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Gina Allyn, Roy D Bloebaum, Richard T Epperson, Mattias B Nielsen, Kevin A Dodd, Dustin L Williams
The skin/implant interface of osseointegrated (OI) implants is susceptible to infection, causing excess pain, increased morbidity, and possibly implant removal. Novel distal femoral OI implants with binary nitride coatings have been developed with little physiological modeling to collect microbiological evidence of resistance to bacterial attachment. This in vitro study evaluated a Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with TiNbN and treated with low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to assess attachment and biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) under physiologically-modeling conditions compared to standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy materials with a polished ("Color Buff") or non-polished finish ("Satin Finish")...
October 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Gurpreet S Wander, Mohammed Yunus Khan Hukkeri, Sachin Yalagudri, Bharti Mahajan, Archana Toppo Panda
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are a major cause of premature death and disability. Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are responsible for 52% of mortality amongst Indians, of these CV diseases are responsible for 66% of NCD mortality in India. We not only need widespread primary preventive strategy but also need effective secondary prevention protocols to reduce this. Secondary prevention in patients who already had myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization is of utmost importance to reduce mortality, cardiac events and improve quality of life...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mangesh Tiwaskar, Amit Langote, Resham Kashyap, Archana Toppo
Amlodipine is a classical drug with varied properties extending from control of blood pressure to as an antianginal and anti atherosclerotic agent. Amlodipine is a longer acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, effective for 24 hours BP control and cause no BP variability. It is a powerful, well-tolerated, and safe antihypertensive agents that is widely used either alone or as a key component of combination therapy for hypertension. Its effective BP reduction has shown proven benefits in cardiovascular event reduction that is supported with strong evidences from large randomised controlled trials...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Chamukuttan Snehalatha, Susairaj Priscilla, Arun Nanditha, Raghavan Arun, Krishnamoorthy Satheesh, Ambady Ramachandran
Identification and treatment of individuals with prediabetes is crucial. Effective interventional strategies are key to reducing the diabetes risk at the population level. Lifestyle intervention is found to be more effective but more expensive. Evidence of potential benefits from pharmacotherapy is accumulating. The choice of a pharmacologic intervention to reduce the progression of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in high risk individuals must consider the balance between the benefit to risk ratio. A meta-analysis of the results of the three important studies has shown that metformin used for up to three years decrease the likelihood of progression to diabetes...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Anjalee Chiwhane, Pradeep
Introduction: Cardiac rhythm disturbances are common presentation in acute coronary syndromes and are cause of frequent serious complications in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However due to availability of early reperfusion therapy and primary angioplasty, arrhythmias have cause a reduction in mortality. Arrhythmias are key events before, during or after the occurrence of acute MI. There are few clinical studies describing the types of arryhthmias, their correlation with the clinical profile of acute MI and effect on outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Arnold H Seto, Morton J Kern
This study demonstrates that FFR-guided PCI reduces noninvasively assessed ischemia more effectively than angiography-guided PCI. Improved ischemia resolution was associated with improved clinical outcomes. Superior ischemia resolution is likely the dominant mechanism of improved outcomes with FFR in clinical outcome trials, as opposed to avoidance of inappropriate stenting and its associated adverse events.
October 1, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Tsehai A J Grell, Benjamin N Bell, Chi Nguyen, Daniel P Dowling, Nathan A Bruender, Vahe Bandarian, Catherine L Drennan
7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase, QueE, catalyzes the radical mediated ring contraction of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin, forming the characteristic pyrrolopyrimidine core of all 7-deazaguanine natural products. QueE is a member of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) radical enzyme superfamily, which harnesses the reactivity of radical intermediates to perform challenging chemical reactions. Members of the AdoMet radical enzyme superfamily utilize a canonical binding motif, a CX3 CXφC motif, to bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster and a partial (β/α)6 TIM barrel fold for the arrangement of AdoMet and substrates for catalysis...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Takushi Fujimoto, Kenji Inaba, Hiroshi Kadokura
Formation of a disulfide bond is a critical step in the folding of numerous secretory and membrane proteins and catalyzed in vivo. A variety of mechanisms and protein structures have evolved to catalyze oxidative protein folding. Those enzymes that directly interact with a folding protein to accelerate its oxidative folding are mostly thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that belong to the thioredoxin superfamily. The enzymes of this class often use a CXXC active-site motif embedded in their thioredoxin-like fold to promote formation, isomerization, and reduction of a disulfide bond in their target proteins...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Christina P C Sim, Glenn D Walker, David J Manton, Yoke-Lim Soong, Joseph T S Wee, Geoffrey G Adams, Eric C Reynolds
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treatment with the saliva biomimetic, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and SnF2 /NaF compared with SnF2 /NaF alone on coronal surface caries progression in head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. METHODS: Twenty-four participants were randomised into two groups. Both groups used 0.4% SnF2 gel and a 0.32% NaF toothpaste; the test group also applied a crème containing 10% CPP-ACP three times daily whilst the control group used an identical crème without CPP-ACP (placebo)...
October 19, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
Hooman Yadollahi-Farsani, Marcus Herrmann, David Frakes, Brian Chong
PURPOSE: To gain insight into the influence of coils on aneurysmal hemodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used. Conventional methods of modeling coils consider the explicit geometry of the deployed devices within the aneurysm and discretize the fluid domain. However, the complex geometry of a coil mass leads to cumbersome domain discretization along with a significant number of mesh elements. These problems have motivated a homogeneous porous medium coil model, whereby the explicit geometry of the coils is greatly simplified, and relevant homogeneous porous medium parameters are approximated...
October 18, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Judith R Soper, S Fiona Bonar, Dudley J O'Sullivan, Janet McCredie, Hans-Georg Willert
BACKGROUND: Following the thalidomide disaster (1958-62), Henkel and Willert analysed the pattern of dysmelia in the long bones (J Bone Joint Surg Br. 51:399-414, 1969) and the extremities, Willert and Henkel (Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 107:663-75, 1970). Willert's material from deformed extremities is re-examined here asking "How does thalidomide reduce the skeleton?" MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the original data collection of Willert and Henkel (Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb...
October 19, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Stefan Quadlbauer, Ch Pezzei, J Jurkowitsch, R Rosenauer, A Pichler, S Schättin, T Hausner, M Leixnering
INTRODUCTION: Distal radius fractures (DRF) are the most common fractures of the upper extremities. The incidence is expected to continue rising in the next years due to the increased life expectancy. Palmar locking plate stabilizing has since become the standard treatment for dorsally displaced DRF with a complication rate of 8-39% reported in the literature. Main aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of complications after DRF stabilization using palmar angular stable locking plate...
October 19, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Sascha Ketelhut, Ingomar W Franz, Reinhard G Ketelhut
INTRODUCTION: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) can be successfully reduced by antihypertensive medication. Both hypertension and aerobic exercise can cause increases in left ventricular mass (LV-mass). AIM: Therefore, hypertensive athletes with LVH were studied to investigate the effect of antihypertensive medication on LV-mass reduction despite continuing their regular intensive exercise programs. METHODS: 14 previously untreated hypertensive male athletes (A) with LVH and a prolonged history of endurance training where included in the study...
October 20, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Bernhard Wilhelm Ullrich, Philipp Schenk, Ulrich J Spiegl, Thomas Mendel, Gunther Olaf Hofmann
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, longitudinal cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Hounsfield units (HUs), as an alternative bone mineral density measurement to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography, which lead to additional radiation exposure for patients, has an effect on the maintenance of reduction in bisegmental Cobb angle (CA) and cage subsidence in patients who receive bisegmental spine stabilization after traumatic thoracolumbar spine fractures...
October 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Sergey Tarima, Laura R Glasman, Julia Lechuga, Gloria Bodnar, Lorena Rivas de Mendoza
This article examines the effects of a multi-level, community-based HIV prevention intervention for crack users residing in low-income neighborhoods in San Salvador, El Salvador conducted between August 2011 and June 2016. The intervention consisted of three components introduced sequentially: (1) rapid HIV testing in community settings; (2) a social network HIV testing intervention; and (3) small group interventions with crack users who were members of the same social network. The intervention was evaluated with an interrupted time series design in which we used respondent-driven sampling to conduct 7 cross-sectional surveys with crack users along a 3-4 month period for each assessment (total n = 1597)...
October 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
D Hirjak, K M Kubera, S Bienentreu, P A Thomann, R C Wolf
The treatment of schizophrenic psychoses with antipsychotic drugs (AP) is often associated with an increased risk of delayed occurrence of antipsychotic-associated movement disorders. Persistence and chronicity of such symptoms are very frequent. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with the pharmacological effect profile of a particular AP, with treatment duration and age. This systematic review article summarizes the current study situation on prevalence, risk factors, prevention and treatment options and instruments for early prediction of TD in schizophrenic psychoses...
October 19, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Yan-Qin Ying, Xue-Qin Yan, Sheng-Juan Jin, Yan Liang, Ling Hou, Wan-Ting Niu, Xiao-Ping Luo
Periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) is very common in survivors of premature birth, and the final outcomes are a reduction in myelinated neurons leading to white matter hypomyelination. How and (or) why the oligodendrocyte lineage develops abnormally and myelination is reduced is a hot topic in the field. This study focuses on the effect of intrauterine inflammation on the proliferation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and the underlying mechanisms. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (300 μg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at embryonic days 19 and 20 to establish a rat model of intrauterine infection-induced white matter injury...
October 2018: Current medical science
Wen-Bo Nie, Fa-Gang Ye, Jian-Lin Ma, Jiang-Ping Yu, Ming-Xing Wang, Zhen-Hua Zhang, Fu-Jie Sun
The feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) printing technology combined with minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of pubic rami fractures was explored. From August 2015 to October 2017, a series of 30 patients who underwent surgical stabilization of their anterior pelvic ring (all utilizing the 3D printing technology) by one surgeon at a single hospital were studied. The minimally invasive incisions were made through anterior inferior cilia spine and pubic nodule. Data collected included the operative duration, the blood loss, the damage of the important tissue, the biographic union and the recovery of the function after the operation...
October 2018: Current medical science
Takumi Arakawa, Sachiyo Ue, Chihiro Sano, Muneyuki Matsunaga, Hiroyo Kagami, Yu Yoshida, Yosuke Kuroda, Kazunori Taguchi, Kazuyoshi Kitazaki, Tomohiko Kubo
The sugar beet Rf1 locus has a number of molecular variants. We found that one of the molecular variants is a weak allele of a previously identified allele. Male sterility (MS) caused by nuclear-mitochondrial interaction is called cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in which MS-inducing mitochondria are suppressed by a nuclear gene, restorer-of-fertility. Rf and rf are the suppressing and non-suppressing alleles, respectively. This dichotomic view, however, seems somewhat unsatisfactory to explain the recently discovered molecular diversity of Rf loci...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
M Rodríguez-Barranco, E Salamanca-Fernández, M L Fajardo, E Bayo, Y-L Chang-Chan, J Expósito, C García, J Tallón, P Minicozzi, M Sant, D Petrova, M A Luque-Fernandez, M-J Sánchez
PURPOSE: The third most frequently diagnosed cancer in Europe in 2018 was lung cancer; it is also the leading cause of cancer death in Europe. We studied patient and tumor characteristics, and patterns of healthcare provision explaining regional variability in lung cancer survival in southern Spain. METHODS: A population-based cohort study included all 1196 incident first invasive primary lung cancer (C33-C34 according to ICD-10) cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2011 with follow-up until April 2015...
October 19, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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