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Jessica M Healy, M Catherine Burgess, Tai-Ho Chen, W Thane Hancock, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Magele Scott Anesi, Ray T Tulafono, Mary Aseta Mataia, Benjamin Sili, Jacqueline Solaita, A Christian Whelen, Rebecca Sciulli, Remedios B Gose, Vasiti Uluiviti, Morgan Hennessey, Fara Utu, Motusa Tuileama Nua, Marc Fischer
During December 2015-January 2016, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) detected through surveillance an increase in the number of cases of acute febrile rash illness. Concurrently, a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection documented to cause microcephaly and other severe brain defects in some infants born to women infected during pregnancy (1,2) was reported in a traveler returning to New Zealand from American Samoa. In the absence of local laboratory capacity to test for Zika virus, ASDoH initiated arboviral disease control measures, including public education and vector source reduction campaigns...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Bo Xi, Yajun Liang, Yunxia Liu, Yinkun Yan, Min Zhao, Chuanwei Ma, Pascal Bovet
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases worldwide. However, the global extent and prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents is poorly described. Using previously collected survey data, we aimed to assess tobacco use and second-hand smoke exposure in young adolescents aged 12-15 years in 68 low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We used data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2006-13) and the China Global Tobacco Youth Survey (2013), which are school-based surveys of young adolescents aged 12-15 years that assess health behaviours using a standardised, anonymous, self-reported questionnaire...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Rachel Novotny, Fenfang Li, Marie Kainoa Fialkowski, Andrea Bersamin, Aifili Tufa, Jonathan Deenik, Patricia Coleman, Rachael Leon Guerrero, Lynne R Wilkens
Estimate prevalence of obesity and acanthosis nigricans (AN) among children in United States Affiliated Pacific (USAP) jurisdictions.Cross-sectional measurement of weight, height, and AN in 5775, 2 to 8 years old in 51 communities-Hawai'i, Alaska, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 4 Federated States of Micronesia (Pohnpei, Yap, Kosrae, Chuuk). Analyses weighted to jurisdiction-specific sex and age distributions accounting for clustering of communities within jurisdictions...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rudruidee Karnchanasorn, Jean Huang, Horng-Yih Ou, Wei Feng, Lee-Ming Chuang, Ken C Chiu, Raynald Samoa
To determine the effectiveness of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% in diagnosing diabetes compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 126 mg/dL and 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) ≥ 200 mg/dL in a previously undiagnosed diabetic cohort, we included 5,764 adult subjects without established diabetes for whom HbA1c, FPG, 2hPG, and BMI measurements were collected. Compared to the FPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6.5% was only 43.3% (106 subjects). Compared to the 2hPG criterion, the sensitivity of HbA1c ≥ 6...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Lanna J Petterson, Paul L Vasey
Previous research established that male androphilia (i.e., sexual arousal and attraction to adult males) clusters in families. Some studies find that male androphilia clusters in both the paternal and maternal lines, while others find that it clusters only in the latter. Most of the research investigating the familial nature of male androphilia has taken place in Western cultural contexts that are problematic for such research because they are characterized by low fertility. To address this, our previous work has examined familial patterning of male androphilia in Samoa, a high-fertility population in which androphilic males are readily identified due to their public status as fa'afafine (a third gender category)...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
Lauren E Vandepas, Frederick D Dooley, Gregory J Barord, Billie J Swalla, Peter D Ward
The cephalopod genus Nautilus is considered a "living fossil" with a contested number of extant and extinct species, and a benthic lifestyle that limits movement of animals between isolated seamounts and landmasses in the Indo-Pacific. Nautiluses are fished for their shells, most heavily in the Philippines, and these fisheries have little monitoring or regulation. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that multiple species of Nautilus (e.g., N. belauensis, N. repertus and N. stenomphalus) are in fact one species with a diverse phenotypic and geologic range...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
S Lin, T Naseri, C Linhart, S Morrell, R Taylor, S T Mcgarvey, D J Magliano, P Zimmet
AIMS: Population surveys of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity conducted in Samoa over three decades have used varying methodologies and definitions. This study standardizes measures, and trends of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity for 1978-2013 are projected to 2020 for adults aged 25-64 years. METHODS: Unit records from eight surveys (n = 12 516) were adjusted to the previous census for Division of residence, sex and age to improve national representativeness...
August 9, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Dennis Golm, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Peter Dechent, Birgit Kröner-Herwig
BACKGROUND: Chronic tinnitus affects 5 % of the population, 17 % suffer under the condition. This distress seems mainly to be dependent on negative cognitive-emotional evaluation of the tinnitus and selective attention to the tinnitus. A well-established paradigm to examine selective attention and emotional processing is the Emotional Stroop Task (EST). Recent models of tinnitus distress propose limbic, frontal and parietal regions to be more active in highly distressed tinnitus patients...
2016: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Ivan Ineich, Robert N Fisher
The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18<sup>th</sup> and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart's private collection after his death in 1847...
2016: Zootaxa
Marshall I Weisler, Robert Bolhar, Jinlong Ma, Emma St Pierre, Peter Sheppard, Richard K Walter, Yuexing Feng, Jian-Xin Zhao, Patrick V Kirch
The Cook Islands are considered the "gateway" for human colonization of East Polynesia, the final chapter of Oceanic settlement and the last major region occupied on Earth. Indeed, East Polynesia witnessed the culmination of the greatest maritime migration in human history. Perennial debates have critiqued whether Oceanic settlement was purposeful or accidental, the timing and pathways of colonization, and the nature and extent of postcolonization voyaging-essential for small founding groups securing a lifeline between parent and daughter communities...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jiwen Zhang, Xia Jin, Zhaoyin Zhu, Li Huang, Shaojun Liang, Yuan Xu, Ruyan Liao, Licheng Zhou, Yan Zhang, Annelies Wilder-Smith
Nine imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infections (four through temperature monitoring and epidemiological investigation at entry and five by active surveillance tracking of index case contacts during follow-up; from Venezuela [n = 5], Samoa [n = 3] and both Samoa and Fiji [n = 1]) were detected in mainland China from February 1 to 29, 2016. The minimal incubation period lasted 5.2 days, with mean lag time to diagnosis of 2.6 days. Diagnosis relied on positive real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV RNA in serum (n = 7), urine (n = 4) or saliva (n = 3), respectively...
May 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Antonia Barke, Mira A Preis, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Jürgen Baudewig, Birgit Kröner-Herwig, Peter Dechent
UNLABELLED: The fear-avoidance model postulates that in an initial acute phase chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients acquire a fear of movement that results in avoidance of physical activity and contributes to the pain becoming chronic. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the neural correlates of imagining back-straining and neutral movements in CLBP patients with high (HFA) and low fear avoidance (LFA) and healthy pain-free participants. Ninety-three persons (62 CLBP patients, 31 healthy controls; age 49...
August 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Karl Peltzer, Supa Pengpid
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire...
July 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
Sherri Brokopp Binder, Charlene K Baker
Research on diverse cultural contexts has indicated that aid organisations often fail to leverage local, culturally-grounded resources and capacities in disaster-affected communities. Case-study methodology was employed to explore the relationship between local and external disaster response efforts in American Sāmoa following the earthquake and tsunami on 29 September 2009 in the southern Pacific Ocean, with a specific focus on the role of culture in defining that relationship. Interview and focus group data from 37 participants, along with observational data, suggested that the local response to the event was swift and grounded in Samoan cultural systems and norms...
May 30, 2016: Disasters
Jennifer L Salerno, Brian W Bowen, Michael S Rappé
Factors driving the distribution of marine microorganisms are widely debated and poorly understood. Recent studies show that free-living marine microbes exhibit geographical patterns indicative of limited dispersal. In contrast, host-associated microbes face a different set of dispersal challenges, and hosts may function as habitat 'islands' for resident microbial populations. Here, we examine the biogeographical distributions of planktonic and adjacent coral-associated bacterial communities across the Hawaiian Archipelago, Johnston Atoll (∼1400 km southwest of Hawaii) and American Samoa in the Pacific Ocean and investigate the potential underlying processes driving observed patterns...
August 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
X J Dong, J M Sun, L Q Lou, Z H Zhu, L B Zhu, T Lou
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of Zika virus(ZIKV)disease prevention and control. METHODS: Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the clinical manifestations, laboratory detection results and disease progression of the third imported ZIKV disease case in the mainland of China. RESULTS: On 19 February 2016, a ZIKV disease case was confirmed in Yiwu, Zhejiang province, which was the third imported case of ZIKV disease confirmed by China CDC laboratory and expert consulting...
May 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Vaea Richard, Tuterarii Paoaafaite, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau
BACKGROUND: From October 2014 to March 2015, French Polynesia experienced for the first time a chikungunya outbreak. Two Aedes mosquitoes may have contributed to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission in French Polynesia: the worldwide distributed Ae. aegypti and the Polynesian islands-endemic Ae. polynesiensis mosquito. METHODS: To investigate the vector competence of French Polynesian populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. polynesiensis for CHIKV, mosquitoes were exposed per os at viral titers of 7 logs tissue culture infectious dose 50%...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Scott W Semenyna, Paul L Vasey
Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN)...
September 2016: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers...
April 9, 2016: Lancet
Colleen Lau, Didier Musso, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Philippe Parola, Didier Raoult, Philip Weinstein
Little is known about the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in American Samoa (Pacific). A review of literature did not identify any published information on human Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp. or Coxiella burnetii infections in this country. To determine the presence of these diseases, we conducted a serosurvey of American Samoans. The presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, C. burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay in sera from 197 American Samoan adults...
July 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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