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Pneumonia AND Nosocomial Infections

Agnese Lupo, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
The nonfermenting bacteria belonging to Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. are capable of colonizing both humans and animals and can also be opportunistic pathogens. More specifically, the species Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been recurrently reported as multidrug-resistant and even pandrug-resistant in clinical isolates. Both species were categorized among the ESKAPE pathogens, ESKAPE standing for Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , A. baumannii , P...
June 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Sherwin K B Sy, Luning Zhuang, Serubbabel Sy, Hartmut Derendorf
Avibactam is a non-β-lactam, β-lactamase inhibitor of the diazabicyclooctane class that covalently acylates its β-lactamase targets, encompassing extended spectrum of activities that cover serine β-lactamases but not metallo-β-lactamases. Ceftazidime and avibactam have complementary pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. Both drugs have a half-life of approximately 2 h, making them suitable to be combined in a fixed-dose combination ratio of 4:1 (ceftazidime:avibactam). Renal clearance is the primary elimination pathway of both ceftazidime and avibactam, and dose adjustment is required in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Nadya Andini, Anne Hu, Luming Zhou, Steven Cogill, Tza-Huei Wang, Carl T Wittwer, Samuel Yang
BACKGROUND: The time required for bloodstream pathogen detection, identification (ID), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) does not satisfy the acute needs of disease management. Conventional methods take up to 3 days for ID and AST. Molecular diagnostics have reduced times for ID, but their promise to supplant culture is unmet because AST times remain slow. We developed a combined quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based ID+AST assay with sequential detection, ID, and AST of leading nosocomial bacterial pathogens...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Saibal Chakravorty, Prashant Arun
OBJECTIVE: Carbapenems are one of the last therapeutic options to treat various bacterial infections including multidrug resistant (MDR) nosocomial infections. However, excessive and inappropriate prescription of this drug has recently led to an epidemic rise in carbapenem resistance. Optimizing antibiotic utilization and exploring alternate options can be a potential way to control carbapenem resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of novel antibiotic adjuvant entity (ceftriaxone + sulbactam + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] [CSE-1034]) in the treatment of various nosocomial infections...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Poothakuzhiyil Remya, Mariappan Shanthi, Uma Sekar
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae causes both nosocomial and community-associated infections. Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP), new variant of K. pneumoniae , can cause invasive infections in young healthy individuals as well as in the immunocompromised population. Hypervirulent strains frequently belong to capsular serotypes K1 or K2. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in hvKP is a cause for concern. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The present study was done to detect the K1 and K2 serotypes among clinical isolates of K...
July 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Wan-Li Jiang, Xiao-Ping Hu, Zhi-Peng Hu, Zheng Tang, Hong-Bing Wu, Liang-Hao Chen, Zhi-Wei Wang, Ying-An Jiang
Nosocomial infection (NI) is one of the most significant complications arising after open heart surgery, and leads to increased mortality, hospitalization time and health resource allocation. This study investigated the morbidity, mortality, and independent risk factors associated with NI following open heart surgery. We retrospectively surveyed the records of 1606 consecutive cardiovascular surgical patients to identify those that developed NI. The NI selection criteria were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines...
April 2018: Current medical science
Yonglin Zhou, Tingting Wang, Yan Guo, Shui Liu, Jianfeng Wang, Yingbo Shen, Shusheng Tang, Yang Wang, Xuming Deng
Carbapenem resistance among strains of the nosocomial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae is increasing worldwide, causing serious clinical infections and higher mortality rates. Polymyxins are some of the few "last resort" options for treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae , including K. pneumoniae , however, the emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has largely rendered polymyxin-class antibiotics ineffective in a clinical setting. We previously identified a natural compound, pterostilbene, which has a synergistic effect in combination with polymyxins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Roman Farooq Alvi, Bilal Aslam, Naveed Shahzad, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool, Muhammad Shafique
Antibiotic resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, is associated with various nosocomial infections that are difficult to treat. This study is designed to find out the patterns of resistance against commonly used antibiotics in K. pneumoniae clinical isolates with special attention to fluoroquinolones. A total number of 200 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates collected from various tertiary care hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan for a span of 1 year were investigated. Isolates were identified biochemically and genetically using VITEK® system and species-specific PCR, respectively...
July 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Amélie Heinrichs, Maria Angeles Argudín, Ricardo De Mendonça, Ariane Deplano, Sandrine Roisin, Magali Dodémont, Julien Coussement, Lorenzo Filippin, Jill Dombrecht, Katrien De Bruyne, Te-Din Huang, Philip Supply, Baudouin Byl, Youri Glupczynski, Olivier Denis
Background: The incidence of nosocomial infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) can help elucidate the transmission route of nosocomial pathogens. Methods: We combined WGS and epidemiological data to analyze an outbreak of NDM-producing K. pneumoniae that occurred in two Belgian hospitals situated about 50 miles apart. We characterized 74 NDM-producing K. pneumoniae isolates [Hospital A (n=9); Hospital B (n=24) and 41 contemporary isolates from 15 other Belgian hospitals] using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and WGS...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Lenka Doubravská, Radovan Uvízl, Tomáš Gabrhelík, Olga Klementová, Milan Kolář
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is an infection of the lung parenchyma. It is the second most frequent nosocomial infection and the leading cause of death from infection in critically ill patients. Hospital-acquired and, particularly, ventilator-associated pneumonia prolong the hospital stay and increase treatment costs. The clinical signs of pneumonia are rather non-specific, with limited possibilities to distinguish the lung condition from other nosological entities. The yield, effectiveness and cost of new rapid diagnostic procedures as well as early biochemical markers specific for pneumonia have not been sufficiently verified and clinical translation of technological innovations is slow...
March 2018: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
Haifaa Hassan Al-Mousa, Abeer Aly Omar, Víctor Daniel Rosenthal, Mona Foda Salama, Nasser Yehia Aly, Mohammad El-Dossoky Noweir, Flavie Maria Rebello, Dennis Malungcot Narciso, Amani Fouad Sayed, Anu Kurian, Sneha Mary George, Amna Mostafa Mohamed, Ruby Jose Ramapurath, Suga Thomas Varghese, Pablo Wenceslao Orellano
Objective: To analyse the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach (IMA) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in three intensive care units (ICUs) from two hospitals in Kuwait City from January 2014 to March 2015. Design: A prospective, before-after study on 2507 adult ICU patients. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying CDC/NHSN definitions. During intervention, we implemented the IMA through the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS), which included: (1) a bundle of infection prevention interventions; (2) education; (3) outcome surveillance; and (4) feedback on VAP rates and consequences...
July 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
Scott A Becka, Elise T Zeiser, Melissa D Barnes, Magdalena A Taracila, Kevin Nguyen, Indresh Singh, Granger G Sutton, John J LiPuma, Derrick E Fouts, Krisztina M Papp-Wallace
Burkholderia multivorans is a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of >20 related species of nosocomial pathogens that commonly infect individuals suffering from Cystic Fibrosis. β-Lactam antibiotics are recommended as therapy for infections due to B. multivorans , which possesses two β-lactamase genes, bla penA and bla AmpC PenA is a carbapenemase with a substrate profile similar to the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC); in addition, expression of PenA is inducible by β-lactams in B...
July 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Juergen Lohmeyer, Rory E Morty, Susanne Herold
The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in empirical antimicrobial therapy is a lifesaving strategy for patients in intensive care. At the same time, antibiotics dramatically increase the risk for nosocomial infections, such as hospital‑acquired pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this issue of the JCI, Robak and colleagues identified a mechanism by which depletion of resident gut and lung microbiota by antibiotic treatment results in secondary IgA deficiency and impaired anti-P...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Michał Wałaszek, Anna Różańska, Marta Zofia Wałaszek, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology and microbiology of VAP in Polish ICUs from 2013 to 2015, as well as to understand how these depended on the diagnostic methods used to identify VAP pathogens and the clinical strategy for VAP treatment. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in seven Polish adult ICUs. VAP surveillance was based on the European Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance Network recommendations and was defined as pneumonia occurring more than 48 h after receiving mechanical ventilation, with symptom onset 3 days or more after the hospital stay...
July 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sarah Larcombe, Melanie L Hutton, Thomas V Riley, Helen E Abud, Dena Lyras
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) caused by C. difficile is one of the most common nosocomial infections, however, little is known about infections related to antimicrobial use for pathogens other than C. difficile. We therefore aimed to provide insight into other bacterial causes of AAD, and how infection with these pathogens causes damage in the dysbiotic gut. METHODS: Clinical isolates from C. difficile-negative AAD patients were whole genome sequenced for in silico analysis of potential virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Infection
Priyanka Gupta, Mohit Bhatia, Pratima Gupta, Balram J Omar
Context: Possible linkage between biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a major area of concern. Aim: To evaluate the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria to four commonly used biocides. Settings and Design: A pilot study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from April to November 2017. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four MDR bacterial isolates, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Staphylococcus aureus , were obtained from various clinical samples of inpatients...
April 2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Gunjan, Ankesh, Saurav Shekhar, Akhileshwar, Priyesh Kumar
Context: Ventilator associated pneumonia is one the most common nosocomial infection encountered in the ICU patients. Despite of the implementation of the VAP prevention bundle, the incidence remains high. This can be attributed to the peritubal leak and the aspiration of the oropharyngeal secretions. The secretions further forms a nidus for the growth of organisms in the lower respiratory tract. In this study, a specialised tube, named 'suction above cuff endotracheal tube' is used, which has an additional suction port opening above the cuff...
April 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Duraid Younan, Russell Griffin, Ahmed Zaky, Jean-Francois Pittet, Bernard Camins
BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention replaced the definition for ventilator-associated pneumonia with an algorithm comprised of three categories-ventilator associated condition (VAC), infection -related ventilator associated complication (IVAC) and possible ventilator associated pneumonia (PVAP). We sought to compare the outcome of trauma patients with VAEs to those with No VAEs. METHODS: Patients admitted from 2013-2017 were identified from trauma registry...
June 27, 2018: Shock
Bianca Lee, Kevin Yeroushalmi, Hay Me Me, Paresh Sojitra, Usman Jilani, Syed Iqbal, Shadab Ahmed, Janice Verley, Jagadish Akella
Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis is most commonly seen as a nosocomial infection and in post-neurosurgical patients. Reports of community acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis cases are rare in the United States. The objective of this case report is to discuss an uncommon pathogen causing meningitis, Klebsiella pneumoniae , its risk and prognostic factors and to emphasize the importance of early recognition and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Case report: We report a clinical case of adult community acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis with recovery...
June 2018: Germs
Hail M Al-Abdely, Yassir Khidir Mohammed, Victor D Rosenthal, Pablo W Orellano, Mohamed ALazhary, Eman Kaid, Anan Al-Attas, Ghadeer Hawsawi, Ashraf Kelany, Bedoor Hussein, Bayan Esam, Rami Altowerqi, Modhi A Alkamaly, Nader A Tawfic, Elinita Cruzpero, Raya M Al Rashidi, Reny Thomas, Apsia M Molano, Hessa A Al Enazy, Fatima M Al Adwani, Arlu M Casuyon Pahilanga, Sharifa Alatawi, Raslan Nakhla, Fatma M Al Adwani, Rosita Gasmin Aromin, Evangelina Balon Ubalde, Hanan Hanafy Diab, Nahla A Kader, Ibtesam Y Hassan Assiry, Fahad A Sawan, Hassan E Ammari, Alhasan M Mashiakhy, Elaine B Santiago, Christian M S Chua, Imee M Dalis, Haider M Arishi, Ruthelma Lozada, Ibrahim A M Al-Zaydani Asiri, Hala Ahmed, Al Jarie, Ali S M Al-Qathani, Halima Y Al-Alkami, Mervat AlDalaton, Siti J B Alih, Mohammed J Alaliany, Najla J Helali, Grace Sindayen, Annalyn A Malificio, Haya B Al Dossari, Abdulmajid G Algethami, Dia Mohamed, Leigh Yanne, Avigail Tan, Sheema Babu, Shatha M Abduljabbar, Hala Rushdi, Janice Fernandez, Waleed M Hussain, Renuga D Rajavel, Syed Z Bukhari, Abdullah A Turkistani, Jeyashri J Mushtaq, Eida Albeladi, Sally Aboushoushah, Nahed Qushmaq, Leide Shyrine, Jomol Philipose, Mohamed Raees, Nawal S AbdulKhalik, Marjory Madco, Mohd Abdulghany, Athena Manao, Catherine Acostan, Rania Safwat, Muhammad Halwani, Nahla A H Abdul Aal, Anumol Thomas, Shaymaa M Abdulatif, Nelia C Ariola, Aisha H Mutwalli, Nelia Ariola, Eatedal Bohlega, Saly Simon, Estelita Damlig, Sherin G Elsherbini, Ilama T Krishne, Sheela Abraham, Mohammed A Ali Karrar, Nisreen A Gosn, Abdulaziz A Al Hindi, Rasha N Jaha, Saeda M AlQahtani, Ali O Abdul Aziz, Nadia L Demaisip, Elizabeth Laungayan Cortez, Analen F Cabato, Jerlie M Gonzales Celiz, Mohammed A Al Raey, Saeed A Al Darani, Misbah R Aziz, Batool A Manea, Eslam Samy, Solita Briones, Radhika Krishnan, Saman S M Raees, Kehkashan Tabassum, Khalid M Ghalilah, Mohamed Alradady, Abdulrahim Al Qatri, Mafaten Chaouali, Magdy Elsisi, Hajer A Aldossary, Shehab Al-Suliman, Amina A Al Talib, Nadira Albaghly, Mohammad E Haqlre Mia, Manal M Al-Gethamy, Dhafer M Alamri, Adnan S Al-Saadi, Evelyn P Ayugat, Nawaf A Al Hazazi, Modi I Al Hussain, Yvonne Caminade, Ann J Santos, Mohamed H Abdulwahab, Bushra T A Al-Garni
BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Approach (IMA) and use of INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in Saudi Arabia from September 2013 to February 2017. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, before-after surveillance study on 14,961 patients in 37 intensive care units (ICUs) of 22 hospitals. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying the definitions of the CDC/NHSN...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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