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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932963/echocardiographic-screening-of-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-american-samoa
#1
Jennifer H Huang, Michael Favazza, Arthur Legg, Kathryn W Holmes, Laurie Armsby, Ipuniuesea Eliapo-Unutoa, Thomas Pilgrim, Erin J Madriago
While rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a treatable disease nearly eradicated in the United States, it remains the most common form of acquired heart disease in the developing world. This study used echocardiographic screening to determine the prevalence of RHD in children in American Samoa. Screening took place at a subset of local schools. Private schools were recruited and public schools underwent cluster randomization based on population density. We collected survey information and performed a limited physical examination and echocardiogram using the World Heart Federation protocol for consented school children aged 5-18 years old...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922418/detecting-and-confirming-residual-hotspots-of-lymphatic-filariasis-transmission-in-american-samoa-8-years-after-stopping-mass-drug-administration
#2
Colleen L Lau, Sarah Sheridan, Stephanie Ryan, Maureen Roineau, Athena Andreosso, Saipale Fuimaono, Joseph Tufa, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 by conducting mass drug administration (MDA) and controlling morbidity. Once elimination targets have been reached, surveillance is critical for ensuring that programmatic gains are sustained, and challenges include timely identification of residual areas of transmission. WHO guidelines encourage cost-efficient surveillance, such as integration with other population-based surveys. In American Samoa, where LF is caused by Wucheraria bancrofti, and Aedes polynesiensis is the main vector, the LF elimination program has made significant progress...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886021/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-strains-of-treponema-pallidum-subsp-pertenue-from-ghana-africa-identical-genome-sequences-in-samples-isolated-more-than-7-years-apart
#3
Michal Strouhal, Lenka Mikalová, Pavla Havlíčková, Paolo Tenti, Darina Čejková, Ivan Rychlík, Sylvia Bruisten, David Šmajs
BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) is the causative agent of yaws, a multi-stage disease, endemic in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. To date, four TPE strains have been completely sequenced including three TPE strains of human origin (Samoa D, CDC-2, and Gauthier) and one TPE strain (Fribourg-Blanc) isolated from a baboon. All TPE strains are highly similar to T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) strains. The mutation rate in syphilis and related treponemes has not been experimentally determined yet...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857729/a-rapid-echocardiographic-screening-protocol-for-rheumatic-heart-disease-in-samoa-a-high-prevalence-of-advanced-disease
#4
Marvin Allen, John Allen, Take Naseri, Rebecca Gardner, Dennis Tolley, Lori Allen
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography has been proposed as a method to screen children for rheumatic heart disease. The World Heart Federation has established guidelines for echocardiographic screening. In this study, we describe a rapid echocardiogram screening protocol according to the World Heart Federation guidelines in Samoa, endemic for rheumatic heart disease. METHODS: We performed echocardiogram screening in schoolchildren in Samoa between 2013 and 2015. A brief screening echocardiogram was performed on all students...
October 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806351/effects-of-a-nationwide-strategy-to-reduce-salt-intake-in-samoa
#5
Kathy Trieu, Merina Ieremia, Joseph Santos, Bruce Neal, Mark Woodward, Marj Moodie, Colin Bell, Wendy Snowdon, Taiaopo Faumuina, Jacqui Webster
OBJECTIVE: Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective interventions for the prevention of noncommunicable diseases, but there are no studies evaluating the effectiveness of national strategies in low or lower middle income countries. This study aimed to examine the effect of an 18-month nation-wide salt reduction strategy in Samoa. METHODS: Two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18-64 years, measuring 24-h urinary salt excretion and salt-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours, were conducted before (2013) and after (2015) the intervention...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794687/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-lymphatic-filariasis-in-american-samoa-after-mass-drug-administration
#6
Shaun P Coutts, Jonathan D King, Molisamoa Pa'au, Saipale Fuimaono, Joseph Roth, Mary Rose King, Patrick J Lammie, Colleen L Lau, Patricia M Graves
BACKGROUND: In 2000, American Samoa had 16.5% prevalence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) antigenemia. Annual mass drug administration (MDA) was conducted using single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine from 2000 to 2006. This study presents the results of a 2007 population-based PacELF C-survey in all ages and compares the adult filarial antigenemia results of this survey to those of a subsequent 2010 survey in adults with the aim of improving understanding of LF transmission after MDA...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727800/demographic-disequilibrium-in-living-nautiloids-nautilus-and-allonautilus-canary-in-the-coal-mines
#7
W Bruce Saunders, Emily Greenfest-Allen, Peter D Ward
Averaged demographic data from previously unfished populations of Nautilus and Allonautilus (Cephalopoda) provide a baseline to determine if a population is undisturbed and in "equilibrium" or is in "disequilibrium" as a result of fishery pressure. Data are available for previously undisturbed local nautiloid populations in Papua New Guinea, Australia, Indonesia, Fiji, Palau, American Samoa, New Caledonia and Vanuatu (total n = 2,669 live-caught, tagged and released animals). The data show that unfished populations average ~75% males and ~74% mature animals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712937/returning-ex-patriot-chinese-to-guangdong-china-increase-the-risk-for-local-transmission-of-zika-virus
#8
Jiufeng Sun, De Wu, Haojie Zhong, Dawei Guan, Huan Zhang, Qiqi Tan, Huiqiong Zhou, Meng Zhang, Dan Ning, Baohuan Zhang, Changwen Ke, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Yonghui Zhang, Marion Koopmans, George F Gao
OBJECTIVES: Fast expansion and linkage to microcephaly and Guillain Barre syndrome have made Zika virus (ZIKV) track attention of global health authority concerns. The epidemiology, virological characteristics and genetic evolution of introduced ZIKV to Guangdong, China, were investigated. METHODS: Analyses of the epidemiological characteristics and genetic diversity of ZIKV isolates were performed. RESULTS: A total of twenty-eight confirmed ZIKV infection cases were imported into China in 2016, of which 19 were imported into Guangdong, China from Venezuela (16), the Samoa Islands (1), Suriname (1) and Guatemala (1)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705455/a-molecular-phylogeny-of-the-pacific-clade-of-cyrtandra-gesneriaceae-reveals-a-fijian-origin-recent-diversification-and-the-importance-of-founder-events
#9
Melissa A Johnson, John R Clark, Warren L Wagner, Lucinda A McDade
Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) is among the largest genera of flowering plants in the remote oceanic islands of the Pacific, with an estimated 175 species distributed across an area that extends from the Solomon Islands, east to the Marquesas Islands, and north to the Hawaiian Islands. The vast majority of species are single-island endemics that inhabit upland rainforests. Although previous molecular phylogenetic studies greatly advanced our understanding of the diversification of Pacific Cyrtandra, a number of uncertainties remain regarding phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and biogeographic patterns within this large and widely dispersed group...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673031/samoan-smokers-talk-about-smoking-and-quitting-a-focus-group-study
#10
Helen Tanielu, Judith McCool, Elaine Umali, Robyn Whittaker
Introduction: Samoa, like other Pacific Island countries, faces a persistent challenge to reduce smoking use with relatively limited resources. As a signatory to the WHO FCTC, Samoa is obligated to introduce measures to reduce tobacco use and is currently trialling a text message smoking cessation programme (mCessation) to achieve this outcome. Cigarettes remain relatively cheap and are widely available, but little is known about how smoking is initiated or why and how people quit smoking in the Samoa...
June 29, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662836/conceptions-of-pregnancy-health-and-motivations-for-healthful-behavior-change-among-women-in-american-samoa
#11
Erica L Kocher, Jeanette M Sternberg Lamb, Stephen T McGarvey, Mata'uitafa Faiai, Bethel T Muasau-Howard, Nicola L Hawley
BACKGROUND: American Samoan women are particularly at risk of obesity-related non-communicable disease (NCD), requiring efficacious interventions to protect their health and that of their infants. Prior studies have identified pregnancy as an ideal time for behavior change interventions related to NCD. AIM: This study aimed to understand American Samoan women's conceptions of health during pregnancy, their motivations for pregnancy behavior change, and the role of their family in both enabling and preventing these changes...
June 26, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655179/to-err-is-perfectly-human-behavioural-and-neural-correlates-of-error-processing-and-perfectionism
#12
Antonia Barke, Stefan Bode, Peter Dechent, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christina Van Heer, Jutta Stahl
The attitude towards one's own imperfection strongly varies between individuals. Here, we investigated variations in error-related activity depending on two sub-traits of perfectionism, Personal Standard Perfectionism (PSP) and Evaluative Concern Perfectionism (ECP) in a large scale functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 75) using a digit-flanker task. Participants with higher PSP scores showed both more post-error slowing and more neural activity in the medial-frontal gyrus including anterior cingulate cortex after errors...
June 26, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609936/-i-cinachyrella-anatriaenilla-i-sp-nov-a-new-tetillid-sponge-with-microacanthoxeas-from-american-samoa-in-the-south-pacific
#13
Julio C C Fernandez, Michelle Kelly, Lori J Bell
Several sponges from American Samoa, collected by the Coral Reef Research Foundation, Republic of Palau, were tentatively identified by one of us as Acanthotetilla cf seychellensis (Thomas 1973), due to the possession of relatively small acanthose oxeas, compared to those of other species of the genus Acanthotetilla Burton 1959. These sponges were later compared to Cinachyrella australiensis (Carter 1886), taking into account the lack of conspicuous spination on the acanthose oxeas and general features of spiculation and skeletal organisation...
April 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606163/tobacco-smoking-trends-in-samoa-over-four-decades-can-continued-globalization-rectify-that-which-it-has-wrought
#14
Christine Linhart, Take Naseri, Sophia Lin, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell, Stephen T McGarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
June 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605386/simultaneous-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Kathleen A Williams, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christiane Anne Weinrich, Peter Dechent, Melanie Wilke
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a promising tool for noninvasive investigation of brain oscillations. TACS employs frequency-specific stimulation of the human brain through current applied to the scalp with surface electrodes. Most current knowledge of the technique is based on behavioral studies; thus, combining the method with brain imaging holds potential to better understand the mechanisms of tACS. Because of electrical and susceptibility artifacts, combining tACS with brain imaging can be challenging, however, one brain imaging technique that is well suited to be applied simultaneously with tACS is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591557/characterization-of-badnaviruses-infecting-dioscorea-spp-in-the-pacific-reveals-two-putative-novel-species-and-the-first-report-of-dioscorea-bacilliform-rt-virus-2
#16
Amit Sukal, Dawit Kidanemariam, James Dale, Anthony James, Robert Harding
The complete genome sequences of three new badnaviruses associated with yam (Dioscorea spp.) originating from Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Samoa were determined following rolling circle amplification of the virus genomes. The full-length genomes consisted of a single molecule of circular double-stranded DNA of 8106bp for isolate FJ14, 7871bp for isolate PNG10 and 7426bp for isolate SAM01. FJ14 and PNG10 contained three open reading frames while SAM01 had an additional open reading frame which partially overlapped the 3' end of ORF 3...
June 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516404/screening-for-diabetic-eye-disease-among-samoan-adults-a-pilot-study
#17
V Swetha E Jeganathan, Tim Langford, Lucilla Ah-Ching Sefo, Alex W Hewitt, Nitin Verma
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Samoa by piloting a retinal photography screening programme. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes who presented to the Tupua Tamasese Meaole eye clinic in Apia, Samoa, between May 2011 and September 2011. Study approval was granted by the National Health Service Board of Samoa, the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee, and the study adhered to the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki...
June 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409055/enhanced-surveillance-for-the-third-united-nations-conference-on-small-island-developing-states-apia-samoa-september-2014
#18
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Alexis Durand, Saine Vaai-Nielsen, Tile Ah Leong-Lui, Take Naseri, Ailuai Matalima, Filipina Amosa, Alize Mercier, Christelle Lepers, Vjesh Lal, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Adam Roth, Yvan Souares, Onofre Edwin Merilles, Damian Hoy
The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa's weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics...
January 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386009/tungsten-182-heterogeneity-in-modern-ocean-island-basalts
#19
Andrea Mundl, Mathieu Touboul, Matthew G Jackson, James M D Day, Mark D Kurz, Vedran Lekic, Rosalind T Helz, Richard J Walker
New tungsten isotope data for modern ocean island basalts (OIB) from Hawaii, Samoa, and Iceland reveal variable (182)W/(184)W, ranging from that of the ambient upper mantle to ratios as much as 18 parts per million lower. The tungsten isotopic data negatively correlate with (3)He/(4)He. These data indicate that each OIB system accesses domains within Earth that formed within the first 60 million years of solar system history. Combined isotopic and chemical characteristics projected for these ancient domains indicate that they contain metal and are repositories of noble gases...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382708/growth-and-maturation-of-the-redlip-parrotfish-scarus-rubroviolaceus
#20
B M Taylor, C Pardee
This study presents age-based life-history information for the red lip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus based on a 5 year sampling programme from the commercial fishery of American Samoa. Females reached sexual maturity at 31·9 cm fork length (LF ) and 2·6 years and sex change occurred at 42·3 cm LF , although not all females change sex through their ontogeny. The maximum observed age was 14 years and c. 65% of the fishery harvest was above the median LF at sex change.
April 5, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
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