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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333910/establishing-a-timeline-to-discontinue-routine-testing-of-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-for-zika-virus-infection-american-samoa-2016-2017
#1
W Thane Hancock, Heidi M Soeters, Susan L Hills, Ruth Link-Gelles, Mary E Evans, W Randolph Daley, Emily Piercefield, Magele Scott Anesi, Mary Aseta Mataia, Anaise M Uso, Benjamin Sili, Aifili John Tufa, Jacqueline Solaita, Elizabeth Irvin-Barnwell, Dana Meaney-Delman, Jason Wilken, Paul Weidle, Karrie-Ann E Toews, William Walker, Phillip M Talboy, William K Gallo, Nevin Krishna, Rebecca L Laws, Megan R Reynolds, Alaya Koneru, Carolyn V Gould
The first patients with laboratory-confirmed cases of Zika virus disease in American Samoa had symptom onset in January 2016 (1). In response, the American Samoa Department of Health (ASDoH) implemented mosquito control measures (1), strategies to protect pregnant women (1), syndromic surveillance based on electronic health record (EHR) reports (1), Zika virus testing of persons with one or more signs or symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) (1-3), and routine testing of all asymptomatic pregnant women in accordance with CDC guidance (2,3)(...
March 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325968/a-new-genus-and-two-new-species-of-southeast-asian-bidessini-as-well-as-new-synonyms-for-oceanian-species-coleoptera-dytiscidae
#2
Michael Balke, Johannes Bergsten, Liang-Jong Wang, Lars Hendrich
Rompindessus jenisi Balke, Bergsten & Hendrich, gen. n. et sp. n. is described from near Rompin village in West Malaysia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of an occipital line and basal pronotal striae, the presence of a thick anterior bead on clypeus and two-segmented parameres as well as by the absence of basal elytral striae, the absence of sutural line on elytron, the absence of basal epipleural transverse carina, and the absence of longitudinal elytral carina. Moreover, male pro- and mesotarsus appear stout, and distinctly dilated laterally; the pronotum is comparably long and parallel-sided and the colour of beetle conspicuous dark orange...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295596/embedded-narratives-metabolic-disorders-and-pentecostal-conversion-in-samoa
#3
Jessica Hardin
Drawing from interviews and participant observation, this article explores the intersection of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and religious conversion among Pentecostal Christians in Samoa by analyzing what I call embedded narratives--conversion narratives embedded in illness narratives. Drawing from ethnographic data, I examine how using conversion narrative conventions enabled those living with metabolic disorders to narrate behavior change in a culturally and socially valorized way. By embedding their narratives, I suggest those living with metabolic disorders shifted the object of care from a disease process toward the creation of a religious life and in turn transformed the risks associated with metabolic disorders, including diet, exercise, and pharmaceutical use into moral risks associated with everyday religious life...
March 10, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280865/diabetes-incidence-and-projections-from-prevalence-surveys-in-samoa-over-1978-2013
#4
Sophia Lin, Take Naseri, Christine Linhart, Stephen Morrell, Richard Taylor, Stephen T Mcgarvey, Dianna J Magliano, Paul Zimmet
OBJECTIVES: This study estimates type 2 diabetes (T2DM) incidence in Samoans aged 25-64 years from sequential, irregularly spaced, cross-sectional population prevalence surveys. METHODS: T2DM prevalence from eight population surveys conducted over 1978-2013 (n = 12,516) was adjusted for census region, sex, and 5-year age group to the nearest previous census. Annual T2DM incidence was calculated from adjusted prevalences (by sex), using birth cohorts constructed from age-period matrices...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261795/birth-order-and-recalled-childhood-gender-nonconformity-in-samoan-men-and-fa-afafine
#5
Scott W Semenyna, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed...
April 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213993/healthcare-resources-and-needs-in-anticoagulant-therapy-for-patients-with-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation-samoa-study
#6
V Barrios, M I Egocheaga-Cabello, J Gállego-Culleré, E Ignacio-García, L Manzano-Espinosa, A Martín-Martínez, J Mateo-Arranz, J Polo-García, D Vargas-Ortega
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To determine, in the various medical specialties, the healthcare process for anticoagulated patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, to determine the available and necessary resources and to identify potential areas of improvement in the care of these patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of primary care and specialised physicians involved in the care of anticoagulated patients. The questionnaires referred to the healthcare process, the indication and prescription of anticoagulant therapy and the barriers and deficiencies present for these patients...
February 14, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210529/awareness-of-gestational-diabetes-and-its-risk-factors-among-pregnant-women-in-samoa
#7
Lucy Anne Price, Lauren Jade Lock, Lucy Elizabeth Archer, Zubair Ahmed
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a subtype of diabetes mellitus defined as the development, or first recognition, of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is greater in mothers with GDM compared to the general population. Preventing the development of GDM could help lower the prevalence of T2DM and long-term morbidity in children of affected mothers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness of GDM and its risk factors among pregnant women in Samoa, exploring where participants obtained information, and understanding their attitudes towards diet and physical activity...
February 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202634/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-metabolic-outcomes-among-adult-samoans-in-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Dongqing Wang, Nicola L Hawley, Avery A Thompson, Viali Lameko, Muagatutia Sefuiva Reupena, Stephen T McGarvey, Ana Baylin
Background: The Samoan population has been undergoing a nutrition transition toward more imported and processed foods and a more sedentary lifestyle.Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary patterns in Samoa and to evaluate their associations with metabolic outcomes.Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study includes 2774 Samoan adults recruited in 2010 (1104 with metabolic syndrome compared with 1670 without). Principal component analysis on food items from a 104-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to identify dietary patterns...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188934/new-evidence-for-endemic-circulation-of-ross-river-virus-in-the-pacific-islands-and-the-potential-for-emergence
#9
Colleen Lau, Maite Aubry, Didier Musso, Anita Teissier, Sylvie Paulous, Philippe Desprès, Xavier de-Lamballerie, Boris Pastorino, Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau, Philip Weinstein
OBJECTIVES: An epidemic of Ross River virus (RRV) occurred in the South Pacific in 1979-1980, but RRV has not been thought to occur endemically outside Australia and Papua New Guinea. A seroprevalence study was conducted to determine whether RRV has circulated in American Samoa since 1980. METHODS: RRV ELISA IgG was performed on 200 serum samples collected in American Samoa in 2010; seroneutralization tests were performed on 60 representative samples. RESULTS: Of 196 available ELISA IgG results, 145 (74%, 95% confidence interval 67-80%) were seropositive...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162141/child-maternal-and-household-level-correlates-of-nutritional-status-a-cross-sectional-study-among-young-samoan-children
#10
Courtney C Choy, Mayur M Desai, Jennifer J Park, Elizabeth A Frame, Avery A Thompson, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Rachel L Duckham, Nicole C Deziel, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. DESIGN: A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l)...
February 6, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160848/traditional-preparations-of-kava-piper-methysticum-inhibit-the-growth-of-human-colon-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#11
L S Einbond, A Negrin, D M Kulakowski, H-A Wu, V Antonetti, F Jalees, W Law, M Roller, S Redenti, E J Kennelly, M J Balick
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicate there is low incidence of colon cancer in the South Pacific islands, including Fiji, West Samoa, and Vanuatu. Cancer incidence has been shown to be inversely associated with kava (Piper methysticum G. Forst.) ingestion. Hypothesis/Purpose: Kava prepared traditionally will inhibit the growth of human cancer cells. This investigation entails preparation and analysis of kava extracts and study of the growth inhibitory activity of the extracts, alone and combined with hibiscus...
January 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090399/breastfeeding-in-samoa-a-study-to-explore-women-s-knowledge-and-the-factors-which-influence-infant-feeding-practices
#12
Lucy E Archer, Thomas F Dunne, Lauren J Lock, Lucy A Price, Zubair Ahmed
A decline in breastfeeding rates in Samoa has been reported over the last century. To assess the length of time women breastfeed, their knowledge of both the advantages of and recommendations for breastfeeding, and the factors that influence their decisions to continue or discontinue breastfeeding, a questionnaire was distributed at Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital. One hundred and twenty-one eligible participants were included aged 18-50 years (mean age 28.2). Ninety percent of participants initiated breastfeeding, and the majority (78%) of babies were exclusively breastfed for at least the recommended 6 months...
January 2017: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063697/land-based-sources-of-marine-pollution-pesticides-pahs-and-phthalates-in-coastal-stream-water-and-heavy-metals-in-coastal-stream-sediments-in-american-samoa
#13
Beth A Polidoro, Mia T Comeros-Raynal, Thomas Cahill, Cassandra Clement
The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms...
January 4, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055219/integrating-molecular-networking-and-biological-assays-to-target-the-isolation-of-a-cytotoxic-cyclic-octapeptide-samoamide-a-from-an-american-samoan-marine-cyanobacterium
#14
C Benjamin Naman, Ramandeep Rattan, Svetlana E Nikoulina, John Lee, Bailey W Miller, Nathan A Moss, Lorene Armstrong, Paul D Boudreau, Hosana M Debonsi, Frederick A Valeriote, Pieter C Dorrestein, William H Gerwick
Integrating LC-MS/MS molecular networking and bioassay-guided fractionation enabled the targeted isolation of a new and bioactive cyclic octapeptide, samoamide A (1), from a sample of cf. Symploca sp. collected in American Samoa. The structure of 1 was established by detailed 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HRESIMS data, and chemical degradation/chromatographic (e.g., Marfey's analysis) studies. Pure compound 1 was shown to have in vitro cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines in both traditional cell culture and zone inhibition bioassays...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050743/recalled-separation-anxiety-in-childhood-in-istmo-zapotec-men-women-and-muxes
#15
Francisco R Gómez, Scott W Semenyna, Lucas Court, Paul L Vasey
The Istmo Zapotec are a pre-Columbian cultural group indigenous to the Istmo region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Istmo Zapotec recognize three genders: men, women, and muxes. Like Istmo Zapotec men, muxes are biological males. However, unlike Istmo Zapotec men, most muxes are exclusively androphilic (i.e., sexually attracted to adult males), relatively feminine, and routinely adopt the receptive role during anal intercourse. Furthermore, the Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes: muxe gunaa, who resemble the transgender androphilic males that are common in many non-Western cultures, and muxe nguiiu, who resemble the cisgender androphilic males ("gay" men) common in Western cultures...
January 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027326/haemophilus-ducreyi-cutaneous-ulcer-strains-diverged-from-both-class-i-and-class-ii-genital-ulcer-strains-implications-for-epidemiological-studies
#16
Dharanesh Gangaiah, Stanley M Spinola
BACKGROUND: Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812225/distinctive-wound-healing-characteristics-in-the-corals-pocillopora-damicornis-and-acropora-hyacinthus-found-in-two-different-temperature-regimes
#17
Nikki Traylor-Knowles
Wound healing is a critical physiological function needed for survival in all marine organisms. However, it is particularly critical in organisms like corals, which cannot escape predators. In this study, I characterized the gross morphology of wound healing in Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora hyacinthus found in two pools with distinct previously documented temperature profiles in Ofu, American Samoa. I observed differences between healing rates of A. hyacinthus versus P. damicornis, but no significant difference in healing rates between A...
2016: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802280/lymphatic-filariasis-elimination-in-american-samoa-evaluation-of-molecular-xenomonitoring-as-a-surveillance-tool-in-the-endgame
#18
Colleen L Lau, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has made significant progress toward interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). Operational challenges in defining endpoints of elimination programs include the need to determine appropriate post-MDA surveillance strategies. As humans are the only reservoirs of LF parasites, one such strategy is molecular xenomonitoring (MX), the detection of filarial DNA in mosquitoes using molecular methods (PCR), to provide an indirect indicator of infected persons nearby...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791145/using-seafaring-simulations-and-shortest-hop-trajectories-to-model-the-prehistoric-colonization-of-remote-oceania
#19
Álvaro Montenegro, Richard T Callaghan, Scott M Fitzpatrick
The prehistoric colonization of islands in Remote Oceania that began ∼3400 B.P. represents what was arguably the most expansive and ambitious maritime dispersal of humans across any of the world's seas or oceans. Though archaeological evidence has provided a relatively clear picture of when many of the major island groups were colonized, there is still considerable debate as to where these settlers originated from and their strategies/trajectories used to reach habitable land that other datasets (genetic, linguistic) are also still trying to resolve...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785648/a-comparison-of-the-reproductive-output-among-the-relatives-of-samoan-androphilic-fa-afafine-and-gynephilic-men
#20
Scott W Semenyna, Lanna J Petterson, Doug P VanderLaan, Paul L Vasey
The sexually antagonistic gene hypothesis (SAGH) for male androphilia posits that genes associated with androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) will result in lowered reproduction when present in males, but increased reproduction when present in females. Findings derived from some Western European samples furnish support for the SAGH; however, results from studies conducted in other regions of the world have been more equivocal. Our previous research in Samoa indicated that the mothers as well as the maternal and paternal grandmothers of androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) exhibit elevated reproductive output when compared to the relatives of gynephilic men (i...
October 26, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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