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Pneumonia AND Nosocomial Infections

Diego F Baenas, Emanuel J Saad, Fernando A Diehl, Danilo Musso, Jacqueline G González, Victoria Russo, Mario Vilaró, Ricardo A Albertini
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomially acquired urinary tract infections (NAUTI) represent an important public health issue, but its characteristics when they are not catheter associated (CA-UTI) or when they take place outside intensive care units (ICU) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the patients' characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of NAUTI, both CA-UTI and no CA-UTI, in general ward and ICU. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analytic cross-sectional study, between 2009 and 2013, in a third level universitary hospital...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Samuel G Erickson, Lauren Lessor, Chandler J O'Leary, Jason J Gill, Mei Liu
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with the gastrointestinal tract and is a significant nosocomial pathogen due to its antibiotic resistance. Phage therapy against K. pneumoniae may prove useful in treating infections caused by this bacterium. This announcement describes the genome of the T5-like K. pneumoniae siphophage Sugarland.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Jiangang Zhang, Chunjiang Zhao, Hongbin Chen, Henan Li, Qi Wang, Zhanwei Wang, Feifei Zhang, Hui Wang
Objective: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for intra-abdominal infections (IAIs), assess the clinical outcomes of IAIs, and investigate the spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of major pathogens causing IAIs. Patients and methods: This prospective observational study enrolled patients from the Chinese Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (CARES) program between 2007 and 2016. Data on the clinicopathological factors and causative pathogens were collected...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Zhongqiang Yan, Yu Zhou, Mingmei Du, Yanling Bai, Bowei Liu, Meiliang Gong, Hongbin Song, Yigang Tong, Yunxi Liu
BACKGROUND: Following the alarming outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (CRKP) in five intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital in China, a prospective investigation of CRKP colonized/infected patients was conducted. AIM: To describe the diffusion and transmission of CRKP among epidemiologically linked ICU patients, staff and environment. METHODS: Enhanced CRKP infected/colonized case monitoring was performed by the real-time nosocomial infection surveillance system (RT-NISS)...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Velma Rebic, Nejra Masic, Sanela Teskeredzic, Mufida Aljicevic, Amila Abduzaimovic, Damir Rebic
Introduction: Acinetobacter species is associated with health care associated infections especially in patients on respiratory therapy equipment and indwelling catheters. They are becoming increasingly drug resistant. The knowledge of the prevalence and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter spp. is important. Aims: The study is undertaken to estimate the prevalence rate, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance pattern of isolates. in Acinetobacter spp...
November 2018: Medical Archives
Ana Motos, Joseph L Kuti, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Antoni Torres, David P Nicolau
Describing the disposition of antimicrobials agents at the site of infection is crucial to guide optimal dosing for investigational agents. For antibiotics in development for nosocomial pneumonia, concentrations are frequently determined in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lung from a bronchoscopy at a single time point. The influence of profiles constructed from a single ELF concentration point for each subject has never been reported. This study compares the pharmacokinetics of two β-lactams, ceftolozane and piperacillin, among different ELF sampling approaches using simulated human regimens in a swine pneumonia model...
December 3, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nidhi Bhardwaj, Surbhi Khurana, Minu Kumari, Rajesh Malhotra, Purva Mathur
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem worldwide especially among the surgical site infections (SSIs). SSI is becoming more serious due to hospital-acquired infections/nosocomial infections, which further leads to the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. To investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns among Gram-negative bacteria in SSI in in- and out-patients the present study was designed. METHODOLOGY: During the 4 years (January 2013-December 2016), the antimicrobial resistant pattern was studied in the admitted patients and in the patients who were followed up to the outpatients department (OPD) after discharge...
October 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Poothakuzhiyil Remya, Mariappan Shanthi, Uma Sekar
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) is an important nosocomial pathogen, and the emergence of multidrug resistance in these organisms limits the treatment options for serious infections caused by them. K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is one of the clinically significant Class A beta-lactamases. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to detect the KPC and its coexistence with other beta-lactamases in K. pneumoniae . MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 370 isolates, collected over a period of 1 year, were included in this study...
October 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Lukas Wisgrill, Sarah Lepuschitz, Marion Blaschitz, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Magda Diab-El Schahawi, Sören Schubert, Alexander Indra, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: The Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent pathogen causing outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Some Enterobacteriaceae can acquire the ability to sequester iron from infected tissue by secretion of iron-chelating compounds such as yersiniabactin. Here we describe an outbreak and clinical management of infections due to a highly virulent yersiniabactin-producing, non-multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in a NICU. Outbreak investigation and effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary infection control measurements to prevent patient-to-patient transmission of highly-pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae were undertaken...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Song Liu, Meng Wang, Liming Zheng, Wenxian Guan
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial pathogens has become a worldwide problem that leads to major healthcare and economic burdens. Regional antimicrobial resistance profiles are needed to inform selection of proper antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS In collaboration with the Hospital Infection Control Office at our hospitals, we analyzed the constitution of nosocomial pathogens and the corresponding drug-resistance profiles. We paid particular attention to characteristics of pathogens that were derived from the bloodstream, and summarized the drug-resistance tendency of 2 specific bacteria within the most recent decade to reflect the development of resistance in regional China...
November 28, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
C Zhang, Y L Gong, X Q Luo, M X Liu, Y Z Peng
Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, so as to provide reliable basis for the rational use of antibiotics and the effective control over nosocomial infection. Methods: Wound samples of 1 310 thermal burn patients admitted into our burn wards from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. API bacteria identification panels and automatical bacteria identification equipment were used to identify pathogens...
November 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Z Chen, J Xiang
Objective: To investigate resistance mechanism and virulence features of carbapenems-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and to provide theoretical foundation for the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in burn wards as well as clinical therapy of CRKP. Methods: Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from clinical samples of burn patients hospitalized in our unit from February to December 2016 were collected. The diameters of inhibition zone of imipemen or meropenem susceptibility disk of the above strains were≤22 mm...
November 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Georgios Meletis, Lemonia Skoura
The global spread of carbapenemase-encoding genes among Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens, has led to the revival of polymyxins. Colistin and polymyxin B, despite their serious adverse effects, have become last resort treatment options for multi- or even extensively-drug-resistant bacterial infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their use however has been followed by an increase in polymyxin resistance rates and the spread of transferable resistance genes limiting further the treatment options and contributing to the emergence of pan-drug-resistance...
November 26, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery
Aaron J Heffernan, Fekade B Sime, Jeffrey Lipman, Jayesh Dhanani, Katherine Andrews, David Ellwood, Keith Grimwood, Jason A Roberts
BACKGROUND: . Knowledge of antibiotic concentrations achievable in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) will help guide antibiotic dosing for treating patients with gram-negative bacillary ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). OBJECTIVE: . To compare: (1) the ELF:serum penetration ratio of antibiotics in patients with pneumonia, including VAP, and also healthy study participants and (2) the ELF and/or tracheal aspirate antibiotic concentrations following intravenous and nebuliser delivery...
November 22, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Lai Jiang, Jia Lin, Clifford C Taggart, José A Bengoechea, Christopher J Scott
One of the most important health concerns in society is the development of nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. The purpose of this review is to discuss the issues in current antibiotic therapies and the ongoing progress of developing new strategies for the treatment of ESKAPE pathogen infections, which is acronymized for Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species. We not only examine the current issues caused by multidrug resistance but we also examine the barrier effects such as biofilm and intracellular localization exploited by these pathogens to avoid antibiotic exposure...
September 2018: Journal of Interdisciplinary Nanomedicine
Cesira Giordano, Simona Barnini
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a worldwide recognized cause of nosocomial infections and requires urgent public health attention. The main reason of this concern is the increasing resistance to all the last-resort antibiotics, including colistin. The ideal methodology for colistin susceptibility testing still remains undefined. However, the emergence of colistin as one of the last-option treatments requires a reliable method to determine the susceptibility profile of resistant isolates...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Zhou Liu, Yi Gu, Xin Li, Yanyan Liu, Ying Ye, Shihe Guan, Jiabin Li
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent (hypermucoviscous) Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-HMKP) poses a significant public health challenge. We investigated its epidemiology and molecular characteristics in a tertiary care hospital in eastern China. METHODS: CR-HMKP were identified among 106 non-duplicated carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (from June 2013 to September 2017) using the string test. The pulsotype (PT) and sequence type (ST) of CR-HMKP isolates were determined using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing...
March 2019: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Su Xu, Ying Li, Xiaogang Xu, Jiachun Su, Demei Zhu, Fupin Hu, Minggui Wang
Background: Acinetobacter spp. are among the most common causes of bacterial nosocomial infections, including pneumonia and bloodstream infections. Previous studies on the risk factors of bloodstream Acinetobacter spp. infections (BSAcIs) primarily compared uninfected patients to those with BSAcIs. However, the identified risk factors contribute to either BSIs or Acinetobacter spp. infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the risk factors of BSAcIs in comparison to non-bloodstream Acinetobacter infections (non-BSAcIs)...
November 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jessica Loraine, Eva Heinz, Jessica De Sousa Almeida, Oleksandr Milevskyy, Supayang P Voravuthikunchai, Potjanee Srimanote, Pattarachai Kiratisin, Nicholas R Thomson, Peter W Taylor
The capacity to resist the bactericidal action of complement (C') is a strong but poorly understood virulence trait in Klebsiella spp. Killing requires activation of one or more C' pathways, assembly of C5b-9 membrane attack complexes (MACs) on the surface of the outer membrane (OM), and penetration of MACs into the target bilayer. We interrogated whole-genome sequences of 164 Klebsiella isolates from three tertiary hospitals in Thailand for genes encoding surface-located macromolecules considered to play a role in determination of C' resistance...
November 7, 2018: MSphere
Christopher M Bland, Manjunath P Pai, Thomas P Lodise
Therapeutic drug management is regularly performed for aminoglycosides in an effort to maximize their effectiveness and safety. The ratio of maximum plasma drug concentration to minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax /MIC) has long been regarded as the primary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index of clinical efficacy for aminoglycosides due to their concentration-dependent killing. In this review, however, we discuss why the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio may be a more reliable indicator of bacterial killing and clinical efficacy for these agents...
November 7, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
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