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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609936/-i-cinachyrella-anatriaenilla-i-sp-nov-a-new-tetillid-sponge-with-microacanthoxeas-from-american-samoa-in-the-south-pacific
#1
Julio C C Fernandez, Michelle Kelly, Lori J Bell
Several sponges from American Samoa, collected by the Coral Reef Research Foundation, Republic of Palau, were tentatively identified by one of us as Acanthotetilla cf seychellensis (Thomas 1973), due to the possession of relatively small acanthose oxeas, compared to those of other species of the genus Acanthotetilla Burton 1959. These sponges were later compared to Cinachyrella australiensis (Carter 1886), taking into account the lack of conspicuous spination on the acanthose oxeas and general features of spiculation and skeletal organisation...
April 26, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606163/tobacco-smoking-trends-in-samoa-over-four-decades-can-continued-globalization-rectify-that-which-it-has-wrought
#2
Christine Linhart, Take Naseri, Sophia Lin, Richard Taylor, Stephen Morrell, Stephen T McGarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
BACKGROUND: The island country of Samoa (population 188,000 in 2011) forms part of Polynesia in the South Pacific. Over the past several decades Samoa has experienced exceptional modernization and globalization of many sectors of society, with noncommunicable diseases (NCD) now the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The evolution of risk factor prevalence underpinning the increase in NCDs, however, has not been well described, including tobacco smoking which is related to cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
June 12, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605386/simultaneous-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Kathleen A Williams, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christiane Anne Weinrich, Peter Dechent, Melanie Wilke
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a promising tool for noninvasive investigation of brain oscillations. TACS employs frequency-specific stimulation of the human brain through current applied to the scalp with surface electrodes. Most current knowledge of the technique is based on behavioral studies; thus, combining the method with brain imaging holds potential to better understand the mechanisms of tACS. Because of electrical and susceptibility artifacts, combining tACS with brain imaging can be challenging, however, one brain imaging technique that is well suited to be applied simultaneously with tACS is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591557/characterization-of-badnaviruses-infecting-dioscorea-spp-in-the-pacific-reveals-two-putative-novel-species-and-the-first-report-of-dioscorea-bacilliform-rt-virus-2
#4
Amit Sukal, Dawit Kidanemariam, James Dale, Anthony James, Robert Harding
The complete genome sequences of three new badnaviruses associated with yam (Dioscorea spp.) originating from Fiji, Papua New Guinea and Samoa were determined following rolling circle amplification of the virus genomes. The full-length genomes consisted of a single molecule of circular double-stranded DNA of 8106bp for isolate FJ14, 7871bp for isolate PNG10 and 7426bp for isolate SAM01. FJ14 and PNG10 contained three open reading frames while SAM01 had an additional open reading frame which partially overlapped the 3' end of ORF 3...
June 4, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516404/screening-for-diabetic-eye-disease-among-samoan-adults-a-pilot-study
#5
V Swetha E Jeganathan, Tim Langford, Lucilla Ah-Ching Sefo, Alex W Hewitt, Nitin Verma
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Samoa by piloting a retinal photography screening programme. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes who presented to the Tupua Tamasese Meaole eye clinic in Apia, Samoa, between May 2011 and September 2011. Study approval was granted by the National Health Service Board of Samoa, the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee, and the study adhered to the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki...
June 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409055/enhanced-surveillance-for-the-third-united-nations-conference-on-small-island-developing-states-apia-samoa-september-2014
#6
Paul White, Salanieta Saketa, Alexis Durand, Saine Vaai-Nielsen, Tile Ah Leong-Lui, Take Naseri, Ailuai Matalima, Filipina Amosa, Alize Mercier, Christelle Lepers, Vjesh Lal, Richard Wojcik, Sheri Lewis, Adam Roth, Yvan Souares, Onofre Edwin Merilles, Damian Hoy
The Ministry of Health in Samoa, in partnership with the Pacific Community, successfully implemented enhanced surveillance for the high-profile Third United Nations Conference on Small Island Developing States held concurrently with the popular local Teuila festival during a widespread chikungunya outbreak in September 2014. Samoa's weekly syndromic surveillance system was expanded to 12 syndromes and 10 sentinel sites from four syndromes and seven sentinel sites; sites included the national hospital, four private health clinics and three national health service clinics...
January 2017: Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386009/tungsten-182-heterogeneity-in-modern-ocean-island-basalts
#7
Andrea Mundl, Mathieu Touboul, Matthew G Jackson, James M D Day, Mark D Kurz, Vedran Lekic, Rosalind T Helz, Richard J Walker
New tungsten isotope data for modern ocean island basalts (OIB) from Hawaii, Samoa, and Iceland reveal variable (182)W/(184)W, ranging from that of the ambient upper mantle to ratios as much as 18 parts per million lower. The tungsten isotopic data negatively correlate with (3)He/(4)He. These data indicate that each OIB system accesses domains within Earth that formed within the first 60 million years of solar system history. Combined isotopic and chemical characteristics projected for these ancient domains indicate that they contain metal and are repositories of noble gases...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382708/growth-and-maturation-of-the-redlip-parrotfish-scarus-rubroviolaceus
#8
B M Taylor, C Pardee
This study presents age-based life-history information for the red lip parrotfish Scarus rubroviolaceus based on a 5 year sampling programme from the commercial fishery of American Samoa. Females reached sexual maturity at 31·9 cm fork length (LF ) and 2·6 years and sex change occurred at 42·3 cm LF , although not all females change sex through their ontogeny. The maximum observed age was 14 years and c. 65% of the fishery harvest was above the median LF at sex change.
April 5, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364713/variations-in-judgments-of-intentional-action-and-moral-evaluation-across-eight-cultures
#9
Erin Robbins, Jason Shepard, Philippe Rochat
Individuals tend to judge bad side effects as more intentional than good side effects (the Knobe or side-effect effect). Here, we assessed how widespread these findings are by testing eleven adult cohorts of eight highly contrasted cultures on their attributions of intentional action as well as ratings of blame and praise. We found limited generalizability of the original side-effect effect, and even a reversal of the effect in two rural, traditional cultures (Samoa and Vanuatu) where participants were more likely to judge the good side effect as intentional...
July 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357803/rainwater-harvesting-in-american-samoa-current-practices-and-indicative-health-risks
#10
Marek Kirs, Philip Moravcik, Pradip Gyawali, Kerry Hamilton, Veljo Kisand, Ian Gurr, Christopher Shuler, Warish Ahmed
Roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) is an important alternative source of water that many island communities can use for drinking and other domestic purposes when groundwater and/or surface water sources are contaminated, limited, or simply not available. The aim of this pilot-scale study was to investigate current RHRW practices in American Samoa (AS) and to evaluate and compare the quality of water from common potable water sources including RHRW stored in tanks, untreated stream water, untreated municipal well water, and treated municipal tap water samples...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333910/establishing-a-timeline-to-discontinue-routine-testing-of-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-for-zika-virus-infection-american-samoa-2016-2017
#11
W Thane Hancock, Heidi M Soeters, Susan L Hills, Ruth Link-Gelles, Mary E Evans, W Randolph Daley, Emily Piercefield, Magele Scott Anesi, Mary Aseta Mataia, Anaise M Uso, Benjamin Sili, Aifili John Tufa, Jacqueline Solaita, Elizabeth Irvin-Barnwell, Dana Meaney-Delman, Jason Wilken, Paul Weidle, Karrie-Ann E Toews, William Walker, Phillip M Talboy, William K Gallo, Nevin Krishna, Rebecca L Laws, Megan R Reynolds, Alaya Koneru, Carolyn V Gould
The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3)(...
March 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325968/a-new-genus-and-two-new-species-of-southeast-asian-bidessini-as-well-as-new-synonyms-for-oceanian-species-coleoptera-dytiscidae
#12
Michael Balke, Johannes Bergsten, Liang-Jong Wang, Lars Hendrich
Rompindessus jenisi Balke, Bergsten & Hendrich, gen. n. et sp. n. is described from near Rompin village in West Malaysia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of an occipital line and basal pronotal striae, the presence of a thick anterior bead on clypeus and two-segmented parameres as well as by the absence of basal elytral striae, the absence of sutural line on elytron, the absence of basal epipleural transverse carina, and the absence of longitudinal elytral carina. Moreover, male pro- and mesotarsus appear stout, and distinctly dilated laterally; the pronotum is comparably long and parallel-sided and the colour of beetle conspicuous dark orange...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295596/embedded-narratives-metabolic-disorders-and-pentecostal-conversion-in-samoa
#13
Jessica Hardin
Drawing from interviews and participant observation, this article explores the intersection of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and religious conversion among Pentecostal Christians in Samoa by analyzing what I call embedded narratives--conversion narratives embedded in illness narratives. Drawing from ethnographic data, I examine how using conversion narrative conventions enabled those living with metabolic disorders to narrate behavior change in a culturally and socially valorized way. By embedding their narratives, I suggest those living with metabolic disorders shifted the object of care from a disease process toward the creation of a religious life and in turn transformed the risks associated with metabolic disorders, including diet, exercise, and pharmaceutical use into moral risks associated with everyday religious life...
March 10, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280865/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-samoa-over-1978-2013
#14
Sophia Lin, Take Naseri, Christine Linhart, Stephen Morrell, Richard Taylor, Stephen T Mcgarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
OBJECTIVES: This study estimates type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in Samoans aged 25-64 years from sequential, irregularly spaced, cross-sectional population prevalence surveys. METHODS: T2DM prevalence from eight population surveys conducted over 1978-2013 (n = 12,516) was adjusted for census region, sex, and 5-year age group to the nearest previous census. Annual T2DM incidence was calculated from adjusted prevalences (by sex), using birth cohorts constructed from age-period matrices...
July 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261795/birth-order-and-recalled-childhood-gender-nonconformity-in-samoan-men-and-fa-afafine
#15
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213993/healthcare-resources-and-needs-in-anticoagulant-therapy-for-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-samoa-study
#16
V Barrios, M I Egocheaga-Cabello, J Gállego-Culleré, E Ignacio-García, L Manzano-Espinosa, A Martín-Martínez, J Mateo-Arranz, J Polo-García, D Vargas-Ortega
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To determine, in the various medical specialties, the healthcare process for anticoagulated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to determine the available and necessary resources and to identify potential areas of improvement in the care of these patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of primary care and specialised physicians involved in the care of anticoagulated patients. The questionnaires referred to the healthcare process, the indication and prescription of anticoagulant therapy and the barriers and deficiencies present for these patients...
February 14, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210529/awareness-of-gestational-diabetes-and-its-risk-factors-among-pregnant-women-in-samoa
#17
Lucy Anne Price, Lauren Jade Lock, Lucy Elizabeth Archer, Zubair Ahmed
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a subtype of diabetes mellitus defined as the development, or first recognition, of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is greater in mothers with GDM compared to the general population. Preventing the development of GDM could help lower the prevalence of T2DM and long-term morbidity in children of affected mothers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness of GDM and its risk factors among pregnant women in Samoa, exploring where participants obtained information, and understanding their attitudes towards diet and physical activity...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202634/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-metabolic-outcomes-among-adult-samoans-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Dongqing Wang, Nicola L Hawley, Avery A Thompson, Viali Lameko, Muagatutia Sefuiva Reupena, Stephen T McGarvey, Ana Baylin
Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns...
April 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188934/new-evidence-for-endemic-circulation-of-ross-river-virus-in-the-pacific-islands-and-the-potential-for-emergence
#19
Colleen Lau, Maite Aubry, Didier Musso, Anita Teissier, Sylvie Paulous, Philippe Desprès, Xavier de-Lamballerie, Boris Pastorino, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Philip Weinstein
OBJECTIVES: An epidemic of Ross River virus (RRV) occurred in the South Pacific in 1979-1980, but RRV has not been thought to occur endemically outside Australia and Papua New Guinea. A seroprevalence study was conducted to determine whether RRV has circulated in American Samoa since 1980. METHODS: RRV ELISA IgG was performed on 200 serum samples collected in American Samoa in 2010; seroneutralization tests were performed on 60 representative samples. RESULTS: Of 196 available ELISA IgG results, 145 (74%, 95% confidence interval 67-80%) were seropositive...
April 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162141/child-maternal-and-household-level-correlates-of-nutritional-status-a-cross-sectional-study-among-young-samoan-children
#20
Courtney C Choy, Mayur M Desai, Jennifer J Park, Elizabeth A Frame, Avery A Thompson, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham, Nicole C Deziel, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. DESIGN: A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l)...
February 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
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