-approach-to-understanding-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-of-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-grandparents-in-auckland-new-zealand
#2
Rachel Tapera, Matire Harwood, Anneka Anderson
OBJECTIVE: The present research sought to better understand the barriers, facilitators, attitudes and beliefs that influence the way Māori and Samoan grandparents feed their grandchildren in a deprived urban neighbourhood in New Zealand. DESIGN: The research adopted a qualitative methodology that was consistent with a Kaupapa Māori research approach. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with grandparents to collect narrative data. SETTING: Sampling occurred in one Auckland suburb...
November 10, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785648/a-comparison-of-the-reproductive-output-among-the-relatives-of-samoan-androphilic-fa-afafine-and-gynephilic-men
#3
Scott W Semenyna, Lanna J Petterson, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
The sexually antagonistic gene hypothesis (SAGH) for male androphilia posits that genes associated with androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) will result in lowered reproduction when present in males, but increased reproduction when present in females. Findings derived from some Western European samples furnish support for the SAGH; however, results from studies conducted in other regions of the world have been more equivocal. Our previous research in Samoa indicated that the mothers as well as the maternal and paternal grandmothers of androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) exhibit elevated reproductive output when compared to the relatives of gynephilic men (i...
October 26, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744355/decision-making-for-pap-testing-among-pacific-islander-women
#4
Jie W Weiss, Michele Mouttapa, Lola Sablan-Santos, Jasmine DeGuzman Lacsamana, Lourdes Quitugua, Sora Park Tanjasiri
This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and past behaviour. The three MAU parameters of subjective value, subjective probability and momentary salience were measured for eight anticipated consequences of having a Pap test (e...
October 15, 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593894/familial-patterning-and-prevalence-of-male-androphilia-in-samoa
#5
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Lanna J Petterson, Paul L Vasey
Previous research established that male androphilia (i.e., sexual arousal and attraction to adult males) clusters in families. Some studies find that male androphilia clusters in both the paternal and maternal lines, while others find that it clusters only in the latter. Most of the research investigating the familial nature of male androphilia has taken place in Western cultural contexts that are problematic for such research because they are characterized by low fertility. To address this, our previous work has examined familial patterning of male androphilia in Samoa, a high-fertility population in which androphilic males are readily identified due to their public status as fa'afafine (a third gender category)...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585435/nutritional-supplements-modulate-fluorescent-protein-bound-advanced-glycation-endproducts-and-digestive-enzymes-related-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Emily R Koch, Permal Deo
BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia enhances the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to diabetic complications. Thus, controlling blood glucose levels, inhibiting the formation of AGEs and reducing ROS are key therapeutic targets in early stage type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of seven commercial liquid nutritional supplements against carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, α-amylase and α-glucosidase, was determined by dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent and p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside solution, respectively...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573685/crebrf-variant-increases-obesity-risk-and-protects-against-diabetes-in-samoans
#7
Ruth J F Loos
A genome-wide study in Samoans has identified a protein-altering variant (p.Arg475Gln) in CREBRF as being associated with 1.3-fold increased risk of obesity and, intriguingly, 1.6-fold decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. This variant, which is common among Samoans (minor allele frequency = 26%) but extremely rare in other populations, promotes fat storage and reduces energy use in cellular models.
August 30, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563680/social-support-groups-in-the-maintenance-of-glycemic-control-after-community-based-intervention
#8
Claire Townsend Ing, Guangxing Zhang, Adrienne Dillard, Sheryl R Yoshimura, Claire Hughes, Donna-Marie Palakiko, Bridget Puni Kehauoha, Ka'imi A Sinclair, Joseph Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NH/PI; e.g., Samoan and Chuukese) have higher type 2 diabetes prevalence compared to other groups in Hawai'i. Partners in Care (PIC), a culturally tailored, community-based, diabetes self-management education intervention (DSME), is effective at improving participants' glycemic control and self-care behaviors. Maintenance of improvements is challenging. Diabetes-related social support groups (SSG) are a promising maintenance component for DSME. This study examined the effects of a diabetes-specific SSG component relative to a control group, after the receipt of the 3-month PIC intervention, which was delivered to 47 adult NH/PI with type 2 diabetes...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494387/obesity-bmi-increasing-variant-identified-in-samoans
#9
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455349/a-thrifty-variant-in-crebrf-strongly-influences-body-mass-index-in-samoans
#10
Ryan L Minster, Nicola L Hawley, Chi-Ting Su, Guangyun Sun, Erin E Kershaw, Hong Cheng, Olive D Buhule, Jerome Lin, Muagututi'a Sefuiva Reupena, Satupa'itea Viali, John Tuitele, Take Naseri, Zsolt Urban, Ranjan Deka, Daniel E Weeks, Stephen T McGarvey
Samoans are a unique founder population with a high prevalence of obesity, making them well suited for identifying new genetic contributors to obesity. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 3,072 Samoans, discovered a variant, rs12513649, strongly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 5.3 × 10(-14)), and replicated the association in 2,102 additional Samoans (P = 1.2 × 10(-9)). Targeted sequencing identified a strongly associated missense variant, rs373863828 (p.Arg457Gln), in CREBRF (meta P = 1...
September 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376437/cancer-screening-education-can-it-change-knowledge-and-attitudes-among-culturally-and-linguistically-diverse-communities-in-queensland-australia
#11
Katherine Cullerton, Danielle Gallegos, Ella Ashley, Hong Do, Anna Voloschenko, MaryLou Fleming, Rebecca Ramsey, Trish Gould
Issue addressed: Screening for cancer of the cervix, breast and bowel can reduce morbidity and mortality. Low participation rates in cancer screening have been identified among migrant communities internationally. Attempting to improve low rates of cancer screening, the Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland developed a pilot Cancer Screening Education Program for breast, bowel and cervical cancer. This study determines the impact of education sessions on knowledge, attitudes and intentions to participate in screening for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) communities living in Brisbane, Queensland...
June 29, 2016: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27238575/culture-local-capacity-and-outside-aid-a-community-perspective-on-disaster-response-after-the-2009-tsunami-in-american-s%C3%A4-moa
#12
Sherri Brokopp Binder, Charlene K Baker
Research on diverse cultural contexts has indicated that aid organisations often fail to leverage local, culturally-grounded resources and capacities in disaster-affected communities. Case-study methodology was employed to explore the relationship between local and external disaster response efforts in American Sāmoa following the earthquake and tsunami on 29 September 2009 in the southern Pacific Ocean, with a specific focus on the role of culture in defining that relationship. Interview and focus group data from 37 participants, along with observational data, suggested that the local response to the event was swift and grounded in Samoan cultural systems and norms...
May 30, 2016: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27164741/oral-health-of-new-zealand-service-personnel-in-ww1
#13
J M Broadbent, J K Singh, N S Masri, D C Tong, W J Duncan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the First World War, 10% of New Zealand's population served in the armed forces, and around one in five of those were killed. In commemoration of 100 years since WW1, this study uses retrospective data to report on the oral health of NZ service personnel. METHODS: 325 Pākehā, 165 Māori and 150 Samoan male recruits who served in the NZ Expeditionary Force between 1914 and 1918 were randomly selected and their personnel files accessed through Archives New Zealand...
March 2016: New Zealand Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27102989/sero-epidemiological-assessment-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infection-and-sub-fertility-in-samoan-women
#14
S Menon, S H Stansfield, M Walsh, E Hope, L Isaia, A A Righarts, T Niupulusu, S V A Temese, L Iosefa-Siitia, L Auvaa, S A Tapelu, M F Motu, T Suaalii-Sauni, P Timms, P C Hill, W M Huston
BACKGROUND: In our recent village-based cross-sectional study, the prevalence of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in sexually active Samoan women was very high (36 %), and test positivity was associated with sub-fertility. We conducted a serological and epidemiological analysis in these participants to identify if serological data can provide further insight into the potential contribution of CT to sub-fertility in this population. METHODS: Serological prediction of CT associated sub-fertility was conducted using a series of commercial tests...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100108/the-relationship-between-adult-occupational-preferences-and-childhood-gender-nonconformity-among-samoan-women-men-and-fa-afafine
#15
Scott W Semenyna, Paul L Vasey
Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN)...
September 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965788/absence-of-serological-evidence-of-rickettsia-spp-bartonella-spp-ehrlichia-spp-and-coxiella-burnetii-infections-in-american-samoa
#16
Colleen Lau, Didier Musso, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, Philip Weinstein
Little is known about the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in American Samoa (Pacific). A review of literature did not identify any published information on human Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or Coxiella burnetii infections in this country. To determine the presence of these diseases, we conducted a serosurvey of American Samoans. The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, C. burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 197 American Samoan adults...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26965773/salt-intake-and-iodine-status-of-women-in-samoa
#17
Mary-Anne Land, Jacqui L Webster, Gary Ma, Mu Li, Sarah Asi Faletoese Su'a, Merina Ieremia, Satu Viali, Gavin Faeamani, A Colin Bell, Christine Quested, Bruce C Neal, Creswell J Eastman
The objective of this study was to determine iodine nutrition status and whether iodine status differs across salt intake levels among a sample of women aged 18-45 years living in Samoa. A cross-sectional survey was completed and 24-hr urine samples were collected and assessed for iodine (n=152) and salt excretion (n=119). The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among the women was 88 μg/L (Interquartile range (IQR)=54-121 μg/L). 62% of the women had a UIC <100 μg/L. The crude estimated mean 24-hr urinary salt excretion was 6...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924190/upper-and-mid-mantle-interaction-between-the-samoan-plume-and-the-tonga-kermadec-slabs
#18
Sung-Joon Chang, Ana M G Ferreira, Manuele Faccenda
Mantle plumes are thought to play a key role in transferring heat from the core-mantle boundary to the lithosphere, where it can significantly influence plate tectonics. On impinging on the lithosphere at spreading ridges or in intra-plate settings, mantle plumes may generate hotspots, large igneous provinces and hence considerable dynamic topography. However, the active role of mantle plumes on subducting slabs remains poorly understood. Here we show that the stagnation at 660 km and fastest trench retreat of the Tonga slab in Southwestern Pacific are consistent with an interaction with the Samoan plume and the Hikurangi plateau...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26908216/cut-off-levels-for-hyperandrogenemia-among-samoan-women-an-improved-methodology-for-deriving-normative-data-in-an-obese-population
#19
Hasina Maredia, Geralyn M Lambert-Messerlian, Glenn E Palomaki, Satupaitea Viali, Nicola L Hawley, Stephen T McGarvey
OBJECTIVE: To define biochemical hyperandrogenemia (HA) among a population-based sample of reproductive-aged Samoan women, taking into consideration their high BMI levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: A secondary analysis was performed among a cross-sectional sample of Samoan women aged 25-39years (n=494) who were part of a larger genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adiposity. Women indicating pregnancy/lactation, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, cancer treatment, or use of contraceptive injections were excluded from the study...
July 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843490/salt-intakes-knowledge-and-behavior-in-samoa-monitoring-salt-consumption-patterns-through-the-world-health-organization-s-surveillance-of-noncommunicable-disease-risk-factors-steps
#20
Jacqui Webster, Sarah Asi Faletoese Su'a, Merina Ieremia, Severine Bompoint, Claire Johnson, Gavin Faeamani, Miraneta Vaiaso, Wendy Snowdon, Mary-Anne Land, Kathy Trieu, Satu Viali, Marj Moodie, Colin Bell, Bruce Neal, Mark Woodward
This project measured population salt intake in Samoa by integrating urinary sodium analysis into the World Health Organization's (WHO's) STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable disease risk factors (STEPS). A subsample of the Samoan Ministry of Health's 2013 STEPS Survey collected 24-hour and spot urine samples and completed questions on salt-related behaviors. Complete urine samples were available for 293 participants. Overall, weighted mean population 24-hour urine excretion of salt was 7.09 g (standard error 0...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
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