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Pneumonia AND Nosocomial Infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303841/immunotherapy-with-antiprogrammed-cell-death-1-antibody-improves-outcome-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinal-cord-injury-followed-by-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#1
Tiphaine Ruggeri, Cédric Jacqueline, Xavier Ambrosi, Alexis Broquet, Juliette Desfrançois, Antoine Roquilly, Frédéric Altare, Karim Asehnoune
OBJECTIVES: In patients with spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury-immune depression syndrome induces pneumonia. We aimed to develop a new spinal cord injury-immune depression syndrome mouse model and to test antiprogrammed cell death 1 therapy. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Research laboratory. SUBJECTS: RjOrl: SWISS and BALB/cJ mice. INTERVENTIONS: Mouse model of spinal cord injury-immune depression syndrome followed by a methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia...
October 9, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296022/-characteristics-of-bloodstream-infections-in-adult-patients-of-two-third-level-centers-of-c%C3%A3-rdoba-argentina
#2
Emanuel José Saad, Diego Federico Baenas, Cecilia Soledad Boisseau, Mercedes Jesús García, Silvana Alejandra Nuñez, Domingo Cesar Balderramo, Daniela Hernandez, Juan Pablo Caeiro
Background: Bloodstream infections (BI) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine epidemiological, microbiological and clinical features of community (CA-BI) and nosocomial bloodstream infections (N-BI). Methods: Bacteremia and fungemia events were retrospectively analyzed in two third-level hospitals between April 2009 and August 2013. Results: We identified 1150 events of bloodstream infections, 53...
September 17, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289486/airborne-acquisition-of-pneumocystis-in-bronchoscopy-units-a-hidden-danger-to-healthcare-workers
#3
Ruben Morilla, María T Martínez-Rísquez, Carmen de la Horra, Vicente Friaza, José Martín-Juan, Beatriz Romero, Manuel Conde, José M Varela, Enrique J Calderón, Francisco J Medrano
The possible presence of Pneumocystis in a bronchoscopy unit of a tertiary-hospital was examined by detecting Pneumocystis-specific DNA by polymerase chain reaction in prospectively obtained samples of oropharyngeal wash from seven healthcare workers (HCWs) and air from three areas of the unit at different time points (baseline, days +15,+30,+60,+90 after initiation of the study). Positive samples were genotyped at two genetic loci: the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSUrRNA) fragment by direct sequencing and the gene for dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) by restriction fragment-length polymorphism...
October 4, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278499/epidemiological-trends-of-fatal-pediatric-trauma-a-single-center-study
#4
Sanjeev Lalwani, Fahmi Hasan, Surbhi Khurana, Purva Mathur
To evaluate the potential risk factors which increase the incidence of post-trauma complications and mortality in pediatric population.A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients below 18 years of age with a fatal outcome who were admitted to an Indian level-1 trauma center between January 2013 and December 2015. This cohort was analyzed to determine the demographics, injury mechanism, injury severity, microbiological profile, and cause of death.In total, 320 pediatric patients with a fatal outcome were studied which showed male preponderance (71...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273362/isothermal-amplification-and-rapid-detection-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-based-on-the-multiple-cross-displacement-amplification-mcda-and-gold-nanoparticle-lateral-flow-biosensor-lfb
#5
Lina Niu, Fan Zhao, Jinlong Chen, Jinqing Nong, Chunmei Wang, Jing Wang, Naishu Gao, Xiaoxue Zhu, Lei Wu, Shoukui Hu
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a frequent pathogen causing nosocomial infections and outbreaks. We developed a multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) assay for the detection of K. pneumoniae, which can get the positive results within 40 minutes' isothermal amplification. Gold-nanoparticle lateral flow biosensor (LFB) and colorimetric indicators were used for the rapid readouts of MCDA amplification. The detection limit of this assay was 100 fg per reaction at 65°C, which was confirmed to be the optimal amplification temperature according to the real time turbidimeters...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30268919/tigecycline-resistance-caused-by-rpsj-evolution-in-a-59-year-old-male-patient-infected-with-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-during-tigecycline-treatment
#6
Fang He, Qiucheng Shi, Ying Fu, Juan Xu, Yunsong Yu, Xiaoxing Du
Carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) nosocomial infection increased rapidly in recent years. By far, the anti-infection drugs for CRKP infection are limited. Tigecycline is one of the last resort treatments for CRKP infections. In this study, curative effect of tigecycline therapy was monitored in a 59-year-old male patient infected with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. Consecutive clonal consistent K. pneumoniae isolates were cultured during tigecycline treatment. Whole genome sequencing of the isolates was performed, and bioinformatics analysis was further performed...
September 27, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249685/a-large-refractory-nosocomial-outbreak-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carbapenemase-kpc-producing-escherichia-coli-demonstrates-carbapenemase-gene-outbreaks-involving-sink-sites-require-novel-approaches-to-infection-control
#7
V Decraene, H T T Phan, R George, D H Wyllie, O Akinremi, Z Aiken, P Cleary, A Dodgson, L Pankhurst, D W Crook, C Lenney, A S Walker, N Woodford, R Sebra, F Fath-Ordoubadi, A J Mathers, A C Seale, M Guiver, A McEwan, V Watts, W Welfare, N Stoesser, J Cawthorne
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a health threat, but effective control interventions remain unclear. Hospital wastewater sites are increasingly highlighted as important potential reservoirs. We investigated a large Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing E. coli (KPC-EC) outbreak and wider CRE incidence trends over eight years in the Central Manchester Foundation NHS Trust (CMFT), UK, to determine the impact of Infection Prevention and Control measures.Bacteriology and patient administration data (2009 to 2017) were linked; a subset of CMFT/regional KPC-EC isolates (n=268) was sequenced...
September 24, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243900/comparison-between-local-and-national-epidemiology-of-antimicrobial-resistance-using-the-janis-data
#8
Hiromu Takemura, Toru Mochizuki
The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare established the Japanese Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (JANIS) system in July 2000 to provide nationwide epidemiological information. The data of all clinically isolated bacteria at participating hospitals were collected, treated according to a protocol, and analyzed by the JANIS office. Nationwide and individual hospital data were reported to participating hospitals monthly and yearly. In this study, we surveyed local antimicrobial resistance of clinically isolated bacteria in Kawasaki City between 2014 and 2016 using JANIS data...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239149/acinetobacter-lwoffii-an-emerging-pathogen-for-fish-in-schizothorax-genus-in-china
#9
Shiqi Cao, Yi Geng, Zehui Yu, Longjun Deng, Weixiong Gan, Kaiyu Wang, Yangping Ou, Defang Chen, Xiaoli Huang, Zhicai Zuo, Min He, Weiming Lai
Acinetobacter lwoffii, a serious human pathogen, has been identified as a cause of nosocomial infections such as bacteremia, pneumonia and meningitis. There are only a few studies reporting A. lwoffii as a pathogen of fish. During 2016 and 2017, six bacterial strains, isolated from diseased fish of the Schizothorax genus, were identified as A. lwoffii by morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequencing analysis. One of these isolates was selected for experimental infection of Sclizothorax prenanti, Schizothorax davidi and Schizothorax wangchiachii, to confirm its pathogenicity...
September 21, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235686/etiology-and-clinical-manifestations-of-bacterial-liver-abscess-a-study-of-102-cases
#10
Wen-Jing Wang, Zhen Tao, Hui-Ling Wu
This study aimed to analyze the clinical manifestations of patients with pyogenic liver abscess and characteristics of pathogenic that caused their infections, in order to provide guidance for the identification of the pathogens that cause liver abscess and selection of antibiotics for treatment of this disease.In the present study, the clinical characteristics, laboratory results, as well as the species and drug resistance of pathogens in patients with bacterial liver abscesses admitted to our hospital from January 2013 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234676/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-events-in-pediatric-intensive-care-a-single-center-study
#11
Maryline Chomton, David Brossier, Michaël Sauthier, Emilie Vallières, Josée Dubois, Guillaume Emeriaud, Philippe Jouvet
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in pediatric intensive care. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently issued diagnosis criteria for pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia and for ventilator-associated events in adults. The objectives of this pediatric study were to determine the prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia using these new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria, to describe the risk factors and management of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and to assess a simpler method to detect ventilator-associated pneumonia with ventilator-associated event in critically ill children...
September 17, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230939/endogenous-endophthalmitis-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
Yun Zhou, Xing Wang, Jun Shen, Zhaozeng Lu, Yang Liu
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKP). METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted. The isolates were characterized by hypermucoviscosity, resistance genes, virulence genes, and multilocus sequence typing. RESULTS: A 47-year-old diabetic woman acquired carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) nosocomial pneumonia. Metastatic endophthalmitis occurred in the right eye a week after the occurrence of CRKP bloodstream infection (BSI)...
September 19, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227225/differential-anti-microbial-secondary-metabolites-in-different-eskape-pathogens-explain-their-adaptation-in-the-hospital-setup
#13
Vishvanath Tiwari, Kiran Meena, Monalisa Tiwari
Nosocomial infections are caused by ESKAPE (E. faecium, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and E. cloacae) pathogens, and their co-existence is associated with their ability to survive in the hospital setup. They may produce molecules, which helps in the better survival of one ESKAPE pathogens over other. We have identified all secondary metabolite gene clusters in six ESKAPE pathogens and predicted antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of their product secondary metabolites. To validate our model, we have taken the secondary metabolites of ESKAPE pathogens and studied their interaction with diguanylate cyclase (involved in quorum sensing) and biofilm-associated protein (involved in biofilm formation) of Acinetobacter baumannii...
September 15, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223584/the-use-of-liquids-ionic-fluids-as-pharmaceutically-active-substances-helpful-in-combating-nosocomial-infections-induced-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-new-delhi-strain-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-enterococcus-species
#14
REVIEW
Andrzej Miskiewicz, Piotr Ceranowicz, Mateusz Szymczak, Krzysztof Bartuś, Paweł Kowalczyk
This review deals with various microbiological activities of ionic liquids, which constitute the first anti-infective defense against multi-drug-resistant bacteria-with a particular emphasis placed on medicine and pharmacology. The quoted data on the biological activity of ionic liquids including their antimicrobial properties (depending on the type of a cation or an anion) and are discussed in view of possible applications in nosocomial infections. Dedicated attention is given to finding infections with the Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi strain, Acinetobacter baumannii , and Enterococcus species, which are responsible for the induction of antibiotic resistance in intensive care units...
September 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221827/ceftazidime-avibactam-population-pharmacokinetic-modeling-and-pharmacodynamic-target-attainment-across-adult-indications-and-patient-subgroups
#15
Jianguo Li, Mark Lovern, Michelle L Green, Joannellyn Chiu, Diansong Zhou, Craig Comisar, Yuan Xiong, Jeremy Hing, Merran MacPherson, James G Wright, Todd Riccobene, Timothy J Carrothers, Shampa Das
Ceftazidime-avibactam is a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination for the treatment of serious infections caused by resistant gram-negative pathogens. Population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) models were built to incorporate pharmacokinetic (PK) data from five phase III trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), or nosocomial (including ventilator-associated) pneumonia. Ceftazidime and avibactam pharmacokinetics were well-described by two-compartment disposition models, with creatinine clearance (CrCL) the key covariate determining clearance variability...
September 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219056/antimicrobial-resistance-of-pathogens-causing-nosocomial-bloodstream-infection-in-hubei-province-china-from-2014-to-2016-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#16
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lei Tian, Ziyong Sun, Zhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Data on the pathogens responsible for nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Hubei province are limited. This study was conducted to determine the major pathogens causing BSI and to characterize their AMR. METHODS: Data from the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS) from 2014 to 2016 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most common pathogens responsible for nosocomial BSI...
September 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217006/targeting-the-bacterial-protective-armour-challenges-and-novel-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-microbial-biofilm
#17
REVIEW
Nor Fadhilah Kamaruzzaman, Li Peng Tan, Khairun Anisa Mat Yazid, Shamsaldeen Ibrahim Saeed, Ruhil Hayati Hamdan, Siew Shean Choong, Weng Kin Wong, Alexandru Chivu, Amanda Jane Gibson
Infectious disease caused by pathogenic bacteria continues to be the primary challenge to humanity. Antimicrobial resistance and microbial biofilm formation in part, lead to treatment failures. The formation of biofilms by nosocomial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ), and Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) on medical devices and on the surfaces of infected sites bring additional hurdles to existing therapies. In this review, we discuss the challenges encountered by conventional treatment strategies in the clinic...
September 13, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210748/the-emerging-resistance-in-nosocomial-urinary-tract-infections-from-the-pediatrics-perspective
#18
Fatma Devrim, Erkin Serdaroğlu, İlknur Çağlar, Yeliz Oruç, Nevbahar Demiray, Nuri Bayram, Hasan Ağın, Sebnem Çalkavur, Yelda Sorguç, Nida Dinçel, Yüce Ayhan, Ebru Yılmaz, Ilker Devrim
Background: Healthcare-associated infections results in increased health care costs and mortality. There are limited studies concerning the distribution of the etiologic agents and the resistance patterns of the microorganisms causing healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) in pediatric settings. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens causing HA-UTI in children. Material and Methods: Isolates from 138 children with UTI who were hospitalized in pediatric, neonatal and pediatric surgery intensive care units were reviewed...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198195/estimation-of-adjusted-expected-excess-length-of-stay-associated-with-ventilation-acquired-pneumonia-in-intensive-care-a-multistate-approach-accounting-for-time-dependent-mechanical-ventilation
#19
Tobias Bluhmki, Arthur Allignol, Stephane Ruckly, Jean-Francois Timsit, Martin Wolkewitz, Jan Beyersmann
The expected excess length-of-stay is an established concept to assess the health and economic impact of nosocomial, that is, hospital-acquired infections such as ventilation-acquired pneumonia in intensive care. Estimation must account for the timing of infection as in a multistate perspective, because common retrospective comparisons yield inflated estimates due to time-dependent bias. Since occurrence of ventilation-acquired pneumonia is closely linked to ventilation status, we suggest a multistate model incorporating time-dependent mechanical ventilation as additional states...
September 9, 2018: Biometrical Journal. Biometrische Zeitschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30197092/impact-of-carbapenem-versus-non-carbapenem-treatment-on-the-rates-of-superinfection-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Khalid Eljaaly, Mushira A Enani, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
Imipenem and meropenem are the recommended antipseudomonal carbapenems for nosocomial pneumonia per clinical practice guidelines. However, these agents have a relatively broader spectrum of activity than other antibiotics and need to be reserved. Carbapenems might cause higher rate of superinfection. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of superinfection between patients who received imipenem or meropenem versus those who received non-carbapenem treatment. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases and two trial registries were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials of hospitalized adults with pneumonia through February 24, 2017 without date or language restrictions...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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