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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473186/informing-randomized-clinical-trials-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccination-during-pregnancy-to-prevent-recurrent-childhood-wheezing-a-sample-size-analysis
#1
Corinne A Riddell, Niranjan Bhat, Louis J Bont, William D Dupont, Daniel R Feikin, Deshayne B Fell, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Tina V Hartert, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Ruth A Karron, Harish Nair, Robert C Reiner, Ting Shi, Peter D Sly, Renato T Stein, Pingsheng Wu, Heather J Zar, Justin R Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Early RSV illness is associated with wheeze-associated disorders in childhood. Candidate respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines may prevent acute RSV illness in infants. We investigated the feasibility of maternal RSV vaccine trials to demonstrate reductions in recurrent childhood wheezing in general paediatric populations. METHODS: We calculated vaccine trial effect sizes that depended on vaccine efficacy, allocation ratio, rate of early severe RSV illness, risk of recurrent wheezing at age 3, and increased risk of RSV infection on recurrent wheezing...
November 22, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443339/maternal-immunisation-what-have-been-the-gains-where-are-the-gaps-what-does-the-future-hold
#2
REVIEW
Michelle L Giles, Sushena Krishnaswamy, Euan M Wallace
The vaccination of pregnant women has enormous potential to protect not only mothers from vaccine-preventable diseases but also their infants through the passive acquisition of protective antibodies before they are able to themselves acquire protection through active childhood immunisations. Maternal tetanus programmes have been in place since 1989, and as of March 2018, only 14 countries in the world were still to reach maternal neonatal tetanus elimination status. This has saved hundreds of thousands of lives...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389194/establishment-of-the-first-who-international-standard-for-antiserum-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-report-of-an-international-collaborative-study
#3
Jacqueline U McDonald, Peter Rigsby, Thomas Dougall, Othmar G Engelhardt
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness, has been a focus of vaccine development efforts in recent years. RSV neutralisation assays are particularly useful in the evaluation of immunogenicity of RSV vaccine candidates. Here we report a collaborative study that was conducted with the aim to establish the 1st International Standard for antiserum to RSV, to enable the standardisation of results across multiple assay formats. Two candidate standards were produced from serum samples donated by healthy adult individuals...
November 29, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381972/overview-of-prevention-and-management-of-acute-bronchiolitis-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#4
Marwa Ghazaly, Simon Nadel
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common cause of Acute Bronchiolitis (AVB) in infants. AVB causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, most deaths occurring in the developing world. AVB causes respiratory distress in infants, leading to respiratory failure in some cases. Disease is more severe in infants with risk factors, such as prematurity, chronic cardiac and lung disease and immunodeficiency. Areas covered: Despite major advances in supportive care in the developed world, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality, treatment remains symptomatic and supportive...
November 1, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334620/rsv-prophylaxis-in-premature-infants
#5
Antonio Del Vecchio, Caterina Franco, Karin Del Vecchio, Angela Umbaldo, Letizia Capasso, Francesco Raimondi
Infants born prematurely before 37 weeks of gestational age (GA), have particular anatomical, immunological and metabolic characteristics that predispose them, even in the absence of diseases at birth, to severe morbidity. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in the first year of life, as well as an important cause of respiratory outcomes as recurrent wheezing in industrialized countries or mortality in developing countries. Prematurity is an important risk factor for hospitalization for severe RSV disease, but epidemiological , environmental and demographic risk factors also play a role in RSV infection...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252097/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-infects-primary-neonatal-and-adult-natural-killer-cells-and-affects-their-anti-viral-effector-function
#6
Elisabeth A van Erp, Dorien Feyaerts, Maxime Duijst, H Lie Mulder, Oliver Wicht, Willem Luytjes, Gerben Ferwerda, Puck B van Kasteren
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants. Natural killer (NK) cells are important anti-viral effector cells that likely encounter RSV in the presence of virus-specific (maternal) antibodies. Since NK cells potentially contribute to immunopathology, we investigated whether RSV affects their anti-viral effector functions. Methods: We assessed the phenotype and functionality of primary neonatal and adult NK cells by flow cytometry after stimulation with RSV or RSV-antibody complexes...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210241/hospitalisation-of-late-preterm-infants-due-to-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-lithuania-latvia-and-estonia-incidence-disease-severity-and-risk-factors
#7
Nijolė Drazdienė, Rasa Tamelienė, Daiga Kviluna, Pille Saik, Ervin Saik, Jolanta Zaikauskienė
Background: By two years of age, almost all children experience at least one episode of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, the most common viral cause of hospitalisation due to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). We present data on LRTI hospitalisations (with a special focus on RSV), the course of illness, and LRTI hospitalisation risk factors in Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. Materials and methods: The analysed data were part of a large multinational study conducted in 23 countries (PONI)...
2018: Acta Medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30123446/resveratrol-ameliorates-prenatal-progestin-exposure-induced-autism-like-behavior-through-er%C3%AE-activation
#8
Weiguo Xie, Xiaohu Ge, Ling Li, Athena Yao, Xiaoyan Wang, Min Li, Xiang Gong, Zhigang Chu, Zhe Lu, Xiaodong Huang, Yun Jiao, Yifei Wang, Meifang Xiao, Haijia Chen, Wei Xiang, Paul Yao
Background: Recent literatures indicate that maternal hormone exposure is a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesize that prenatal progestin exposure may counteract the neuroprotective effect of estrogen and contribute to ASD development, and we aim to develop a method to ameliorate prenatal progestin exposure-induced autism-like behavior. Methods: Experiment 1: Prenatal progestin exposure-induced offspring are treated with resveratrol (RSV) through either prenatal or postnatal exposure and then used for autism-like behavior testing and other biomedical analyses...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107412/breast-milk-prefusion-f-igg-as-a-correlate-of-protection-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-acute-respiratory-illness
#9
N I Mazur, N Horsley, J A Englund, M Nederend, A Magaret, A Kumar, S R Jacobino, de Haan Xander, S K Khatry, S C LeClerq, M C Steinhoff, J M Tielsch, J Katz, B S Graham, L J Bont, J H W Leusen, H Y Chu
Background: Transplacental RSV antibody transfer has been characterized, but little is known about the protective effect of breast milk RSV-specific antibodies. Serum antibodies against the prefusion RSV fusion protein (pre-F) exhibit high neutralizing activity. We investigate protection of breast milk pre-F antibodies against RSV acute respiratory infection (ARI). Methods: Breast milk at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum and mid-nasal swabs during infant illness episodes were collected in mother-infant pairs in Nepal...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960921/maternal-immunization-with-a-recombinant-adenovirus-expressing-fusion-protein-protects-neonatal-cotton-rats-from-respiratory-syncytia-virus-infection-by-transferring-antibodies-via-breast-milk-and-placenta
#10
Hsiao-Yun Shao, Ying-Chin Chen, Nai-Hsiang Chung, Yi-Ju Lu, Ching-Kun Chang, Shu-Ling Yu, Chia-Chyi Liu, Yen-Hung Chow
We evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant adenovirus that expresses a membrane-truncated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (Ad-F0ΔTM) in newborns via maternal immunization (MI) of pregnant cotton rats. Intranasal Ad-F0ΔTM immunization was given to pregnant female rats, and MI-newborn rats were then challenged intranasally with RSV. Anti-RSV IgGs were observed in the serum of MI-newborn rats after birth. The pulmonary viral loads in Ad-F0ΔTM vs. control vector, Ad-LacZ, and MI-newborns on day 3 post-challenge were reduced by 4 log10 /g lung...
June 28, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29941327/potential-impact-of-maternal-vaccination-on-life-threatening-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-during-infancy
#11
Nienke M Scheltema, Xynthia M Kavelaars, Kentigern Thorburn, Marije P Hennus, Job B van Woensel, Cornelis K van der Ent, José A M Borghans, Louis J Bont, Julia Drylewicz
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of infant mortality. Here, we estimated the potential impact of maternal vaccination against RSV on life-threatening RSV infection in infants. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model for maternal vaccine-induced antibody dynamics and used characteristics of a maternal RSV vaccine currently in phase 3 of clinical development. The model was applied to data from two cohorts of children younger than 12 months with RSV-related paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission in the United Kingdom (n = 370) and the Netherlands (n = 167), and a cohort of 211 children younger than 12 months with RSV-related in-hospital death from 20 countries worldwide...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876771/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-pathogenesis-immune-responses-and-current-vaccine-approaches
#12
REVIEW
Sara A Taleb, Asmaa A Al Thani, Khalid Al Ansari, Hadi M Yassine
Respiratory syncytial virus continues to pose a serious threat to the pediatric populations worldwide. With a genomic makeup of 15,200 nucleotides, the virus encodes for 11 proteins serving as envelope spikes, inner envelope proteins, and non-structural and ribonucleocapsid complexes. The fusion (F) and attachment (G) surface glycoproteins are the key targets for neutralizing antibodies. The highly variable G with altered glycosylations and the conformational alternations of F create challenges for vaccine development...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765035/efficacy-of-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-a-maternal-immunization-model
#13
Jorge C G Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Lori McGinnes-Cullen, Raymonde O Otoa, Mira C Patel, Lurds R Fernando, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Maternal immunization is an option to increase maternal antibody levels and protect infants from infection. Here we assess the efficacy of virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidates containing stabilized pre-fusion (pre-F) or post-fusion (post-F) conformations of the RSV F protein and the attachment RSV G protein in a maternal immunization model using cotton rats. VLP vaccines containing RSV F and G proteins strongly boost pre-existing RSV immunity in dams preventing their perinatal drop in immunity...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750895/predictors-and-incidence-of-hospitalization-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-associated-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-lrti-in-non-prophylaxed-moderate-to-late-preterm-infants-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#14
Hajrija Maksić, Suada Heljić, Fahrija Skokić, Darinka Šumanović-Glamuzina, Veroslava Milošević, Almir Zlatanović, Notario Gerard
Prematurity is a risk factor for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), due to immature humoral and cell-mediated immune system in preterm newborns, as well as their incomplete lung development. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the F glycoprotein of RSV, is licensed for the prevention of severe RSV LRTI in children at high risk for the disease. This study is a part of a larger observational, retrospective-prospective epidemiological study (PONI) conducted at 72 sites across 23 countries in the northern temperate zone...
August 1, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#15
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, Donald Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
To identify factors that predispose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization, and death in the first 6-24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC) studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months, matched by date and place of birth...
June 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613970/transient-tachypnea-of-the-newborn-is-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-hospitalization-due-to-rsv-bronchiolitis
#16
Santtu Heinonen, Liina Süvari, Mika Gissler, Olli Pitkänen, Sture Andersson, Otto Helve
BACKGROUND: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a self-limiting respiratory disorder, resulting from a failure to clear the lungs of perinatal fluid. As similar pathophysiological features are present in children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, we hypothesized that these two conditions may be connected. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study that included all children born in term (≥37 weeks of gestation) without congenital malformations in Finland between 1996 and 2015...
April 2, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560833/meteorological-factors-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonality-in-subtropical-australia
#17
C Morley, K Grimwood, S Maloney, R S Ware
Evidence is emerging regarding the influence of meteorological factors on seasonal respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks. Data however, are limited for subtropical regions, especially in the southern hemisphere. We examined whether meteorological data (daily minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall, relative humidity, dew point, daily global solar exposure) and tourist numbers were associated with the incidence of RSV in children aged <5 years for the Gold Coast region of South-East Queensland, Australia (latitude 28...
April 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546402/virus-specific-antibody-viral-load-and-disease-severity-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#18
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis, we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing antibody titers and levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to RSV fusion protein (F), attachment proteins of RSV group A and B, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509929/live-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-candidate-containing-stabilized-temperature-sensitivity-mutations-is-highly-attenuated-in-rsv-seronegative-infants-and-children
#19
Ursula J Buchholz, Coleen K Cunningham, Petronella Muresan, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Paul Sato, George K Siberry, Vivian Rexroad, Megan Valentine, Charlotte Perlowski, Elizabeth Schappell, Bhagvinji Thumar, Cindy Luongo, Emily Barr, Mariam Aziz, Ram Yogev, Stephen A Spector, Peter L Collins, Elizabeth J McFarland, Ruth A Karron
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral cause of severe respiratory illness in young children and lacks a vaccine. RSV cold-passage/stabilized 2 (RSVcps2) is a modification of a previously evaluated vaccine candidate in which 2 major attenuating mutations have been stabilized against deattenuation. Methods: RSV-seronegative 6-24-month-old children received an intranasal dose of 105.3 plaque-forming units (PFU) of RSVcps2 (n = 34) or placebo (n = 16) (International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials protocol P1114 and companion protocol CIR285)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509911/live-attenuated-respiratory-syncytial-virus-vaccine-candidate-with-deletion-of-rna-synthesis-regulatory-protein-m2-2-is-highly-immunogenic-in-children
#20
Elizabeth J McFarland, Ruth A Karron, Petronella Muresan, Coleen K Cunningham, Megan E Valentine, Charlotte Perlowski, Bhagvanji Thumar, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, George K Siberry, Elizabeth Schappell, Emily Barr, Vivian Rexroad, Ram Yogev, Stephen A Spector, Mariam Aziz, Nehali Patel, Mikhaela Cielo, Cindy Luongo, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
Background: Live respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) candidate vaccine LIDΔM2-2 is attenuated by deletion of the RSV RNA regulatory protein M2-2, resulting in upregulated viral gene transcription and antigen expression but reduced RNA replication. Methods: RSV-seronegative children ages 6-24 months received a single intranasal dose of 105 plaque forming units (PFU) of LIDΔM2-2 (n = 20) or placebo (n = 9) (NCT02237209, NCT02040831). RSV serum antibodies, vaccine infectivity, and reactogenicity were assessed...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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