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brain injury rat

Sai-Nan Wang, Xue-Yan Guo, Jie Tang, Shu-Qin Ding, Lin Shen, Rui Wang, Shan-Feng Ma, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
In traumatic brain injury, absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) has been demonstrated to be involved in pyroptotic neuronal cell death. Although the pathophysiological mechanism of spinal cord injury is similar to that of brain injury, the expression and cellular localization of AIM2 after spinal cord injury is still not very clear. In the present study, we used a rat model of T9 spinal cord contusive injury, produced using the weight drop method. The rats were randomly divided into 1-hour, 6-hour, 1-day, 3-day and 6-day (post-injury time points) groups...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Lin Feng, Xiaozhe Yang, Yanfeng Shi, Shuang Liang, Tong Zhao, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Background: The harmful effects following the release of nanomaterials into environment are of great concern today. Purpose: In this study, subacute effect due to co-exposure to low-dose silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and lead acetate (Pb) on cardiovascular system was detected in Sprague Dawley male rats. Materials and Methods: Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of heart, aortic arch and abdominal aorta were detected. Blood routine and blood biochemistry examinations were used to show the changes of blood components...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mingyue Liu, Qingdong Zeng, Yongnan Li, Gang Liu, Bingyang Ji
Brain injury associated with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) has been recognized in patients with congenital heart diseases and those undergoing aortic arch surgeries. However, the preclinical investigation of long-term cerebral injury and recovery mechanisms related to DHCA has been restricted to a satisfactory recovery animal model with a determined recovery time. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term surviving DHCA model without blood priming in rats, in order to investigate the pathophysiology of long-term complications in further studies...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Limor Raz, Yi Yang, Jeffrey Thompson, Sasha Hobson, John Pesko, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang, Gary Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID) is a major cause of cognitive loss in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix in development, injury and repair. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption due to inflammation mediated by MMPs is a mechanism of white matter injury. Currently there are no treatments besides the control of vascular risk factors. We tested two MMP-9 inhibitors that improved outcome in acute stroke: DP-460 and SB-3CT...
2018: PloS One
Zhenlan Du, Haidong Zhang, Qiang Chen, Yongfeng Gao, Baoliang Sun
BACKGROUND Intranasal calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) delivery offers a noninvasive method of bypassing the blood-brain barrier for the delivery of CGRP to the brain. Here, we first reported the therapeutic benefits of intranasal CGRP delivery in rats following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIAL AND METHODS Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), rat MCAO model, TTC (2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining, hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining, Morris water maze test, TUNEL assay, immunofluorescence, and western blot assay were used to investigate the role of CGRP in rats...
December 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mallory E Filipp, Benjamin J Travis, Stefanie S Henry, Emma C Idzikowski, Sarah A Magnuson, Megan Yf Loh, Daniel J Hellenbrand, Amgad S Hanna
Rats have been the primary model to study the process and underlying mechanisms of recovery after spinal cord injury. Two weeks after a severe spinal cord contusion, rats can regain weight-bearing abilities without therapeutic interventions, as assessed by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor scale. However, many human patients suffer from permanent loss of motor function following spinal cord injury. While rats are the most understood animal model, major differences in sensorimotor pathways between quadrupeds and bipeds need to be considered...
January 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Hong-Yun He, Lu Ren, Tao Guo, Yi-Hao Deng
Ischemic stroke often induces excessive neuronal autophagy, resulting in brain damage; meanwhile, inflammatory responses stimulated by ischemia exacerbate neural injury. However, interactions between neuronal autophagy and microglial inflammation following ischemic stroke are poorly understood. CX3CL1/fractalkine, a membrane-bound chemokine expressed on neurons, can suppress microglial inflammation by binding to its receptor CX3CR1 on microglia. In the present study, to investigate whether autophagy could alter CX3CL1 expression on neurons and consequently change microglial inflammatory activity, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established in Sprague-Dawley rats to model ischemic stroke, and tissues from the ischemic penumbra were obtained to evaluate autophagy level and microglial inflammatory activity...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Qiong Yu, Li Li, Wei-Min Liang
Astrocytes, the major component of blood-brain barriers, have presented paradoxical profiles after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in vivo and in vitro. Our previous study showed that sevoflurane preconditioning improved the integrity of blood-brain barriers after ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats. This led us to investigate the effects of sevoflurane preconditioning on the astrocytic dynamics in ischemia and reperfusion rats, in order to explore astrocytic cell-based mechanisms of sevoflurane preconditioning...
February 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Guixing Zhang, Mingyue Ge, Ziwei Han, Sheng Wang, Jiangwen Yin, Li Peng, Feng Xu, Qingtong Zhang, Zhigang Dai, Liping Xie, Yan Li, Junqiang Si, Ketao Ma
AIM: The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in ischemia-reperfusion(I/R) injury, and the transforming growth factor(TGF)-β/Smad signaling pathway participates in the neuroprotection effect induced by isoflurane(ISO) postconditioning. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of the Wnt/|[beta]|-catenin β-catenin signaling pathway in the neuroprotection effect induced by ISO postconditioning, and investigate the interaction of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in this neuroprotection effect...
December 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Volha Liaudanskaya, Dennis Jgamadze, Alexander N Berk, David J Bischoff, Ben J Gu, Hannah Hawks-Mayer, Michael J Whalen, H Isaac Chen, David L Kaplan
Stroke, traumatic brain injuries, and other similar conditions often lead to significant loss of functional brain tissue and associated disruption of neuronal signaling. A common strategy for replacing lost neurons is the injection of dissociated neural stem cells or differentiated neurons. However, this method is unlikely to be suitable for replacing large brain cavities, and the resulting distribution of neurons may lack the necessary architecture to support appropriate brain function. Engineered neural tissues may be a viable alternative...
November 26, 2018: Biomaterials
Nashira Grigg, Andrew Schoenrock, Kevin Dick, James R Green, Ashkan Golshani, Alex Wong, Frank Dehne, Eve C Tsai, Kyle K Biggar
The stimulation of the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) offers the possibility of a renewable source of replacement cells to treat numerous neurological diseases including spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury and stroke. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) have been used to stimulate NSCs to renew, expand, and produce precursors for neural repair within an adult brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). To provide greater insight into the interspecies protein-protein interactions between human FGF-2 and EGF proteins and native R...
November 30, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Takashi Suto, Daiki Kato, Hideaki Obata, Shigeru Saito
A rat model of neuropathic pain at 6 weeks after spinal nerve ligation (SNL6w) exhibits both mechanical hypersensitivity and impaired noxious stimuli-induced analgesia (NSIA). Repeated treatment with antidepressants can produce anti-hypersensitivity and restore NSIA. To examine the involvement of a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated mechanism, a tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), was administered to SNL6w rats (5 mg• kg-1 • day-1 , 5 days). Mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated using the von Frey filament test and paw pressure test...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Sidrah Shahzad, Asia Afzal, Saida Haider
AIMS: Due to rapid increase in industrialization in the last few years, use of aluminum (Al) and its alloys have been increased in different industrial fields. Ample evidence supports the neurotoxic effects of chronic aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) administration in rats but acute Al toxicity has been less described so the present study was aimed to investigate the neurotoxic effects of acute AlCl3 . MAIN METHODS: To investigate such effects 12 male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and test rats...
December 5, 2018: Life Sciences
Shiyao Hua, Bing Wang, Rong Chen, Yuanbin Zhang, Yiwei Zhang, Tingting Li, Lin Dong, Xueyan Fu
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum L. and Piper longum L. consist a classic formula in traditional Chinese Hui medicine and are widely used in treatment of stroke. To examine the therapeutic effect of neuron injury after apoplexy, we used a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats to investigate the effects of dichloromethane fraction (DF) of Piper nigrum L. and Piper longum L. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After subjecting the rats to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, DF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were administered for 14 days...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Alireza Sarkaki, Yaghoub Farbood, Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Mohammad Badavi, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri, Abbas Haghparast
Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities. Clinically, it is essential to limit the development of cognitive impairment after TBI. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid (GA) on neurological score, memory, long-term potentiation (LTP) from hippocampal dentate gyrus (hDG), brain lipid peroxidation and cytokines after TBI were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into three groups with 24 in each: Veh + Sham, Veh + TBI and GA + TBI (GA; 100 mg/kg, PO for 7 days before TBI induction)...
October 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Molly T Townsend, Eren Alay, Maciej Skotak, Namas Chandra
Computational models of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) require a robust definition of the material models of the brain. The mechanical constitutive models of these tissues are difficult to characterize, leading to a wide range of values reported in literature. Therefore, the sensitivity of the intracranial pressure (ICP) and maximum principal strain to variations in the material model of the brain was investigated through a combined computational and experimental approach. A finite element model of a rat was created to simulate a shock wave exposure, guided by the experimental measurements of rats subjected to shock loading conditions corresponding to that of mild traumatic brain injury in a field-validated shock tube...
December 6, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Weijian Fan, Xiang Li, Dongping Zhang, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Yizhi Liu, Gang Chen
Although microRNA-144-3p (miRNA-144-3p) has been shown to suppress tumor proliferation and invasion, its function in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury (SBI) remains unclear. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the role of miRNA-144-3p in ICH. To accomplish this, we used adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to establish an in vivo ICH model by injecting autologous blood, while cultured primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) to mimic ICH in vitro. To examine the role of miRNA-144-3p in ICH-induced SBI, we used an miRNA-144-3p mimic and inhibitor both in vivo and in vitro...
December 4, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Hong-Mei Zhang, Wei Chen, Rui-Ning Liu, Yan Zhao
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is a major factor that affects the prognosis and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Secondary brain edema is considered to be an initiating factor in secondary brain injury after TBI. A previous study has indicated that Notch signaling activation contributes to neuron death in mice affected by stroke; however, its role in neuronal oxidation stress for brain edema after TBI is not well established. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values can represent the brain edema after TBI...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Hao Liu, Mingzi Zhang, Xinhang Dong, Yifang Liu, Yan Hao, Youbin Wang
INTRODUCTION: The failure of reconstructive surgeries remains a challenge for plastic surgeons. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is considered to be one of the major problems in flap surgery. Necroptosis is a recently discovered and caspase-3-independent programed necrosis. Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific inhibitor of necroptosis. Reports indicate that Nec-1 provides protection in ischemic models, such as brain, kidney, and heart. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Nec-1 on the I/R process in rat abdominal skin flaps...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Meili Yang, Yafang Chen, Zhengang Wu, Yaping Zhang, Ruowei Cai, Lichao Ye, Yinhui Huang, Lingxing Wang, Huiling He
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on cerebral injury using the ischemia-reperfusion rat model. In total, 36 SD rats were divided into three groups: pseudo-surgery group (sham group), ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group (CIR group), and CIH intervention group (CIH group). The IR model was established using the suture-occluded method. CIH intervention was performed starting at 12 weeks prior to the establishment of the IR model for rats in the CIH group...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
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