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Ki-Dong Sung, Elizabeth J Pekas, Steven D Scott, Won-Mok Son, Song-Young Park
INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. It is necessary to combat unfavorable outcomes of obesity at a young age by utilizing effective interventions, such as exercise. PURPOSE: We sought to examine the effects of a jump rope exercise program on CVD risk factors, including body composition, vasoactive substances, inflammation, and vascular function in prehypertensive adolescent girls. METHODS: Forty girls (age 14-16) were recruited and randomly assigned to a jump rope exercise group (EX, n = 20) or control group (CON, n = 20)...
December 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Nguyen Dinh Thanh, Do Son Hai, Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Do Tien Tung, Cao Thi Le, Hoang Thi Kim Van, Vu Ngoc Toan, Duong Ngoc Toan, Le Hai Dang
Some heterocycles, namely 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles, were synthesized in a three-component reaction from substituted benzaldehydes, malononitrile, and ethyl acetoacetate. These heterocycles have been converted subsequently into 4H-pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine ring by ring-closing reaction with acetic anhydride in the presence of the concentrated sulfuric acid as catalyst. The successive alkylation reaction of lactam NH bond on pyrimidine-4-one ring was carried out using propargylic bromide in dry acetone in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate...
December 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Lars David Renner
This article describes the design and fabrication of microchambers that are used for the study of bacterial cells. The design allows for the confinement and precise manipulation of bacterial cell shape. The application of fluorescent dyes and fluorescent proteins enables the precise analysis of the localization of biomolecules within confined bacterial cell. This article also outlines three methods to engineer cell shape from a filamentous cell type and from spheroplasts without a cell wall using soft lithography-based technologies...
December 7, 2018: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Seun Akindehin, Young-Suk Jung, Sang-Nam Kim, Yeon-Ho Son, Icksoo Lee, Je Kyung Seong, Hyun Woo Jeong, Yun-Hee Lee
Myricetin is a biologically active natural polyphenol with beneficial effects on metabolic health. This study aimed to examine the effects of myricetin on the expression levels of genes involved in lipolysis and mitochondrial respiration in adipocytes and the anti-obesity potential of myricetin. The results indicated that myricetin reduced triglyceride (TG) content and increased mitochondrial content and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in adipocytes in vitro. To determine anti-obesity effect of myricetin, C57BL6/J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for eight weeks and then treated with myricetin (10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks...
December 12, 2018: Nutrients
Susie Son, Laura E Bowie, Tamara Maiuri, Claudia L K Hung, Carly R Desmond, Jianrun Xia, Ray Truant
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative, age-onset disorder caused by a CAG DNA expansion in exon 1 of the HTT gene, resulting in a polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein. Nuclear accumulation of mutant huntingtin is a hallmark of HD, resulting in elevated mutant huntingtin levels in cell nuclei. Huntingtin is normally retained at the endoplasmic reticulum via its N17 amphipathic alpha-helix domain but is released by oxidation of methionine eight during reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qiong Xie, Zipu Yu, Yuan Lu, Jingya Fan, Yiming Ni, Liang Ma
Son of sevenless (SOS) is one of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that can regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase signal pathway via controlling the activation of Ras. microRNAs are key regulon of gene expression and would be treated as tumor biomarkers or therapeutic targets. In this study, we find that miR-148a-3p acts as a tumor-suppressor in the development and progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miR-148a-3p inhibits NSCLC cells proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by reducing the expression of SOS2, which refers Ras activating...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Huy Quang Nguyen, Nguyen Thi-Hanh Vu, Ha Hoang Chu, Son Ky Chu, Ha Hoang, Thanh Trung Tran, Cuong Nguyen, Linh Thi-My Dinh, Hien Thi-Thu Trinh, Tien Quyet Phi
This study reports the draft genome sequence of the endophytic Streptomyces cavourensis strain YBQ59, produces the antibiotics bafilomycin D, nonactic acid, prelactone B, and 5,11-epoxy-10-cadinanol. The draft genome sequence comprises ∼10.2 Mb, with a GC content of 64% and 8,958 predicted protein-coding genes, of which 14 gene clusters were found to associate with antibiotic biosynthetic pathways.
September 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Hwei Ling Ong, Krishna Prasad Subedi, Ga-Yeon Son, Xibao Liu, Indu Suresh Ambudkar
The intracellular calcium signaling processes are tightly regulated to ensure the generation of calcium signals with the specific spatiotemporal characteristics that are required for regulating various cell functions. Compartmentalization of the molecular components involved in generating these signals at discrete intracellular sites ensures the signaling specificity and transduction fidelity of the signal for regulating downstream effector processes. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is ubiquitously present in cells and is critical for essential cell functions in a variety of tissues...
December 3, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Yunbo Ke, Pratap Karki, Junghyun Kim, Sophia Son, Evgeny Berdyshev, Valery N Bochkov, Anna A Birukova, Konstantin G Birukov
As mechanisms controlling redox homeostasis become impaired with aging, exaggerated oxidant stress may cause disproportional oxidation of cell membranes and circulating phospholipids (PLs), leading to the formation of truncated oxidized PL products (Tr-OxPLs), which exhibit deleterious effects. This study investigated the role of elevated Tr-OxPLs as a factor exacerbating inflammation and lung barrier dysfunction in an animal model of aging. Mass spectrometry analysis of Tr-OxPL species in young (2-4 mo) and aging (18-24 mo) mice revealed elevated basal levels of several products [1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)- sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POVPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl- sn-glycero-phosphocholine, lysophosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-(9-oxo-nonanoyl)- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, O-1-O-palmitoyl-2-O-(5,8-dioxo-8-hydroxy-6-octenoyl)-l-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and others] in the aged lungs...
December 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Heesun Choi, Chaeyoung Kim, Hyundong Song, Moon-Yong Cha, Hyun Jin Cho, Sung Min Son, Haeng Jun Kim, Inhee Mook-Jung
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss resulting from cumulative neuronal cell death. O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of the proteins reflecting glucose metabolism is altered in the brains of patients with AD. However, the link between altered O-GlcNAc modification and neuronal cell death in AD is poorly understood. Here, we examined the regulation of O-GlcNAcylation of c-Fos and the effects of O-GlcNAcylated c-Fos on neuronal cell death during AD pathogenesis...
December 4, 2018: Aging Cell
Jinhyung Rho, Chang-Seob Seo, Hee-Seon Park, Charith Ub Wijerathne, Hye-Yun Jeong, Og-Sung Moon, Young-Won Seo, Hwa-Young Son, Young-Suk Won, Hyo-Jung Kwun
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (UMH), of the family Ulmaceae, is a deciduous tree, widely distributed throughout Korea. UMH has been used as a traditional oriental medicine in Korea for the treatment of urological disorders, including bladder outlet obstrulmition (BOO), lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS), diuresis, and hematuria. To date, its possible protective effects against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been analyzed. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of UMH on the development of BPH using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anna B Seminara, Asan Turdiev, Husan Turdiev, Vincent T Lee
Protein interactions with nucleic acids are important for the synthesis, regulation, and stability of macromolecules. While a number of assays are available for interrogating these interactions, the differential radial capillary action of ligand assay (DRaCALA) has been developed as an easy and flexible platform that allows for the study of individual interactions when carrying out high-throughput screening for novel binding proteins and small molecule inhibitors. In this article, we describe the principle of DRaCALA and methods that utilize DRaCALA to determine the affinity and specificity of individual protein-nucleic acid interactions as well as uses for screening for binding proteins and chemical inhibitors...
December 3, 2018: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology
Benjamin Y Klein, Hadassah Tamir, Muhammad Anwar, Robert J Ludwig, Jasmine H Kaidbey, Sara B Glickstein, Martha G Welch
The goal of this protocol is to isolate oxytocin-receptor rich brain nuclei in the neonatal brain before and after first colostrum feeding. The expression of proteins known to respond to metabolic stress was measured in brain-nuclei isolates using Western blotting. This was done to assess whether metabolic stress-induced nutrient insufficiency in the body triggered neuronal stress. We have previously demonstrated that nutrient insufficiency in neonates elicits metabolic stress in the gut. Furthermore, colostrum oxytocin modulates cellular stress response, inflammation, and autophagy markers in newborn rat gut villi prior to and after first feed...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dong Hwee Son, Khanh V Doan, Dong Joo Yang, Ji Su Sun, Seul Ki Kim, Namju Kang, Jung Yun Kang, Ji-Hye Paik, Ronald A DePinho, Yun-Hee Choi, Dong Min Shin, Ki Woo Kim
PURPOSE: While leptin has been associated with various psycho-physiological functions, the molecular network in leptin-mediated mood regulation remains elusive. METHODS: Anxiolytic behaviors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels were examined after leptin administration. Functional roles of STAT3 and FoxO1 in regulation of TH expression were investigated using in vivo and in vitro systems. A series of animal behavioral tests using dopaminergic neuron-specific FoxO1 KO (FoxO1 KODAT ) were performed and investigated the roles of FoxO1 in regulation of mood behaviors...
November 27, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Guillaume Brysbaert, Théo Mauri, Jérôme de Ruyck, Marc F Lensink
Protein structures inherently contain information that can be used to decipher their functions, but the exploitation of this knowledge is not trivial. We recently developed an app for the Cytoscape network visualization and analysis program, called RINspector, the goal of which is to integrate two different approaches that identify key residues in a protein structure or complex. The first approach consists of calculating centralities on a residue interaction network (RIN) generated from the three-dimensional structure; the second consists of predicting backbone flexibility and needs only the primary sequence...
November 29, 2018: Current Protocols in Bioinformatics
Nicolas Fernandez, Christopher M Waters
Bacterial biofilms are notorious for their deleterious effects on human health and industrial biofouling. Key processes in biofilm formation are regulated by the second messenger signal cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP); accumulation of c-di-GMP promotes biofilm formation, while lowering c-di-GMP promotes motility. Complex networks of modular enzymes are involved in regulating c-di-GMP homeostasis. Understanding how these enzymes function in bacterial cells can help enlighten how bacteria use environmental cues to modulate c-di-GMP and cell physiology...
November 29, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Daniel N Itzhak, Julia P Schessner, Georg H H Borner
Eukaryotic cells are highly compartmentalized and protein subcellular localization critically influences protein function. Identification of the subcellular localizations of proteins and their translocation events upon perturbation has mostly been confined to targeted studies or laborious microscopy-based methods. Here we describe a systematic mass spectrometry-based method for spatial proteomics. The approach uses simple fractionation profiling and has two applications: Firstly it can be used to infer subcellular protein localization on a proteome-wide scale, resulting in a protein map of the cell...
November 29, 2018: Current Protocols in Cell Biology
Matthew Fares, Xin Zhang
Proper cellular proteostasis is essential to cellular fitness and viability. Exogenous stress conditions compromise proteostasis and cause aggregation of cellular proteins. We have developed a fluorogenic sensor (AgHalo) to quantify stress-induced proteostasis deficiency. The AgHalo sensor uses a destabilized HaloTag variant to represent aggregation-prone cellular proteins and is equipped with a series of fluorogenic probes that exhibit a fluorescence increase when the sensor forms either soluble oligomers or insoluble aggregates...
November 29, 2018: Current Protocols in Chemical Biology
Hyeoncheol Francis Son, Sun-Mi Lee, Kyung-Jin Kim
Lignocellulosic biomass, of which D -xylose accounts for approximately 35% of the total sugar, has attracted attention as a future energy source for biofuel. To elucidate molecular mechanism of D -xylose utilization, we determined the crystal structure of D -xylose reductase from Schefferzomyces stipitis (SsXR) at a 1.95 Å resolution. We also determined the SsXR structure in complex with the NADPH cofactor and revealed that the protein undergoes an open/closed conformation change upon NADPH binding. The substrate binding pocket of SsXR is somewhat hydrophobic, which seems to result in low binding affinity to the substrate...
November 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyoung-A Kim, Young-Ok Son, So-Soon Kim, Yong-Suk Jang, Young-Hyun Baek, Chun-Chu Kim, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Jeong-Chae Lee
This study examined the efficacy of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (AMK) protein and polysaccharide extracts as adjuvant or adjuvant booster when given together with porcine pleuropneumonia vaccine. Experimental mice ( n  = 5/group) were subcutaneously immunized with 25 μg ApxIIA #3 antigen, a target protein against A. pleuropneumoniae , together with alum and/or various concentrations (0-500 μg) of the AMK extracts, while the control group received PBS only. Immunization with ApxIIA #3 antigen increased the antigen-specific IgG titer and this increase was enhanced in the immunization together with AMK protein, but not polysaccharide extract...
December 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
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