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Bipolar treatment

Kyle J Burghardt, Kristen M Ward, Elani J Sanders, Bradley H Howlett, Berhane Seyoum, Zhengping Yi
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are a class of medications associated with significant metabolic side effects, including insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the skeletal muscle lipidome of patients on AAPs, compared to mood stabilizers, to further understand the molecular changes underlying AAP treatment and side effects. Bipolar patients on AAPs or mood stabilizers underwent a fasting muscle biopsy and assessment of insulin sensitivity. A lipidomic analysis of total fatty acids (TFAs), phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and ceramides (CERs) was performed on the muscle biopsies, then lipid species were compared between treatment groups, and correlation analyses were performed with insulin sensitivity...
October 13, 2018: Metabolites
Sandhya Deverapalli, Nellie Konnikov
Fractional bipolar radiofrequency technology is associated with minimal downtime and rare side effects and become an increasingly popular tool in aesthetic dermatology practices. There is limited damage to the epidermis, and side effects such as post-inflammatory hypo/hyperpigmentation are rare. Transient erythema, edema, crusting, and persistent inflammatory papules have been previously reported. We report a rare case of sterile follicular pustulosis following treatment with bipolar fractional radiofrequency (eTwo technology)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Heesu Kim, Keun Jae Ahn, Sugun Lee, Henry Park, Sung Bin Cho
BACKGROUND: Intense focused ultrasound (IFU) and radiofrequency (RF) systems generate thermal tissue reactions in multiple zones in the skin, with the microscopic features thereof varying according to energy sources and treatment parameters. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate interactive thermal tissue reactions of IFU and RF in cadaveric skin. METHODS: Thermal reaction patterns generated by IFU, invasive bipolar RF, and non-invasive monopolar RF treatments were analyzed in cadaveric skin of the inner thigh...
October 15, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
Yan Yang, Kathryn Fletcher, Richard Whitehead, Greg Murray
There is growing interest in psychological processes that might be targeted in treatments for bipolar disorder (BD). One such process is a vulnerability at the level of self-concept, characterized by presence of, and fluctuations between positive and negative self-concept. The aim of the present study was to advance this literature by investigating the role of two emerging meta-cognitive processes - self-compassion and nonattachment to self - which have potential to therapeutically modulate this unstable self-concept in BD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Matthew Schafer, Joo-Won Kim, Joshmi Joseph, Junqian Xu, Sophia Frangou, Gaelle E Doucet
The habenula (Hb), a bilateral nucleus located next to the dorsomedial thalamus, is of particular relevance to psychiatric disorders based on preclinical evidence linking the Hb to depressive and amotivational states. However, studies in clinical samples are scant because segmentation of the Hb in neuroimaging data is challenging due to its small size and low contrast from the surrounding tissues. Negative affective states dominate the clinical course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and represent a major cause of disability...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Michael H Connors, Lena Quinto, Henry Brodaty
Depression and a number of other psychiatric conditions can impair cognition and give the appearance of neurodegenerative disease. Collectively, this group of disorders is known as 'pseudodementia' and are important to identify given their potential reversibility with treatment. Despite considerable interest historically, the longitudinal outcomes of patients with pseudodementia remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review of longitudinal studies of pseudodementia. Bibliographic databases were searched using a wide range of search terms...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Claudia Pisanu, Donatella Congiu, Marta Costa, Caterina Chillotti, Raffaella Ardau, Giovanni Severino, Andrea Angius, Urs Heilbronner, Liping Hou, Francis J McMahon, Thomas G Schulze, Maria Del Zompo, Alessio Squassina
Lithium is the mainstay treatment in bipolar disorder (BD) for its effectiveness in the acute phases of illness and in prevention of recurrences. Lithium's mechanism of action is complex, and while it modulates the function of hundreds of molecular targets, most of these effects could be unspecific and not relevant for its clinical efficacy. In this study, we applied an integrated analytical approach using genome-wide expression and genotyping data from BD patients to identify lithium-responsive genes that may serve as biomarkers of its efficacy...
October 14, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Shang-Ying Tsai, Ariel G Gildengers, Jung-Lung Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan Chung, Pao-Huan Chen, Yu-Jui Huang
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) and aging appear to be associated with inflammatory activation. Inflammatory processes might affect hippocampal function, neurogenesis, and gray matter loss. This study investigated the relationship between BD-specific brain regions and the total gray matter volume, peripheral inflammatory markers, and clinical features in older patients with BD. METHODS: We recruited euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder aged ≥50 years to undergo whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Abhinav Nahar, Harish Thippeswamy, Mukku Shiva Shanker Reddy, M Thomas Kishore, Santosh K Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: The literature on co-morbid psychiatric illnesses in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) spectrum disorder is sparse. PURPOSE: To examine the nature of psychiatric comorbidity and treatment response in adults with HFA spectrum disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case records of subjects (age ≥17 years) who presented over a period of 16 years with primary psychiatric symptoms and further detected to have an HFA spectrum disorder, were analyzed...
September 26, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Sandro René P S Miguel, Ana Flávia B S Lima, Luciane N Cruz, Mírian Cohen, Jacques J Zimmermann, Patrícia K Ziegelmann, Marcelo P A Fleck
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of an algorithm for the treatment of mixed episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) using the medications available under the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) in Brazil. METHODS: The study included 107 individuals with BD in a current mixed episode, assessed biweekly for the outcomes of response and remission. The subjects were randomly assigned to start treatment with lithium, valproic acid, or carbamazepine, following a clinical protocol at a public outpatient clinic...
October 10, 2018: Value in Health Regional Issues
Esther S Lee, Carol Vidal, Robert L Findling
OBJECTIVES: The use of atypical antipsychotic medications in pediatric patients has become more prevalent in recent years. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinically relevant update of recent selected key publications regarding the use of atypical antipsychotics in this population. METHODS: Studies reviewed included randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled medication trials conducted within the past 5 years. A PubMed search was conducted for each of the 11 second-generation antipsychotic medications currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States: clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, paliperidone, asenapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, and cariprazine...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Laura Musetti, Antonio Tundo, Alessandra Benedetti, Gabriele Massimetti, Erika Cambiali, Irene Pergentini, Claudia Del Grande, Liliana Dell'Osso
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the prescription patterns of the mood stabilizers most commonly used for the treatment of bipolar I and II disorders (lithium, valproate, and carbamazepine) and to analyze the treatment outcomes. METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-four outpatients with bipolar disorders receiving prophylactic treatment with lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, or their combination were followed up for at least 18 months in two Italian psychiatric centers specialized in mood disorders...
October 12, 2018: Human Psychopharmacology
Scott H Waltman, David Shearer, Bret A Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Post-traumatic nightmares (PTN) are a common and enduring problem for individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other clinical presentations. PTN cause significant distress, are associated with large costs, and are an independent risk factor for suicide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for PTN exist. A previous review in this journal demonstrated that Prazosin, an alpha blocker, was a preferred pharmacological treatment for PTN and imagery rescripting therapy (IRT) was a preferred non-pharmacological treatment...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Mike J Crawford, Lavanya Thana, Jennie Parker, Oliver Turner, Kwek Pei Xing, Mary McMurran, Paul Moran, Timothy Weaver, Barbara Barrett, Amy Claringbold, Paul Bassett, Rahil Sanatinia
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of long-term psychological treatment for people with some types of personality disorder. However, the high intensity and cost of these interventions limit their availability. Lower-intensity interventions are increasingly being offered to people with personality disorder, but their clinical and cost effectiveness have not been properly tested in experimental studies. We therefore set out to develop a low intensity intervention for people with personality disorder and to test the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial to compare the clinical effectiveness of this intervention with that of treatment as usual (TAU)...
October 10, 2018: Trials
Thomas Wolfers, Nhat Trung Doan, Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Torgeir Moberget, Ingrid Agartz, Jan K Buitelaar, Torill Ueland, Ingrid Melle, Barbara Franke, Ole A Andreassen, Christian F Beckmann, Lars T Westlye, Andre F Marquand
Importance: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe and complex brain disorders characterized by substantial clinical and biological heterogeneity. However, case-control studies often ignore such heterogeneity through their focus on the average patient, which may be the core reason for a lack of robust biomarkers indicative of an individual's treatment response and outcome. Objectives: To investigate the degree to which case-control analyses disguise interindividual differences in brain structure among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and to map the brain alterations linked to these disorders at the level of individual patients...
October 10, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Christian Lange-Asschenfeldt
BACKGROUND: Chronic schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorders, among other chronic psychiatric disorders with onset at youth or early adulthood are often referred to as severe mental illness (SMI). Aging with SMI is associated with various psychosocial, physiological, and medical problems with potential impact on psychiatric pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVES: Determination and discussion of problems and special features of the psychopharmacological treatment of older persons with SMI and presentation of treatment recommendations for the distinct diagnoses...
October 9, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Yegor Tryliskyy, Andrii Kebkalo, Chee S Wong, Sergii Rublenko, Mykhailo Rublenko, Mykola Ilnytskiy, Ievgenii Negria, Vladislav Hordovskiy
Introduction: The method of a bipolar high-frequency welding (HFEW) of soft living tissues of animals and humans has been used in various areas of surgery. However, it has not been utilized in endoscopic gastrointestinal procedures yet. HFEW has strong potential to be used in gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures due to the competitive cost of generator devices and due to its proven ability to coagulate vessels of wide diameter as compared to standard electrocautery devices. Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of the endoscopic haemostasis using HFEW generator device - 300 PATONMED - in a porcine model of arterial gastrointestinal bleeding...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Alissa Knight, Geoff A Jarrad, Geoff D Schrader, Jorg Strobel, Dennis Horton, Niranjan Bidargaddi
Non-adherence with pharmacologic treatment is associated with increased rates of relapse and rehospitalisation among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To improve treatment response, remission, and recovery, research efforts are still needed to elucidate how to effectively map patient's response to medication treatment including both therapeutic and adverse effects, compliance, and satisfaction in the prodromal phase of illness (ie, the time period in between direct clinical consultation and relapse)...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Christian Vorländer, Konstantin David Kohlhase, Yücel Korkusuz, Christian Erbelding, Wolfgang Luboldt, Ilknur Baser, Hüdayi Korkusuz
PURPOSE: Comparison between different thermal ablation systems for thyroid nodules regarding their different procedural characteristics such as treatment-time, number of shots and energy transmission in the context of their clinical performance such as complication rate and volume reduction after three months. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with 65 nodules underwent thermal ablation of thyroid nodules with either microwave ablation (MWA) (9 male, 15 female and mean age 57 ± 13 years) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (12 male, 24 female and mean age 54 ± 12 years)...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
David H Chafey, Valerae O Lewis, Robert L Satcher, Bryan S Moon, Patrick P Lin
BACKGROUND: Although cephalomedullary nail fixation is often used for metastatic peritrochanteric lesions of the femur, there is concern regarding the durability of the implant in comparison to endoprosthetic reconstruction. Previous studies have reported the proportion of patients who undergo reoperation for loss of stability, but the adequacy of the construct has not been critically evaluated in a competing risk analysis that incorporates death of the patient in the calculation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the cumulative incidence of reoperation of cephalomedullary nails with death as a competing risk for metastatic lesions of the proximal femur? (2) What is the survival of patients with metastases to the proximal femur after cephalomedullary nailing? (3) What clinical factors are associated with implant stability in these patients? METHODS: Between 1990 and 2009, 11 surgeons at one center treated 217 patients with cephalomedullary nails for metastatic proximal femoral lesions...
October 2, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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