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brain injury rat

Ashley E Mohrman, Mahmoud Farrag, Rachel K Grimm, Nic D Leipzig
The goal of the present work was to characterize a hydrogel material for localized spinal cord delivery. To address spinal cord injuries, an injectable in situ gelling system was tested utilizing a simple, effective, and rapid cross-linking method via Michael addition. Thiolated chitosan material and maleimide-terminated polyethylene glycol material were mixed to form a hydrogel and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Three distinct thiolated chitosan precursors were made by varying reaction conditions; a modification of chitosan with Traut's reagent (2-iminothiolane) displayed the most attractive hydrogel properties once mixed with polyethylene glycol...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Huan Li, Ying Luo, Ying Xu, Lu Yang, Congli Hu, Qi Chen, Yang Yang, Jie Ma, Jiahua Zhang, Hui Xia, Yuke Li, Junqing Yang
Diabetics often face greater risk of cognitive impairment than non-diabetics. However, how to prevent this disease is still unconfirmed. In this study, we investigated the potential protection and mechanism of meloxicam on cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. Diabetic rat model was established with high-fat diet and a small dose of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). The changes of spatial learning and memory, histopathology and the protein expressions of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and β-amyloid (Aβ) indicated that diabetic rats had neuronal injury and cognitive impairment...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Gonul Guvenc, Ceren Kizmazoglu, Hasan Emre Aydin
The primary aim of this paper is to investigate the neuroprotective and antiinflammatory effects of mannitol on optic nerve injury after acute traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and brain injury in rat models. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) were produced by a custom-made weight-drop impact acceleration device. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 10) was the sham group, group II (n = 10) received TBI, and group III (n = 10) received TBI + mannitol (1 mg/kg intravenously)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Zhenhong Wang, Wei Zhou, Haiping Dong, Xiaoxiao Ma, Zhenzhou He
Focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced cerebral inflammation, aggravates brain damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on I/R brain injury in rats. Sprague‑Dawley rats were divided to seven experimental groups (18 rats/group): Sham surgery; middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery (90 min); DEX10 [10 µg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 30 min prior to MCAO]; DEX50 (50 µg/kg i.p. 30 min prior to MCAO); DEX100 (100 µg/kg i...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chuan-Wen Chiu, Wen-Hung Huang, Huai-Sheng Kuo, May-Jywan Tsai, Ching-Jung Chen, Meng-Jen Lee, Henrich Cheng
Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) promote central nervous system regeneration. Our previous study demonstrated that treatment with peripheral nerve grafts and fibroblast growth factor-1 recruited more M2 macrophages and improved partial functional recovery in spinal cord transected rats. The migration of macrophages is matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) dependent. We used a general inhibitor of MMPs to influence macrophage migration, and we examined the migration of macrophage populations and changes in spinal function...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Lin Zhu, Tao Tang, Rong Fan, Jie-Kun Luo, Han-Jin Cui, Chun-Hu Zhang, Wei-Jun Peng, Peng Sun, Xin-Gui Xiong, Yang Wang
Xuefu Zhuyu decoction has been used for treating traumatic brain injury and improving post-traumatic dysfunction, but its mechanism of action needs further investigation. This study established rat models of traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact. Rat models were intragastrically administered 9 and 18 g/kg Xuefu Zhuyu decoction once a day for 14 or 21 days. Changes in neurological function were assessed by modified neurological severity scores and the Morris water maze. Immunohistochemistry, western blot assay, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to analyze synapsin protein and mRNA expression at the injury site of rats...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jing Han, Ji-Zhou Zhang, Zhi-Feng Zhong, Zuan-Fang Li, Wen-Sheng Pang, Juan Hu, Li-Dian Chen
Recovery following stroke involves neurogenesis and axonal remodeling within the ischemic brain. Gualou Guizhi decoction (GLGZD) is a Chinese traditional medicine used for the treatment of post-stroke limb spasm. GLGZD has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemic injury. However, the effects of GLGZD on neurogenesis and axonal remodeling following cerebral ischemia remain unknown. In this study, a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Jing-Bo Sun, Yan Li, Ye-Feng Cai, Yan Huang, Shu Liu, Patrick Kk Yeung, Min-Zhen Deng, Guang-Shun Sun, Prince Lm Zilundu, Qian-Sheng Hu, Rui-Xin An, Li-Hua Zhou, Li-Xin Wang, Xiao Cheng
Scutellarin, a bioactive flavone isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has anti-inflammatory, anti-neurotoxic, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative effects and has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. However, the mechanisms by which scutellarin mediates neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia remain unclear. The interaction between scutellarin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) was assessed by molecular docking study, which showed that scutellarin selectively binds to NOX2 with high affinity...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xiao-Qiao Zhang, Li Li, Jiang-Tao Huo, Min Cheng, Lin-Hong Li
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive treatment that can enhance the recovery of neurological function after stroke. Whether it can similarly promote the recovery of cognitive function after vascular dementia remains unknown. In this study, a rat model for vascular dementia was established by the two-vessel occlusion method. Two days after injury, 30 pulses of rTMS were administered to each cerebral hemisphere at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a magnetic field intensity of 1.33 T...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério R Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Alfredo Antoniazzi, Cristina W Nogueira, Luiz F Royes, Michele R Fighera, Lisiane O Porciúncula, Rodrigo A Cunha, Félix A A Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, triggering chronic neurodegeneration underlying cognitive and mood disorder still without therapeutic prospects. Based on our previous observations that guanosine (GUO) attenuates short-term neurochemical alterations caused by TBI, this study investigated the effects of chronical GUO treatment in behavioral, molecular, and morphological disturbances 21 days after trauma. Rats subject to TBI displayed mood (anxiety-like) and memory dysfunction...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ziyou Qi, Xiangli Yu, Peng Xu, Yongnan Hao, Xudong Pan, Chen Zhang
In this study, we investigated the protective effect of l-homocarnosine, l-carnosine, and anserine (HCA) on seizure-induced brain injuries. We evaluated the protective effect of HCA on brain oxidative damage in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epilepsy model using ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The experimental groups were as follows: group I, sham; group II, sham + PTZ; group III, sham + HCA + PTZ; group IV, OVX; group V, OVZ + PTZ; and group VI, OVX + HCA + PTZ. We determined the levels of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thiol in brain hippocampal and cortical tissue...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Ting Yu, Yunren Fan, Yunfeng Xu, Liangdie Xu, Guangda Xu, Fangchuan Cao, Hailong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Early brain injury (EBI) plays a critical role in determining the outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study was designed to investigate the role of EGb 761, a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba, in SAH-induced EBI and to explore its potential mechanism of action. METHOD: A rat SAH model was established by the endovascular perforation process. Doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg EGb 761 were injected intraperitoneally 2 h after SAH was induced...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jyothsna Chitturi, Ying Li, Vijayalakshmi Santhakumar, Sridhar S Kannurpatti
Pathophysiology of developmental traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unique due to intrinsic differences in the developing brain. Energy metabolic studies of the brain during early development (P13 to P30) have indicated acute oxidative energy metabolic decreases below 24 h after TBI, which generally recovered by 48 h. However, marked neurodegeneration and altered neural functional connectivity have been observed at later stages into adolescence. As secondary neurodegeneration is most prominent during the first week after TBI in the rat model, we hypothesized that the subacute TBI-metabolome may contain predictive markers of neurodegeneration...
August 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Zhewei Zhao, Chengran Lu, Tianjia Li, Wenda Wang, Wei Ye, Rong Zeng, Leng Ni, Zhichao Lai, Xuebin Wang, Changwei Liu
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is the treatment of choice for carotid stenosis. Some patients develop ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after CEA. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin on I/R injury in both rats and humans. To this end, 36 male rats were evaluated, and a double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) including 60 patients was performed. A rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to mimic cerebral I/R. After 2 hr of occlusion and 24 hr of reperfusion, blood samples and brain tissues were harvested for further assessments...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
Wei Gao, Ying-Nan Ju, Jian-Feng Chen, Qiang Zhou, Chun-Yu Song, Yue-Zhen Wang, Hong-Ling Cao, Wan-Chao Yang
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological injury, and remains as a major cause of death in the world. Secondary injury after TBI is associated with long-term disability in patients with TBI. The present study evaluated adrenomedullin (AM) on secondary injury and neurological functional outcome in rats after TBI. METHODS: Forty-eight SD rats were randomly assigned into three groups: sham, TBI and TBI+AM groups. TBI was induced by fluid percussion injury (FPI) and AM was intravenously injected...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Jacek Bogucki, Sławomir Januszewski, Janusz Kocki, Stanisław J Czuczwar
BACKGROUND: Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative illnesses associated with the aberrant accumulation of the tau protein in the brain. The best known out of these diseases is Alzheimer's disease, a disorder where the microtubule associated tau protein becomes hyperphosphorylated (which lowers its binding affinity to microtubules) and accumulates inside neurons in the form of tangles. In this study, we attempt to find out whether brain ischemia may play an important role in tau protein gene alterations...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Mahsa Sarami Foroshani, Zeinab Sadat Sobhani, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi, Masiha Aryafar
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to examine the protective role of fullerenol nanoparticles against blood-brain barrier (BBB) interruption and brain edema during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury probably by reduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) transcription. METHODS: The male Wistar rats (weighting 280-320 g) were randomly assigned into four groups as follows: sham, control ischemic, pretreated ischemic, and posttreated ischemic groups...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Li-Li Li, Ya-Chao Li, Dong-Jing Zhao, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
Metabolic disorders play an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. Recent evidence suggests that leptin levels in peripheral blood and brain are lower in patients with epilepsy. Leptin is an energy-regulating hormone that plays a neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases and brain trauma. However, little is known about the effects and molecular mechanisms of leptin treatment on long-term neurobehavioral impairment caused by developmental seizures. The present study evaluated whether chronic leptin treatment protected against neurobehavioral impairments induced by recurrent seizures in newborns treated with flurothyl...
August 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Pian Gong, Zhan Zhang, Changlin Zou, Qi Tian, Xuemei Chen, Michael Hong, Xi Liu, Qianxue Chen, Zhou Xu, Mingchang Li, Jian Wang
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries commonly lead to breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).Restoration of the BBB can relieve neurologic damage caused by I/R injuries. The Hippo/YAP signaling pathway mediates cell proliferation, regulated cell death, and differentiation in various organisms and has been shown to participate in the restoration of the heart after I/R. In this study, we investigated whether the Hippo/YAP pathway plays a role in I/R injury in brain, especially in regard to I/R-induced BBB breakdown...
August 6, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Yongyan Yang, Beibei Dong, Jun Lu, Guolin Wang, Yonghao Yu
Ischemic stroke causes endothelial dysfunction and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, thus damages synaptic plasticity such as learning and memory. In this study we aim to investigate the effect of hemopexin (HPX) in protecting synaptic plasticity and blood brain barrier integrity from toxic heme, and determine whether this effect is via the activation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) through the heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) pathway. Our data indicates HPX showed a significant effect in inducing the expression of HO-1, promoting the migration and differentiation of EPCs, facilitating new blood vessel formation thus protecting blood-brain barrier integrity...
August 6, 2018: Brain Research
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