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brain injury rat

María F González Fleitas, Marcos L Aranda, Hernán H Dieguez, Julian D Devouassoux, Mónica S Chianelli, Damian Dorfman, Ruth E Rosenstein
Retinal ischemia is a condition associated with several degenerative diseases leading to visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Currently, there is no highly effective therapy for ischemic retinopathies. This study was designed to determine possible benefits of pre-exposure to enriched environment against retinal damage induced by acute ischemia. For this purpose, adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic standard environment or a pre-ischemic enriched environment for 3 weeks, followed by unilateral ischemia induced by increasing intraocular pressure above 120 mm Hg for 40 min and reperfusion for 1 or 2 weeks in standard environment...
October 13, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Abhishek Mukherjee, Sibani Sarkar, Sayantan Jana, Snehasikta Swarnakar, Nirmalendu Das
Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) accelerates the progression of neurodegeneration by causing mitochondrial dysfunction to overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin shows protective effects against CIR-induced oxidative damage. Free curcumin (FC) is effective at high doses due to its poor bioavailability. Also the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the passage of substances from circulation into the cerebral region. Thus, formulation of curcumin within polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NC) was applied orally to aged rats to explore its role against CIR injury...
October 13, 2018: Brain Research
Qian Zhang, Li-Xin Zhang, Jing An, Liang Yan, Cui-Cui Liu, Jing-Jing Zhao, Hao Yang
Flavonoids from Huangqin (dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) have anti-inflammatory effects, and are considered useful for treatment of spinal cord injury. To verify this hypothesis, the T9-10 spinal cord segments of rats were damaged using Allen's method to establish a rat spinal cord injury model. Before model establishment, Huangqin flavonoid extraction (12.5 g/kg) was administered intragastrically for 1 week until 28 days after model establishment. Methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg) was injected into the tail vein at 30 minutes after model establishment as a positive control...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Andriy O Glushakov, Olena Y Glushakova, Tetyana Y Korol, Sandra A Acosta, Cesar V Borlongan, Alex B Valadka, Ronald L Hayes, Alexander V Glushakov
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term disabilities and devastating chronic neurological complications including problems with cognition, motor function, sensory processing, as well as behavioral deficits and mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, personality change and social unsuitability. Clinical data suggest that disruption of the thalamo-cortical system including anatomical and metabolic changes in the thalamus following TBI might be responsible for some chronic neurological deficits following brain trauma...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Barbara Tóthová, Mária Kovalská, Dagmar Kalenská, Anna Tomašcová, Ján Lehotský
Epigenetic regulations play an important role in both normal and pathological conditions of an organism, and are influenced by various exogenous and endogenous factors. Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy), as a risk factor for several pathological conditions affecting the central nervous system, is supposed to alter the epigenetic signature of the given tissue, which therefore worsens the subsequent damage. To investigate the effect of hHcy in combination with ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and histone acetylation, we used the hHcy animal model of global forebrain ischemia in rats...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Faxin Ren, Nan Mu, Mingxiao Gao, Jing Sun, Chuanhuan Zhang, Xiaojian Sun, Liudong Li, Jun Li, Tong Liu, Gary Tse, Mei Dong
In myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury (MIRI), increased activity of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and the activation of platelets that leads to the formation of platelet‑leukocyte aggregates (PLAs) have been observed. It was hypothesized that ischemic postconditioning in MIRI exerts cardioprotective effects by altering JNK activity, which in turn leads to reduced PLA levels. A total of 60 rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10 for each group): i) Control; ii) ischemia‑reperfusion injury alone; iii) ischemia‑reperfusion with postconditioning (PostC group), iv) treatment with the JNK inhibitor‑SP600125; v) postC and treatment with anisomycin; and vi) treatment with the JNK activator‑anisomycin...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Cheng Zheng, Jia-Feng Lin, Zhong-Hao Lin, Wei-Qian Lin, Saroj Thapa, Yuan-Zheng Lin, Hao Lian, Zhi-Rui Liu, Jia-Hui Chen, Xiao-Wei Li
With the chronic ischemia persisting after acute myocardial infarction, the accompanying low-degree inflammation and subsequent fibrosis result in progression of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Recently, Sodium Houttuyfonate (SH), a pure compound extracted from Houttuynia cordata , has been confirmed exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects under diseased situations. Here, we aimed to investigate whether SH could reverse the cardiac remodeling post-myocardial infarction by alleviating cardiac inflammation and fibrosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jae Won Lee, Dong-Hun Lee, Jae Keun Park, Jin Soo Han
Testicular torsion, a common urologic emergency, is primarily caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the testis. Nitric oxide (NO)-derived from nitrite (NO2 - ) has been reported to have prominent therapeutic effects on I/R injury in the heart, liver, and brain; however, its effects on testicular I/R injury have not been evaluated. This study, therefore, investigated whether NO from NO2 - is beneficial in a rat model of testicular I/R injury which eventually results in impaired spermatogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to the following seven groups: group A, sham-operated control group; Group B, I/R with no treatment; Groups C, D, and E, I/R followed by treatment with three different doses of NO2 - ; Group F, I/R followed by administration of NO2 - and NO scavenger (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt [C-PTIO]); and Group G, I/R followed by administration of nitrate (NO3 - )...
October 12, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Hongwei Liu, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi
Ceruloplasmin (CP) is an essential ferroxidase that is involved in maintaining iron homeostasis by oxidizing toxic ferrous iron (Fe2+ ) to less-toxic ferric iron (Fe3+ ). CP has been well studied in many neurodegenerative diseases, but there has not been an in-depth investigation in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This research investigated brain CP expression in rats after ICH and the effect of CP on Fe2+ -induced brain injury. This study had two parts: first, rats had injection of autologous blood into the right basal ganglia and the time course of CP expression in the brain examined (protein and mRNA)...
October 12, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Yuan Qin, Yang He, Yong-Ming Zhu, Min Li, Yong Ni, Jin Liu, Hui-Ling Zhang
Increasing evidence suggests that Ras-related in brain 7 (Rab7), an endosome-localized small GTPase contributes to cerebral ischemic brain injury. In the present study, we investigated the role of Rab7 in ischemic stroke-induced formation of astrogliosis and glial scar. Rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO); the rats were injected with the Rab7 receptor antagonist CID1067700 (CID). Primary astrocytes were subjected to an oxygen and glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/Re) procedure; CID was added to the cell culture media...
October 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Alipio Pinto, Clara Berdasco, David Arenas-Mosquera, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia A Geoghegan, Myriam C Nuñez, Jorge Goldstein
Infections by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli may cause in addition to hemolytic uremic syndrome neurological disorders which may lead to fatal outcomes in patients. The brain striatum is usually affected during this outcome. The aim of this study was to determine in this area the role of the microglia in pro-inflammatory events that may occur during Shiga toxin 2 intoxication and consequently to this, whether oligodendrocytes were being affected. In the present paper we demonstrated that anti-inflammatory treatments reduced deleterious effects in brain striatal cells exposed to Shiga toxin 2 and LPS...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Qin Li, Qiu-Qi Li, Ji-Ning Jia, Shan Cao, Zhi-Bin Wang, Xu Wang, Chao Luo, Hong-Hao Zhou, Zhao-Qian Liu, Xiao-Yuan Mao
GABA is a dominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and A type GABA receptor (GABAA R) phosphorylation is critical for GABA-mediated inhibitory effect. However, its role in the neuroprotective effect of sodium valproate (VPA), a prevalent drug for treating patients with epilepsy, remains elusive. The present study was conducted to explore the role of GABAA R phosphorylation in the neuroprotection of VPA against a kainic acid-induced epileptic rat model and the potential molecular mechanisms. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay, PI/Annexin V double staining, caspase-3 activity detection and Bax and Bcl-2 proteins expression via Western blot analysis...
October 11, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Hongyan Zhu, Rongrong Dai, Hao Fu, Qiang Meng
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays a key role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases-2/9 (MMP-2/9) have been shown to participate in the disruption of the BBB and hemorrhagic transformation after cerebral ischemia. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) may also be correlated with endothelial cell injury during ischemia-reperfusion events. However, the correlation between MMP-2/9 and TLR2 on endothelial cells after ischemia has not yet been evaluated...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Jun Dan Jiang, Xiao Chun Zheng, Feng Yi Huang, Fei Gao, Mei Zhen You, Ting Zheng
Ketamine, though widely used in pediatric anesthesia, may induce cortical neurotoxicity in young patients. This study focused on an in vitro model of rat brain embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived neurons to investigate the effects of microRNA-107 (miR-107) on ketamine-induced neural injury. Rat brain ESCs were proliferated in vitro and differentiated toward neuronal fate. Ketamine induced neural injury in ESC-derived neurons was inspected by TUNEL and neurite growth assays. Ketamine-induce aberrant miR-107 expression was examined by qRT-PCR...
October 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
Tao Liu, Jing Zhou, Hanjin Cui, Pengfei Li, Haigang Li, Yang Wang, Tao Tang
INTRODUCTION: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a lethal cerebrovascular disorder with a high mortality and morbidity. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying ICH-induced secondary injury remain unclear. METHODS: To examine one of the gaps in the knowledge about ICH pathological mechanisms, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used in collagenase-induced ICH rats on the 2nd day...
October 11, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Luis Arturo Fonseca-Fonseca, Maylin Wong-Guerra, Jeney Ramírez-Sánchez, Yanay Montano-Peguero, Alejandro Saúl Padrón Yaquis, Abel Mondelo Rodríguez, Víctor Diógenes Amaral da Silva, Silvia Lima Costa, Gilberto L Pardo-Andreu, Yanier Núñez-Figueredo
Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are two pathophysiological factors often associated with the neurodegenerative process involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel hybrid molecule, named JM-20, in different in vitro and in vivo models of PD induced by rotenone. To perform in vitro studies, SHSY-5Y cells were exposed to rotenone and/or treated with JM-20. To perform in vivo studies male Wistar rats were intoxicated with rotenone (2.5 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection and/or treated with JM-20 (40 mg/kg) administered via oral (for 25 days, both treatment)...
October 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Irfan Ullah, Kunho Chung, Jungju Oh, Jagadish Beloor, Sumin Bae, Sangah Clara Lee, Minhyung Lee, Priti Kumar, Sang-Kyung Lee
Ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death results in the permanent disabling of brain function. Apoptotic mechanisms are thought to play a prominent role in neuronal injury and ample evidence implicates Fas signaling in mediating cell death. In this study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of a Fas-blocking peptide (FBP) that by obstructing Fas signaling in cerebral ischemia inhibits apoptosis. Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jordan L Wright, Hannah X Chu, Brett J Kagan, Charlotte M Ermine, Jessica A Kauhausen, Clare L Parish, Christopher G Sobey, Lachlan H Thompson
Cerebral palsy is an irreversible movement disorder resulting from cerebral damage sustained during prenatal or neonatal brain development. As survival outcomes for preterm injury improve, there is increasing need to model ischemic injury at earlier neonatal time-points to better understand the subsequent pathological consequences. Here we demonstrate a novel neonatal ischemic model using focal administration of the potent vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1), in newborn rats. The functional and histopathological outcomes compare favourably to those reported following the widely used hypoxic ischemia (HI) model...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience
Jianfeng Xu, Hao Pan, Xuemeng Xie, Jincheng Zhang, Yun Wang, Guangtian Yang
Brain damage is a leading cause of death in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). The accumulation of succinate during ischemia by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is an important mechanism of ischemia-reperfusion injury. It was unclear whether inhibiting the oxidation of accumulated succinate could also mitigate brain damage after CA. In this study, rats were subjected to a 6 min of CA, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was performed with administration of normal saline or dimethyl malonate (DMM, a competitive inhibitor of SDH)...
October 6, 2018: Neuroscience
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