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Kimberly Y Won, Keri Robinson, Katy L Hamlin, Joseph Tufa, Margaret Seespesara, Ryan E Wiegand, Katherine Gass, Joseph Kubofcik, Thomas B Nutman, Patrick J Lammie, Saipale Fuimaono
BACKGROUND: Current WHO recommendations for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance advise programs to implement activities to monitor for new foci of transmission after stopping mass drug administration (MDA). A current need in the global effort to eliminate LF is to standardize diagnostic tools and surveillance activities beyond the recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS). METHODOLOGY: TAS was first conducted in American Samoa in 2011 (TAS 1) and a repeat TAS was carried out in 2015 (TAS 2)...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Georgi Hudjashov, Phillip Endicott, Helen Post, Nano Nagle, Simon Y W Ho, Daniel J Lawson, Maere Reidla, Monika Karmin, Siiri Rootsi, Ene Metspalu, Lauri Saag, Richard Villems, Murray P Cox, R John Mitchell, Ralph L Garcia-Bertrand, Mait Metspalu, Rene J Herrera
The debate concerning the origin of the Polynesian speaking peoples has been recently reinvigorated by genetic evidence for secondary migrations to western Polynesia from the New Guinea region during the 2nd millennium BP. Using genome-wide autosomal data from the Leeward Society Islands, the ancient cultural hub of eastern Polynesia, we find that the inhabitants' genomes also demonstrate evidence of this episode of admixture, dating to 1,700-1,200 BP. This supports a late settlement chronology for eastern Polynesia, commencing ~1,000 BP, after the internal differentiation of Polynesian society...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Courtney C Choy, Dongqing Wang, Ana Baylin, Christina Soti-Ulberg, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Avery A Thompson, Rachel L Duckham, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Among young Samoan children, diet may not be optimal: in 2015, 16·1 % of 24-59-month-olds were overweight/obese, 20·3 % stunted and 34·1 % anaemic. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns among 24-59-month-old Samoan children and evaluate their association with: (i) child, maternal and household characteristics; and (ii) nutritional status indicators (stunting, overweight/obesity, anaemia). DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study...
January 24, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
R J Carslake, K E Hill, K Sjölander, S F Hii, D Prattley, E Acke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. METHODS: This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Glenn Douglas Guest, Elizabeth McLeod, William R G Perry, Vilami Tangi, Joao Pedro, Ponifasio Ponifasio, Johnny Hedson, Jemesa Tudravu, Douglas Pikacha, Eric Vreede, Basil Leodoro, Noah Tapaua, James Kong, Bwabwa Oten, Deacon Teapa, Stephanie Korin, Leona Wilson, Samson Mesol, Kabiri Tuneti, John G Meara, David A Watters
In 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) recommended six surgical metrics to enable countries to measure their surgical and anaesthesia care delivery. These indicators have subsequently been accepted by the World Bank for inclusion in the World Development Indicators. With support from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Pacific Islands Surgical Association, 14 South Pacific countries collaborated to collect the first four of six LCoGS indicators. Thirteen countries collected all four indicators over a 6-month period from October 2015 to April 2016...
2017: BMJ Global Health
Melanie Wilke, Lukas Schneider, Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Kristina Miloserdov, Ahmad Nazzal, Peter Dechent, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Hansjörg Scherberger, Igor Kagan, Mathias Bähr
Expansion of the dorsal pulvinar in humans and its anatomical connectivity suggests its involvement in higher-order cognitive and visuomotor functions. We investigated visuomotor performance in a 31 year old patient (M.B.) with a lesion centered on the medial portion of the dorsal pulvinar (left > right) due to an atypical Sarcoidosis manifestation. Unlike lesions with a vascular etiology, the lesion of M.B. did not include primary sensory or motor thalamic nuclei. Thus, this patient gave us the exceedingly rare opportunity to study the contribution of the dorsal pulvinar to visuomotor behavior in a human without confounding losses in primary sensory or motor domains...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Adel Heenan, Ivor D Williams, Tomoko Acoba, Annette DesRochers, Randall K Kosaki, Troy Kanemura, Marc O Nadon, Russell E Brainard
Throughout the tropics, coral reef ecosystems, which are critically important to people, have been greatly altered by humans. Differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is essential to effective management. Here we present a dataset from a large-scale monitoring program that surveys coral reef fish assemblages and habitats encompassing the bulk of the US-affiliated tropical Pacific, and spanning wide gradients in both natural drivers and human impact. Currently, this includes >5,500 surveys from 39 islands and atolls in Hawaii (including the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) and affiliated geo-political regions of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Remote Islands Areas...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Data
Zhijing Xu, Kathryn Glass, Colleen L Lau, Nicholas Geard, Patricia Graves, Archie Clements
Agent-based modelling is a useful approach for capturing heterogeneity in disease transmission. In this study, a synthetic population was developed for American Samoa using an iterative approach based on population census, questionnaire survey and land use data. The population will be used as the basis for a new agent-based model, intended specifically to fill the knowledge gaps about lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination, but also to be readily adaptable to model other infectious diseases. The synthetic population was characterized by the statistically realistic population and household structure, and high-resolution geographic locations of households...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lili Yang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Bo Xi, Pascal Bovet
Youth violence is an important public health challenge around the world, yet the literature on this problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been limited. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of adolescent physical fighting (defined as having been involved in at least one physical fight during the past 12 months) in selected LMICs, and its relations with potential risk factors. We included 6377 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years from six Western Pacific (WP) countries that had recently conducted a Global School-based Student Health Survey...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Oluwaseyi Adeyinka, Anne Marie Jukic, Stephen T McGarvey, Bethel T Muasau-Howard, Mata'uitafa Faiai, Nicola L Hawley
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women in American Samoa have a high risk of complications due to overweight and obesity. Prenatal care can mitigate the risk, however many women do not seek adequate care during pregnancy. Low utilization of prenatal care may stem from low levels of satisfaction with services offered. Our objective was to identify predictors of prenatal care satisfaction in American Samoa. METHODS: A structured survey was distributed to 165 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the Lyndon B Johnson Tropical Medical Center, Pago Pago...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Samoa Asigau, Daniel A Hartman, Jenni M Higashiguchi, Patricia G Parker
An avian malaria parasite (genus Plasmodium) has been detected consistently in the Galapagos Penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus) and less frequently in some passerines. We sampled three resident mosquito species (Aedes taeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti) using CDC light and gravid traps on three islands in 2012, 2013, and 2014. We sampled along altitudinal gradients to ask whether there are mosquito-free refugia at higher elevations as there are in Hawaii. We captured both Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
Virginia Senkomago, Janet Royalty, Jacqueline W Miller, Lee E Buenconsejo-Lum, Vicki B Benard, Mona Saraiya
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Hanna Tervonen, Sunia Foliaki, Freddie Bray, David Roder
BACKGROUND: Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) comprise 20,000-30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. PICTs face challenges in relation to small population sizes, geographic dispersion, increasing adoption of unhealthy life-styles and the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, including cancer. This study reviews data on cancer incidence and mortality in the PICTs, with special focus on indigenous populations. METHODS: PICTs with populations of <1...
October 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
Noah H Rose, Rachael A Bay, Megan K Morikawa, Stephen R Palumbi
Closely related species often show substantial differences in ecological traits that allow them to occupy different environmental niches. For few of these systems is it clear what the genomic basis of adaptation is and whether a few loci of major effect or many genome-wide differences drive species divergence. Four cryptic species of the tabletop coral Acropora hyacinthus are broadly sympatric in American Samoa; here we show that two common species have differences in key environmental traits such as microhabitat distributions and thermal stress tolerance...
January 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Nicole P Lindsey, J Erin Staples, Krista Powell, Ingrid B Rabe, Marc Fischer, Ann M Powers, Olga I Kosoy, Eric C Mossel, Jorge L Munoz-Jordan, Manuela Beltran, W Thane Hancock, Karrie-Ann E Toews, Esther M Ellis, Brett R Ellis, Amanda J Panella, Alison J Basile, Amanda E Calvert, Janeen Laven, Christin H Goodman, Carolyn V Gould, Stacey W Martin, Jennifer D Thomas, Julie Villanueva, Mary L Mataia, Rebecca Sciulli, Remedios Gose, A Christian Whelen, Susan L Hills
Cross-reactivity within flavivirus antibody assays, produced by shared epitopes in the envelope proteins, can complicate the serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection. We assessed the utility of the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to confirm recent ZIKAV infections and rule out misleading positive immunoglobulin M (IgM) results in areas with various levels of past dengue virus (DENV) infection incidence. We reviewed PRNT results of sera collected for diagnosis of ZIKAV infection from 1 January through 31 August 2016 with positive ZIKAV IgM results, and ZIKAV and DENV PRNTs were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years...
December 16, 2017: Lancet
Jennifer H Huang, Michael Favazza, Arthur Legg, Kathryn W Holmes, Laurie Armsby, Ipuniuesea Eliapo-Unutoa, Thomas Pilgrim, Erin J Madriago
While rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a treatable disease nearly eradicated in the United States, it remains the most common form of acquired heart disease in the developing world. This study used echocardiographic screening to determine the prevalence of RHD in children in American Samoa. Screening took place at a subset of local schools. Private schools were recruited and public schools underwent cluster randomization based on population density. We collected survey information and performed a limited physical examination and echocardiogram using the World Heart Federation protocol for consented school children aged 5-18 years old...
September 20, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
Colleen L Lau, Sarah Sheridan, Stephanie Ryan, Maureen Roineau, Athena Andreosso, Saipale Fuimaono, Joseph Tufa, Patricia M Graves
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 by conducting mass drug administration (MDA) and controlling morbidity. Once elimination targets have been reached, surveillance is critical for ensuring that programmatic gains are sustained, and challenges include timely identification of residual areas of transmission. WHO guidelines encourage cost-efficient surveillance, such as integration with other population-based surveys. In American Samoa, where LF is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, and Aedes polynesiensis is the main vector, the LF elimination program has made significant progress...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michal Strouhal, Lenka Mikalová, Pavla Havlíčková, Paolo Tenti, Darina Čejková, Ivan Rychlík, Sylvia Bruisten, David Šmajs
BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) is the causative agent of yaws, a multi-stage disease, endemic in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. To date, four TPE strains have been completely sequenced including three TPE strains of human origin (Samoa D, CDC-2, and Gauthier) and one TPE strain (Fribourg-Blanc) isolated from a baboon. All TPE strains are highly similar to T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) strains. The mutation rate in syphilis and related treponemes has not been experimentally determined yet...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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