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Bremansu Osa-Andrews, Kee W Tan, Angelina Sampson, Surtaj H Iram
Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) can efflux a wide variety of molecules including toxic chemicals, drugs, and their derivatives out of cells. Substrates of MRP1 include anti-cancer agents, antibiotics, anti-virals, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and many other drugs. To identify novel substrates and modulators of MRP1 by exploiting intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we genetically engineered six different two-color MRP1 proteins by changing green fluorescent protein (GFP) insertion sites, while keeping the red fluorescent protein (RFP) at the C-terminal of MRP1...
October 13, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Ludmila Otilia Cinteza, Cristina Scomoroscenco, Sorina Nicoleta Voicu, Cristina Lavinia Nistor, Sabina Georgiana Nitu, Bogdan Trica, Maria-Luiza Jecu, Cristian Petcu
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in fighting multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, their use in medical application is hindered by the public concern regarding the toxicity of metallic nanoparticles. In this study, rationally designed AgNP were produced, in order to balance the antibacterial activity and toxicity. A facile, environmentally friendly synthesis was used for the electrochemical fabrication of AgNPs. Chitosan was employed as the capping agent, both for the stabilization and to improve the biocompatibility...
October 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Farman Ali, Zujie Yao, Wanxin Li, Lina Sun, Wenxiong Lin, Xiangmin Lin
luxS is conserved in several bacterial species, including A. hydrophila, which causes infections in prawn, fish, and shrimp, and is consequently a great risk to the aquaculture industry and public health. luxS plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2), which performs wide-ranging functions in bacterial communication, and especially in quorum sensing (QS). The prediction of a 3D structure of the QS-associated LuxS protein is thus essential to better understand and control A. hydrophila pathogenecity...
October 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Naoya Okada, Takeo Fujita, Jun Kanamori, Ataru Sato, Yasumasa Horikiri, Takuji Sato, Hisashi Fujiwara, Hiroyuki Daiko
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin is one of the most widely used antibiotics for the treatment of serious infectious caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, reduced susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin has been observed in recent years. We report on a case of vancomycin resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) enteritis after colon reconstruction followed by esophagectomy and completion gastrectomy, with extended lymph node dissection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma...
August 24, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Kuan Liu, Mingming Sun, Mao Ye, Huizhen Chao, Yuanchao Zhao, Bing Xia, Wentao Jiao, Yanfang Feng, Xiaoxuan Zheng, Manqiang Liu, Jiaguo Jiao, Feng Hu
Coexistence of antibiotics/heavy metals and the overexpression of resistance genes in the vermicompost has become an emerging environmental issue. Little is known about the interaction and correlation between chemical pollutants and biological macromolecular compounds. In this study, three typical vermicompost samples were selected from the Yangtze River Delta region in China to investigate the antibiotic, heavy metal and corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and heavy metal resistance genes (HRGs)...
October 6, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Matthew P McCusker, Daniela Alves Ferreira, Donal Cooney, Bruno Martins Alves, Seámus Fanning, Jean-Marie Pagès, Marta Martins, Anne Davin-Regli
PURPOSE: The main focus of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a selected number of human clinical isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes and explore the effects of selected chemosensitisers on the reversal of the resistant phenotype of these isolates. METHODOLOGY: This study design was accomplished by: (i) characterising several multidrug resistant (MDR) E. aerogenes clinical isolates; (ii) evaluating the contribution of target gene mutations to the resistance phenotype focusing on fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol only; (iii) evaluating the contribution of membrane permeability and efflux to the MDR phenotype; (iv) assessing the combined action of selected antimicrobials and chemosensitisers (to identify combinations with synergistic effects and able to reduce the MIC); (v) understand how these combinations can modulate the permeability or efflux on these isolates...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Yun-Hu Zhao, Xiao-Lin Qin, Jie-Yi Yang, Yi-Wen Liao, Xing-Zhong Wu, He-Ping Zheng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify the ceftriaxone resistance-related genes of N. gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We compared the differences in gene expression between the susceptibility (MIC=0.002-0.004μg/ml) and decreased susceptibility (MIC=0.125-0.5μg/ml) of isolates to ceftriaxone using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RESULTS: The total RNAs of 10 clinical isolates were used to make libraries and generated an average of 24.07 Mb reads per sample; these were assembled into 1871 mRNA genes...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Abigail Moore, Anthony Harnden, Cameron C Grant, Sheena Patel, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: The decision to treat a suspected case of pertussis with antibiotics is usually based on a clinical diagnosis rather than waiting for laboratory confirmation. The current guideline focuses on making the clinical diagnosis of pertussis-associated cough in adults and children. METHODS: The American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework were used...
October 12, 2018: Chest
Imran Ali, Mohd Suhail, Leonid Asnin
New chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the enantiomeric resolution of quinolones is developed and described. The column used was Chirobiotic T (150 × 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). Three mobile phases used were MeOH:ACN:Water:TEA (70:10:20:0.1%), (60:30:10:0.1%), and (50:30:20:0.1%). The flow rate of the mobile phases was 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at different wavelengths. The values of retention, resolution, and separation factors ranged from 1.5 to 6.0, 1.80 to 2.25, and 2.86 to 6...
October 15, 2018: Chirality
Oguz Karabay, Meltem Karabay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Andrea J Loizeau, Nathan Theill, Simon M Cohen, Stefanie Eicher, Susan L Mitchell, Silvio Meier, Michelle McDowell, Mike Martin, Florian Riese
Background: fact Boxes are decision support tools that can inform about treatment effects. Objectives: to test whether Fact Box decision support tools impacted decisional conflict, knowledge and preferences about the use of antibiotics and artificial hydration in advanced dementia. Design: randomized controlled trial. Setting: Swiss-German region of Switzerland. Subjects: two hundred thirty-two participants (64 physicians, 100 relatives of dementia patients, 68 professional guardians) randomly allocated to intervention (N = 114) or control (N = 118)...
October 15, 2018: Age and Ageing
Sara V Branson, Elysa McClintic, R Patrick Yeatts
PURPOSE: To describe risk factors, clinical parameters, treatment, and prognosis for patients with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis presenting with orbital cellulitis. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 6 patients identified with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis and orbital cellulitis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging at a tertiary care center from January 1980 to December 2016. Medical records were reviewed for demographics, risk factors, symptoms, etiology, radiographic diagnosis, complications, treatments, and outcomes...
October 9, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Juan J Díaz, Beatriz Espín, Oscar Segarra, Gloria Domínguez-Ortega, Javier Blasco-Alonso, Beatriz Cano, Ana Rayo, Ana Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, epidemiological and management characteristics of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) cases in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multicenter observational retrospective study. FPIES cases diagnosed in specialized units in Spain over 12 months in 2017 (January to December) according to the recently published international diagnostic criteria were included. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients (53...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Roberto Romero, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Juan Pedro Kusanovic, Percy Pacora, Bogdan Panaitescu, Offer Erez, Bo Hyun Yoon
Clinical chorioamnionitis is the most common infection related diagnosis made in labor and delivery units worldwide. It is traditionally believed to be due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity, which elicits a maternal inflammatory response characterized by maternal fever, uterine tenderness, maternal tachycardia and leukocytosis. The condition is often associated with fetal tachycardia and a foul smelling amniotic fluid. Recent studies in which amniocentesis has been used to characterize the microbiologic state of the amniotic cavity and the inflammatory response show that only 60% of patients with the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis have proven infection using culture or molecular microbiologic techniques...
June 2018: Nogyogyaszati Szuleszeti Tovabbkepzo Szemle
Tristan Tham, Lauren Rahman, Peter Costantino
Acute otitis media (AOM) represents a significant disease burden in the pediatric population. Besides vaccinations, there are no robust measures of reducing incidence of AOM in this age-group. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of a non-invasive middle ear aeration device, the EarPopper device (EP). We aim to investigate the reduction of episodes AOM in children with recurrent otitis media. The control arm will be observational. The intervention arm will have the EP used...
December 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Johannes Cairns, Katariina Koskinen, Reetta Penttinen, Tommi Patinen, Anna Hartikainen, Roosa Jokela, Liisa Ruusulehto, Sirja Viitamäki, Sari Mattila, Teppo Hiltunen, Matti Jalasvuori
Mobile genetic elements such as conjugative plasmids are responsible for antibiotic resistance phenotypes in many bacterial pathogens. The ability to conjugate, the presence of antibiotics, and ecological interactions all have a notable role in the persistence of plasmids in bacterial populations. Here, we set out to investigate the contribution of these factors when the conjugation network was disturbed by a plasmid-dependent bacteriophage. Phage alone effectively caused the population to lose plasmids, thus rendering them susceptible to antibiotics...
September 2018: MSystems
Joana C Branco, Mariana F Cardoso, Luís Carvalho Lourenço, Liliana Santos, David Valadas Horta, Élia Coimbra, Jorge A Reis
Introduction: Walled-off necrosis (WON) is a potentially lethal late complication of acute pancreatitis (AP) and occurs in less than 10% of AP cases. It can be located in or outside the pancreas. When infected, the mortality rate increases and can reach 100% if the collection is not drained. Its treatment is complex and includes, at the beginning, intravenous antibiotics, which permit sepsis control and a delay in the therapeutic intervention, like drainage. Nowadays, a minimally invasive approach is advised...
September 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
Lawrence J Oh, Hamish Dunn, Svetlana Cherepanoff, Michel Giblin
We describe a case of choroidal melanoma initially presenting with orbital cellulitis, fulminant conjunctival swelling, and secondary angle closure. Despite treatment with intravenous antibiotics, the patient's condition did not improve. With further investigations including ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance imaging, a high-density lesion was found within the globe. Characteristic imaging findings suggested a malignant origin and the lesion was found to be a melanoma on histopathological analysis.
September 2018: Ocular Oncology and Pathology
Andrea Iannone, Marinella Ruospo, Germaine Wong, Michele Barone, Mariabeatrice Principi, Alfredo Di Leo, Giovanni F M Strippoli
Background: Diverticular disease treatment is limited to fibres, antibiotics, and surgery. There is conflicting evidence on mesalazine benefits and harms. Aim: We systematically reviewed current evidence on benefits and harms of mesalazine versus all other treatments in people with diverticular disease. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, for studies published to July 2018. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (disease remission/recurrence, acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, need for surgery/hospitalization, all-cause/disease-related mortality, adverse events), mean differences (MD) or standardized MD (SMD) for continuous outcomes (quality of life, symptoms score, time to recurrence/remission), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Camilla Adler Sørensen, Stig Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Dorthe Rejkjær Holm, Alice Friis-Møller, Jørgen Engberg, Hengameh C Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Carsten Struve, Anette M Hammerum, Lone Jannok Porsbo, Randi Føns Petersen, Andreas Munk Petersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is frequently isolated from sporadic cases of diarrhea and in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in several regions of the world. The pathophysiology of EAEC continues to be enigmatic, and the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in EAEC-associated diarrhea has been discussed. Since the level of antibiotic resistance is increasing, it is essential to restrict the use of antibiotics to prevent further resistance development. We aimed to investigate EAEC strains in adult Danish patients suffering from diarrhea and from healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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