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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757523/the-influence-of-ecological-factors-on-mosquito-abundance-and-occurrence-in-gal%C3%A3-pagos
#1
Samoa Asigau, Patricia G Parker
We sampled mosquitoes across 18 sites established at different elevations and stretching from the north to the south of Isla Santa Cruz, Galápagos. Two commonly occurring species, Ae. taeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, were collected along with environmental variables characteristic of the trapping sites to assess their influence on mosquito abundance and occurrence in the dry season of 2015. We captured Ae. taeniorhynchus at 14 out of 18 sites and Cx. quinquefasciatus at low and high elevation sites on Santa Cruz...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754745/the-unusually-diverse-mortality-patterns-in-the-pacific-region-during-the-1918-21-influenza-pandemic-reflections-at-the-pandemic-s-centenary
#2
REVIEW
G Dennis Shanks, Nick Wilson, Rebecca Kippen, John F Brundage
The 1918-21 influenza pandemic was the most lethal natural event in recent history. In the Pacific region, the pandemic's effects varied greatly across different populations and settings. In this region, the pandemic's lethal effects extended over 3 years, from November, 1918, in New Zealand to as late as July, 1921, in New Caledonia. Although a single virus strain probably affected all the islands, mortality varied from less than 0·1% in Tasmania, to 22% in Western Samoa. The varied expressions of the pandemic across the islands reflected the nature and timing of past influenza epidemics, degrees of social isolation, ethnicity and sex-related effects, and the likelihood of exposures to pathogenic respiratory bacteria during influenza illnesses...
May 10, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729674/dna-barcoding-and-real-time-pcr-detection-of-bactrocera-xanthodes-tephritidae-diptera-complex
#3
D Li, D W Waite, D N Gunawardana, B McCarthy, D Anderson, A Flynn, S George
Immature fruit fly stages of the family Tephritidae are commonly intercepted on breadfruit from Pacific countries at the New Zealand border but are unable to be identified to the species level using morphological characters. Subsequent molecular identification showed that they belong to Bactrocera xanthodes, which is part of a species complex that includes Bactrocera paraxanthodes, Bactrocera neoxanthodes and an undescribed species. To establish a more reliable molecular identification system for B. xanthodes, a reference database of DNA barcode sequences for the 5'-fragment of COI gene region was constructed for B...
May 6, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723166/vital-signs-trends-in-reported-vectorborne-disease-cases-united-states-and-territories-2004-2016
#4
Ronald Rosenberg, Nicole P Lindsey, Marc Fischer, Christopher J Gregory, Alison F Hinckley, Paul S Mead, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Stephen H Waterman, Naomi A Drexler, Gilbert J Kersh, Holley Hooks, Susanna K Partridge, Susanna N Visser, Charles B Beard, Lyle R Petersen
INTRODUCTION: Vectorborne diseases are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In the United States, the most common vectorborne pathogens are transmitted by ticks or mosquitoes, including those causing Lyme disease; Rocky Mountain spotted fever; and West Nile, dengue, and Zika virus diseases. This report examines trends in occurrence of nationally reportable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016. METHODS: Data reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for 16 notifiable vectorborne diseases during 2004-2016 were analyzed; findings were tabulated by disease, vector type, location, and year...
May 4, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721634/discordant-association-of-the-crebrf-rs373863828-a-allele-with-increased-bmi-and-protection-from-type-2-diabetes-in-m%C3%A4-ori-and-pacific-polynesian-people-living-in-aotearoa-new-zealand
#5
Mohanraj Krishnan, Tanya J Major, Ruth K Topless, Ofa Dewes, Lennex Yu, John M D Thompson, Lesley McCowan, Janak de Zoysa, Lisa K Stamp, Nicola Dalbeth, Jennie Harré Hindmarsh, Nuku Rapana, Ranjan Deka, Winston W H Eng, Daniel E Weeks, Ryan L Minster, Stephen T McGarvey, Satupa'itea Viali, Take Naseri, Muagututi'a Sefuiva Reupena, Phillip Wilcox, David Grattan, Peter R Shepherd, Andrew N Shelling, Rinki Murphy, Tony R Merriman
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The A (minor) allele of CREBRF rs373863828 has been associated with increased BMI and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in the Samoan populations of Samoa and American Samoa. Our aim was to test rs373863828 for associations with BMI and the odds of type 2 diabetes, gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Māori and Pacific (Polynesian) people living in Aotearoa/New Zealand. METHODS: Linear and logistic regression models were used to analyse the association of the A allele of CREBRF rs373863828 with BMI, log-transformed BMI, waist circumference, type 2 diabetes, gout and CKD in 2286 adults...
May 2, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718403/a-cluster-of-zika-virus-infection-among-travellers-returning-to-china-from-samoa-a-case-tracing-study
#6
Gang Wang, Wei Zheng, Sheng Zhu, Zhonghua Wu, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Yuanhua Tong, Runzi Qi
Background: A febrile man, who returned to China after a 9-day travel in Fiji and Samoa, was detected to be infected with Zika virus (ZIKV) at the port by Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau on 14 February 2016. Methods: The patient and his 32 travelling companions were traced for ZIKV infection. A standardised questionnaire was used to obtain the information on demographics, clinical manifestations and exposure history. Their samples were tested for ZIKV by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680564/status-of-coral-reefs-of-upolu-independent-state-of-samoa-in-the-south-west-pacific-and-recommendations-to-promote-resilience-and-recovery-of-coastal-ecosystems
#7
Maren Ziegler, Gaëlle Quéré, Jean-François Ghiglione, Guillaume Iwankow, Valérie Barbe, Emilie Boissin, Patrick Wincker, Serge Planes, Christian R Voolstra
Coral reef ecosystems worldwide are immediately threatened by the impacts of climate change. Here we report on the condition of coral reefs over 83 km of coastline at the island of Upolu, Samoa in the remote South West Pacific in 2016 during the Tara Pacific Expedition. Despite the distance to large urban centers, coral cover was extremely low (<1%) at approximately half of the sites and below 10% at 78% of sites. Two reef fish species, Acanthurus triostegus and Zanclus cornutus, were 10% smaller at Upolu than at neighboring islands...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671350/total-synthesis-and-cyclization-strategy-of-samoamide-a-a-cytotoxic-cyclic-octapeptide-rich-in-proline-and-phenlalanine-isolated-from-marine-cyanobacterium
#8
Qi Chang, Yu-Lei Li, Xia Zhao
Samoamide A is a cyclic octapeptide rich in proline and phenylalanine residues isolated from an American Samoa marine cyanobacterium, which exhibits potent activity against H460 human non-small-cell lung cancer cells (IC50 of 1.1 μM). The first total synthesis of samoamide A was achieved by employing a strategy of a solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) and a head-to-tail cyclization selecting free steric-hinrance connection sites. Then the final product was purified and identified. This strategy not only provides a basis in producing potent cytotoxic agents for drug discovery, but also provides a reference to the total synthesis of proline-rich peptides...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669904/rapid-comeback-of-males-evolution-of-male-killer-suppression-in-a-green-lacewing-population
#9
Masayuki Hayashi, Masashi Nomura, Daisuke Kageyama
Evolutionary theory predicts that the spread of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters leads to the evolution of host nuclear suppressors, although there are extremely few empirical observations of this phenomenon. Here, we demonstrate that a nuclear suppressor of a cytoplasmic male killer has spread rapidly in a population of the green lacewing Mallada desjardinsi An M. desjardinsi population, which was strongly female-biased in 2011 because of a high prevalence of the male-killing Spiroplasma endosymbiont, had a sex ratio near parity in 2016, despite a consistent Spiroplasma prevalence...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522520/comparison-of-antigen-and-antibody-responses-in-repeat-lymphatic-filariasis-transmission-assessment-surveys-in-american-samoa
#10
Kimberly Y Won, Keri Robinson, Katy L Hamlin, Joseph Tufa, Margaret Seespesara, Ryan E Wiegand, Katherine Gass, Joseph Kubofcik, Thomas B Nutman, Patrick J Lammie, Saipale Fuimaono
BACKGROUND: Current WHO recommendations for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance advise programs to implement activities to monitor for new foci of transmission after stopping mass drug administration (MDA). A current need in the global effort to eliminate LF is to standardize diagnostic tools and surveillance activities beyond the recommended transmission assessment survey (TAS). METHODOLOGY: TAS was first conducted in American Samoa in 2011 (TAS 1) and a repeat TAS was carried out in 2015 (TAS 2)...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379068/investigating-the-origins-of-eastern-polynesians-using-genome-wide-data-from-the-leeward-society-isles
#11
Georgi Hudjashov, Phillip Endicott, Helen Post, Nano Nagle, Simon Y W Ho, Daniel J Lawson, Maere Reidla, Monika Karmin, Siiri Rootsi, Ene Metspalu, Lauri Saag, Richard Villems, Murray P Cox, R John Mitchell, Ralph L Garcia-Bertrand, Mait Metspalu, Rene J Herrera
The debate concerning the origin of the Polynesian speaking peoples has been recently reinvigorated by genetic evidence for secondary migrations to western Polynesia from the New Guinea region during the 2nd millennium BP. Using genome-wide autosomal data from the Leeward Society Islands, the ancient cultural hub of eastern Polynesia, we find that the inhabitants' genomes also demonstrate evidence of this episode of admixture, dating to 1,700-1,200 BP. This supports a late settlement chronology for eastern Polynesia, commencing ~1,000 BP, after the internal differentiation of Polynesian society...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362013/dietary-patterns-are-associated-with-child-maternal-and-household-level-characteristics-and-overweight-obesity-among-young-samoan-children
#12
Courtney C Choy, Dongqing Wang, Ana Baylin, Christina Soti-Ulberg, Take Naseri, Muagututia S Reupena, Avery A Thompson, Rachel L Duckham, Nicola L Hawley
OBJECTIVE: Among young Samoan children, diet may not be optimal: in 2015, 16·1 % of 24-59-month-olds were overweight/obese, 20·3 % stunted and 34·1 % anaemic. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns among 24-59-month-old Samoan children and evaluate their association with: (i) child, maternal and household characteristics; and (ii) nutritional status indicators (stunting, overweight/obesity, anaemia). DESIGN: A community-based, cross-sectional study...
May 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243242/cross-sectional-survey-of-health-management-and-prevalence-of-vector-borne-diseases-endoparasites-and-ectoparasites-in-samoan-dogs
#13
R J Carslake, K E Hill, K Sjölander, S F Hii, D Prattley, E Acke
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. METHODS: This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#14
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225948/collecting-data-for-global-surgical-indicators-a-collaborative-approach-in-the-pacific-region
#15
REVIEW
Glenn Douglas Guest, Elizabeth McLeod, William R G Perry, Vilami Tangi, Joao Pedro, Ponifasio Ponifasio, Johnny Hedson, Jemesa Tudravu, Douglas Pikacha, Eric Vreede, Basil Leodoro, Noah Tapaua, James Kong, Bwabwa Oten, Deacon Teapa, Stephanie Korin, Leona Wilson, Samson Mesol, Kabiri Tuneti, John G Meara, David A Watters
In 2015, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) recommended six surgical metrics to enable countries to measure their surgical and anaesthesia care delivery. These indicators have subsequently been accepted by the World Bank for inclusion in the World Development Indicators. With support from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Pacific Islands Surgical Association, 14 South Pacific countries collaborated to collect the first four of six LCoGS indicators. Thirteen countries collected all four indicators over a 6-month period from October 2015 to April 2016...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216478/reach-and-grasp-deficits-following-damage-to-the-dorsal-pulvinar
#16
Melanie Wilke, Lukas Schneider, Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Kristina Miloserdov, Ahmad Nazzal, Peter Dechent, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Hansjörg Scherberger, Igor Kagan, Mathias Bähr
Expansion of the dorsal pulvinar in humans and its anatomical connectivity suggests its involvement in higher-order cognitive and visuomotor functions. We investigated visuomotor performance in a 31 year old patient (M.B.) with a lesion centered on the medial portion of the dorsal pulvinar (left > right) due to an atypical Sarcoidosis manifestation. Unlike lesions with a vascular etiology, the lesion of M.B. did not include primary sensory or motor thalamic nuclei. Thus, this patient gave us the exceedingly rare opportunity to study the contribution of the dorsal pulvinar to visuomotor behavior in a human without confounding losses in primary sensory or motor domains...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206219/long-term-monitoring-of-coral-reef-fish-assemblages-in-the-western-central-pacific
#17
Adel Heenan, Ivor D Williams, Tomoko Acoba, Annette DesRochers, Randall K Kosaki, Troy Kanemura, Marc O Nadon, Russell E Brainard
Throughout the tropics, coral reef ecosystems, which are critically important to people, have been greatly altered by humans. Differentiating human impacts from natural drivers of ecosystem state is essential to effective management. Here we present a dataset from a large-scale monitoring program that surveys coral reef fish assemblages and habitats encompassing the bulk of the US-affiliated tropical Pacific, and spanning wide gradients in both natural drivers and human impact. Currently, this includes >5,500 surveys from 39 islands and atolls in Hawaii (including the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands) and affiliated geo-political regions of American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Pacific Remote Islands Areas...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196679/a-synthetic-population-for-modelling-the-dynamics-of-infectious-disease-transmission-in-american-samoa
#18
Zhijing Xu, Kathryn Glass, Colleen L Lau, Nicholas Geard, Patricia Graves, Archie Clements
Agent-based modelling is a useful approach for capturing heterogeneity in disease transmission. In this study, a synthetic population was developed for American Samoa using an iterative approach based on population census, questionnaire survey and land use data. The population will be used as the basis for a new agent-based model, intended specifically to fill the knowledge gaps about lymphatic filariasis transmission and elimination, but also to be readily adaptable to model other infectious diseases. The synthetic population was characterized by the statistically realistic population and household structure, and high-resolution geographic locations of households...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160819/physical-fighting-and-associated-factors-among-adolescents-aged-13-15-years-in-six-western-pacific-countries
#19
Lili Yang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Bo Xi, Pascal Bovet
Youth violence is an important public health challenge around the world, yet the literature on this problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been limited. The present study aims to examine the prevalence of adolescent physical fighting (defined as having been involved in at least one physical fight during the past 12 months) in selected LMICs, and its relations with potential risk factors. We included 6377 school-going adolescents aged 13-15 years from six Western Pacific (WP) countries that had recently conducted a Global School-based Student Health Survey...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145810/predictors-of-prenatal-care-satisfaction-among-pregnant-women-in-american-samoa
#20
Oluwaseyi Adeyinka, Anne Marie Jukic, Stephen T McGarvey, Bethel T Muasau-Howard, Mata'uitafa Faiai, Nicola L Hawley
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women in American Samoa have a high risk of complications due to overweight and obesity. Prenatal care can mitigate the risk, however many women do not seek adequate care during pregnancy. Low utilization of prenatal care may stem from low levels of satisfaction with services offered. Our objective was to identify predictors of prenatal care satisfaction in American Samoa. METHODS: A structured survey was distributed to 165 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the Lyndon B Johnson Tropical Medical Center, Pago Pago...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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