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Daniel A Nidzgorski, Sarah E Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway that has received less attention than stormwater...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Stanley M Kozakowski, Alexandra Travis, Ashley Bentley, Gerald Fetter
This is the 35th national study conducted by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) that reports retrospectively the percentage of graduates from MD-granting and DO-granting medical schools who entered Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited family medicine residency programs as first-year residents. Approximately 8.7% of the 18,929 students graduating from US MD-granting medical schools and 15.5% of the 5,314 students graduating from DO-granting medical schools between July 2014 and June 2015 entered an ACGME family medicine residency in 2015...
October 2016: Family Medicine
Sharrelle Barber, DeMarc A Hickson, Xu Wang, Mario Sims, Cheryl Nelson, Ana V Diez-Roux
OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of neighborhood conditions resulting from racial residential segregation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a socioeconomically diverse African American sample. METHODS: The study included 4096 African American women (n = 2652) and men (n = 1444) aged 21 to 93 years from the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, Mississippi; 2000-2011). We assessed neighborhood disadvantage with a composite measure of 8 indicators from the 2000 US Census...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Mark A Grippo, Ihor Hlohowskyj, Laura Fox, Brook Herman, Johanna Pothoff, Charles Yoe, John Hayse
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is conducting the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study to identify the highest risk aquatic nuisance species currently established in either the Mississippi River Basin or the Great Lakes Basin and prevent their movement into a new basin. The Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study focuses specifically on aquatic nuisance species movement through the Chicago Area Waterway System, a multi-use waterway connecting the two basins. In support of Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, we conducted a qualitative risk assessment for 33 aquatic nuisance species over a 50-year period of analysis based on the probability of aquatic nuisance species establishing in a new basin and the environmental, economic, and sociopolitical consequences of their establishment...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Management
Peng-Jun Lu, Alissa O'Halloran, Walter W Williams, Rafael Harpaz
INTRODUCTION: Shingles (herpes zoster) causes substantial morbidity, especially among older adults. The shingles vaccine has been recommended for people aged ≥60 years since 2006. This study assessed recent shingles vaccination at national and state levels among adults aged ≥60 years. METHODS: The 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed in 2015 to assess shingles vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥60 years at national and state levels...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tursynbek Nurmagambetov, Olga Khavjou, Louise Murphy, Diane Orenstein
OBJECTIVE: For medically treated asthma, we estimated prevalence, medical and absenteeism costs, and projected medical costs from 2015 to 2020 for the entire population and separately for children in the 50 US states and District of Columbia (DC) using the most recently available data. METHODS: We used multiple data sources, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Kaiser Family Foundation, Medical Statistical Information System, and Current Population Survey...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
A Adams, J Gore, A Catchot, F Musser, D Cook, N Krishnan, T Irby
Experiments were conducted in Mississippi from 2013 to 2015 to determine the systemic and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide against corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), in soybean. Both insecticides were applied at V4 and R3. Ten leaves that were present at the time of application and 10 newly emerged leaves that were not present at the time of application were collected to measure residual and systemic efficacy, respectively. Ten pods were removed from each plot at R5.5. For all assays, corn earworm larvae were placed on plant material...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Eric M Leis, Thomas G Rosser, Wes A Baumgartner, Matt J Griffin
A novel species of Henneguya was isolated from flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) captured in the upper Mississippi River near Lansing (Allamakee County), IA, and La Crosse (La Crosse County), WI. Designated Henneguya laseeae n. sp., this novel species is described using critical morphological features, histology, and 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Ovoid cysts, ranging from 1200 to 1800 μm in width, tended to be at filament tips or in the distal third, often directly on the filament midline, but occasionally paramedian...
October 4, 2016: Parasitology Research
Susana Schönhuth, Collin E Beachum, Jason H Knouft, Richard L Mayden
This study represents a phylogenetic analysis of Pimephales notatus, a widely distributed North American cyprinid fish species, using one mitochondrial (cytb) and two nuclear (S7 and Rag1) genes. Despite the broad geographic distribution of this species that includes independent basins, results suggest a largely drainage-independent genetic structure. Results reveal a well-supported lineage in the Ozark Highlands, which is highly divergent from the remaining populations and may represent a long-term isolated lineage that should be considered as a separate conservation and management unit...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
Peter C Van Metre, Jeffrey W Frey, MaryLynn Musgrove, Naomi Nakagaki, Sharon Qi, Barbara J Mahler, Michael E Wieczorek, Daniel T Button
Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the USGS and the USEPA characterized water quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the midwestern United States. Wet conditions in 2013 followed a severe drought in 2012, a weather pattern associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from <0...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Hedeff I Essaid, Nancy T Baker, Kathleen A McCarthy
Surplus nitrogen (N) estimates, principal component analysis (PCA), and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used in a multisite comparison contrasting the fate of N in diverse agricultural watersheds. We applied PCA-EMMA in 10 watersheds located in Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Nebraska, Mississippi, and Washington ranging in size from 5 to 1254 km with four nested watersheds. Watershed Surplus N was determined by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of N input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, fertilizer, and manure for the period from 1987 to 2004...
September 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
Paola C López-Duarte, F Joel Fodrie, Olaf P Jensen, Andrew Whitehead, Fernando Galvez, Benjamin Dubansky, Kenneth W Able
Genomic and physiological responses in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) in the northern Gulf of Mexico have confirmed oil exposure of resident marsh fish following the Macondo blowout in 2010. Using these same fish, we evaluated otolith microchemistry as a method for assessing oil exposure history. Laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the chemical composition of sagittal otoliths to assess whether a trace metal signature could be detected in the otoliths of F. grandis collected from a Macondo-oil impacted site in 2010, post-spill relative to pre-spill, as well as versus fish from areas not impacted by the spill...
2016: PloS One
Maura J Donohue, Larry Wymer
RATIONALE: Many nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) are clinically significant pathogens that cause disease in a variety of different human organs and tissues. OBJECTIVES: A population-based study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of patients with a positive specimen for (NTM) within 5 states of United States. METHODS: We determined the case and age distribution of patients with at least one specimen positive for NTM using data submitted to the disease surveillance systems of 5 states (Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2008 and 2013...
September 28, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kishan S Parikh, Melissa A Greiner, Takeki Suzuki, Adam D DeVore, Chad Blackshear, Joseph F Maher, Lesley H Curtis, Adrian F Hernandez, Emily C O'Brien, Robert J Mentz
Importance: Increased resting heart rate is associated with worse outcomes in studies of mostly white populations, but its significance is not well established in African Americans persons whose cardiac comorbidities and structural abnormalities differ. Objective: To study the prognostic utility of heart rate in a community-based African American cohort in the Jackson Heart Study. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 5261 participants in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective, community-based study in Jackson, Mississippi, were evaluated...
September 28, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Bradford E Jackson, Gabriela R Oates, Karan P Singh, James M Shikany, Mona N Fouad, Edward E Partridge, Sejong Bae
OBJECTIVE: This study examined differences in socio-demographic characteristics and health behaviors relevant to chronic medical conditions (CMCs) in the Mid-South region (Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Arkansas), and identified subpopulations with increased burden of chronic disease. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The top five most prevalent CMCs in the Mid-South were analyzed: asthma, high blood pressure (HBP), obesity, arthritis, and depression...
September 29, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Brian R Silliman, Philip M Dixon, Cameron Wobus, Qiang He, Pedro Daleo, Brent B Hughes, Matthew Rissing, Jonathan M Willis, Mark W Hester
Ecosystem boundary retreat due to human-induced pressure is a generally observed phenomenon. However, studies that document thresholds beyond which internal resistance mechanisms are overwhelmed are uncommon. Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, field studies from a few sites suggested that oiling of salt marshes could lead to a biogeomorphic feedback where plant death resulted in increased marsh erosion. We tested for spatial generality of and thresholds in this effect across 103 salt marsh sites spanning ~430 kilometers of shoreline in coastal Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi, using data collected as part of the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA)...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
K L Sheehan, K C Hanson-Dorr, B S Dorr, G K Yarrow, R J Johnson
Here the intestinal helminth infracommunities of 218 double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from 11 locations in Alabama, Minnesota, Mississippi and Vermont are documented. Trematode infections were present in 98% of hosts; 65% of cormorants carried cestode infections, 4% were infected with acanthocephalans and 66% had nematode intestinal parasites. Parasite infracommunities of hosts collected on wintering grounds had higher richness and diversity than did birds collected on breeding grounds. Differences in parasite richness and diversity between male and female P...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
Stacy Wolff, Garry Brown, Jingjing Chen, Keith Meals, Cammi Thornton, Steve Brewer, James V Cizdziel, Kristine L Willett
The goal of this study was to compare total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish muscle tissue and assess consumption health risks of fish collected from three north Mississippi lakes (Sardis, Enid, and Grenada) that are extensively used for fishing and recreation. Largemouth bass (LMB; n = 64), channel catfish (CC; n = 72), and white crappie (WC; n = 100), which represent a range of trophic levels, were collected during spring 2013 and 2014. Creel data estimated that anglers harvested approximately 370,000 kg of WC, 27,000 kg of CC, and 15,000 kg of LMB from the lakes annually...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
A D McKelvy, F T Burbrink
Several biogeographic barriers in the Eastern Nearctic appear to reduce gene flow among populations of many species in predictable ways, however these patterns used to infer process of divergence may be deceiving if alternative modes of diversification are not considered. By using a multilocus statistical phylogeographic approach to examine diversity within a North American snake, Lampropeltis calligaster, we find that mode and timing of speciation near the Mississippi River embayment and peninsular Florida, two main biodiversity hotspots in eastern North America, challenge previously held notions of strict vicariance as the causal factor behind patterns of divergence seen among taxa at these locations...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Brian F Thomas, Gerald T Pollard
Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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