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Y Luo, Y Y Huang, Y Jin, C R Li, J Yang
Objective: To investigate the effect of microRNAs (miR)-21 on the expression of interleukin (IL)-10 in B cell of patients with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). Methods: From March 2016 to January 2017, twenty-four children with HSP hospitalized in rheumatology and immunology department of Shenzhen Children's Hospital were enrolled into the study, including 12 males and 12 females. Patients were divided into purpura nephritis group (HSPN, 14 cases) and non-nephritis group (NHSPN, 10 cases). The age-matched 34 healthy children were included as the control group for prospective cohort study...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Thomas Morville, Tine Dohlmann, Anja B Kuhlman, Tine Monberg, Mimmi Torp, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Steen Larsen, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
Background Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol concentrations in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) and of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain disputed. Methods We investigated whether statin induced myalgia is coupled to impaired glucose homeostasis using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We performed a cross-sectional study of statin users without CVD (primary prevention) stratified into a statin myalgic (M; n=25) and a non-myalgic (NM; n=39) group as well as a control group (C; n=20) consisting of non-statin users...
December 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
Matthias Florian Geiger, Nicola Bongartz, Christian Blume, Hans Clusmann, Christian Andreas Müller
BACKGROUND:  To evaluate whether decompression in lumbar spinal stenosis without fusion leads to sufficient improvement of back pain and leg pain and whether re-decompression alone is sufficient for recurrent lumbar spinal stenosis for patients without signs of instability. MATERIAL AND METHODS:  A successive series of 102 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (with and without previous lumbar surgery) were treated with decompression alone during a 3-year period...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
Elmar W Tobi, Joost van den Heuvel, Bas J Zwaan, L H Lumey, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Tobias Uller
An adverse intrauterine environment is associated with long-term physiological changes in offspring. These are believed to be mediated by epigenomic marks, including DNA methylation (DNAm). Changes in DNAm are often interpreted as damage or plastic responses of the embryo. Here, we propose that stochastic DNAm variation, generated during remodeling of the epigenome after fertilization, contributes to DNAm signatures of prenatal adversity through differential survival of embryos. Using a mathematical model of re-methylation in the early embryo, we demonstrate that selection, but not plasticity, will generate a characteristic reduction in DNAm variance at loci that contribute to survival...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Xing Hu, Jiawei Du, Junhui Pan, Fengfeng Wang, Deming Gong, Guowen Zhang
A highly sensitive, selective and simple method was proposed for colorimetric detection of ractopamine on the basis of the interaction between ractopamine and sulfanilic acid-modified gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (AuAgNPs). The AuAgNPs were prepared by the reduction of HAuCl4 and AgNO3 with sodium citrate in aqueous medium and further modified by sulfanilic acid. The interaction of ractopamine with sulfanilic acid induced rapid aggregation of sulfanilic acid-modified AuAgNPs along with an optical colour change, leading to precise quantification which could be detected by absorptiometry...
December 5, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Santiago Cañellas, John Montgomery, Miquel A Pericàs
The nickel-catalyzed synthesis of tetrasubstituted cyclobutenes from alkynes is reported. This transformation is uniquely promoted by the use of a primary aminophosphine, an unusual ligand in nickel catalysis. Mechanistic insights for this new transformation are provided, and post-reaction modifications of the cyclobutene products to stereodefined cyclic and acyclic compounds are reported, including the synthesis of epi-truxillic acid.
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Julie Hui-Chih Wu, Bradley J Langford, Nick Daneman, Jan O Friedrich, Gary Garber
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been established in hospitals, but less studied in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), a setting with unique challenges related to patient populations and available resources. This systematic review sought to provide a comprehensive assessment of antimicrobial stewardship interventions implemented in LTCFs, using meta-analysis to examine their impact on overall antimicrobial use. METHODS: Electronic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL (1990 to July 2018) identified any antimicrobial stewardship interventions in LTCFs, with no restriction on patient population, study design, or outcomes...
December 5, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Michael T Willoughby, Siri M Warkentien, Thomas O'Connor, Douglas A Granger, Clancy Blair
Introduction: Infants and young children may be at an increased risk for second- and thirdhand exposure to tobacco smoke because of increased respiration rate and exposure to surface residue. However, relatively fewer studies have examined biomarkers of exposure (cotinine) in children under age 4 years. This study examines the magnitude and chronicity of exposure across early childhood among children from low-income families in order to better characterize contextual risk factors associated with exposure...
December 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Laura C Coates, Proton Rahman, Eliofotisti Psaradellis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Brendan Osborne, Allen J Lehman, Francois Nantel
Objectives: Treat to target recommendations for PsA state that the target of treatment should be remission or, at the very least, low disease activity. Different clinical indexes have been proposed to define these disease states including the minimal disease activity criteria and the Disease Activity Index for PsA (DAPSA) scores, which have 7 and 4-5 domains, respectively. Using a Canadian cohort, the objectives were to calculate the proportion of patients achieving these criteria, their prognostic value and the overall patient impact of these disease states...
December 4, 2018: Rheumatology
Michael T Spooner, John E Alex, Joy A Greer, Donald R Delorey, Rebecca A Kiser, Carl Petersen, Travis Polk, Kim Gunzelman
Introduction: A standardized training curriculum designed for general medical officers (GMO) titled Simulation Training for Operational Medicine Providers (STOMP) was recently developed to educate and improve GMOs' procedural skills through directed feedback prior to assuming duties in an operational environment. This study aimed to determine the impact this novel curriculum had on GMOs'confidence levels in 21 core privileges covering eight different subspecialties while stationed at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth (NMCP)...
December 4, 2018: Military Medicine
Matthew R Hudson, Anthony J Hannan PhD, Terence J O'Brien, Nigel C Jones
Background: Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by psychoses, socioaffective disturbances and cognitive deficits. The phosphodiesterase enzyme phospholipase C-β1 (PLC-β1) has been reported to be reduced in post-mortem tissue of schizophrenia patients. Dysregulation of neuronal oscillations, particularly those in the higher frequency range, such as beta (12-30 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz), are also associated with this disorder. We investigated the influence of PLC-β1 gene deletion on cortical oscillatory activity and sensorimotor gating behavior...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Lucja T Bundy, Regine Haardörfer, Michelle C Kegler, Shadé Owolabi, Carla J Berg, Cam Escoffery, Tess Thompson, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Rebecca Williams, Mel Hovell, Tanya Kahl, Dayanne Harvey, Adrianne Price, Donnie House, Becky W Booker, Matthew W Kreuter
Introduction: Given homes are now a primary source of secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) in the US, research-tested interventions that promote smoke-free homes should be evaluated in real-world settings to build the evidence-base for dissemination. This study describes outcome evaluation results from a dissemination and implementation study of a research-tested program to increase smoke-free home rules through US 2-1-1 helplines. Methods: Five 2-1-1 organizations, chosen through a competitive application process, were awarded grants of up to $70,000...
December 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
John D Johnson, Laura A Chachula, Ryan J Bickley, Claude D Anderson, Paul M Ryan
Introduction: Literature on functional outcomes after ankle surgery is for the most part limited to return to sport studies. The purpose of this study was to determine occupational and functional outcomes following operative treatment of unstable ankle fractures in the active duty military population. Materials and Methods: All ankle fractures treated with open reduction internal fixation at a single institution from 2013 to 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria included active duty personnel with a single-sided injury requiring operative management...
December 4, 2018: Military Medicine
Carolina M Pusec, Adam De Jesus, Md Wasim Khan, Alexander R Terry, Anton E Ludvik, Kai Xu, Nicholas Giancola, Haaris Pervaiz, Emily Daviau Smith, Xianzhong Ding, Stephen Harrison, Navdeep S Chandel, Thomas C Becker, Nissim Hay, Hossein Ardehali, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Brian T Layden
Glucokinase (GCK) is the principal hexokinase (HK) in the liver, operating as a glucose sensor to regulate glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis. Recently, we proposed Hexokinase Domain Containing-1 (HKDC1) to be a novel 5th HK with expression in the liver. Here, we reveal HKDC1 to have low glucose-phosphorylating ability and demonstrate its association with the mitochondria in hepatocytes. As we have shown previously that genetic deletion of HKDC1 leads to altered hepatic triglyceride levels, we also explored the influence of overexpression of HKDC1 in hepatocytes on cellular metabolism observing reduced glycolytic capacity and maximal mitochondrial respiration with concurrent reductions in glucose oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential...
December 3, 2018: Endocrinology
Kazuki Yoshida, Daniel H Solomon, Sebastien Haneuse, Seoyoung C Kim, Elisabetta Patorno, Sara K Tedeschi, Houchen Lyu, Jessica M Franklin, Til Stürmer, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Robert J Glynn
Crump et al. (Biometrika 2009;96:187), Stürmer et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:843), and Walker et al. (Comp Eff Res 2013;3:11) proposed propensity score (PS) trimming methods as measures to improve efficiency (Crump) or reduce confounding (Stürmer and Walker). We generalized the trimming definitions by considering multinomial PSs, one for each treatment and proved these proposed definitions reduce to the original binary definitions when we only have two treatment groups. We then examined the performance of the proposed multinomial trimming methods in the three treatment-group setting in which subjects with extreme PSs more likely had unmeasured confounders...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Márcia Marques Dos Santos Felix, Maria Beatriz Guimarães Ferreira, Lucas Felix de Oliveira, Elizabeth Barichello, Patricia da Silva Pires, Maria Helena Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of relaxation therapy with guided imagery on state anxiety and cortisol in the immediate preoperative period in patients submitted to bariatric surgery by videolaparoscopy. METHOD: a randomized, triple-blind clinical trial in a large teaching hospital in the interior of Minas Gerais. Twenty-four patients who would undergo video-laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomly allocated in two groups, namely 12 in the control group and 12 in the experimental group...
November 29, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues, Jack Roberto Silva Fhon, Maria de Lourdes de Farias Pontes, Antonia Oliveira Silva, Vanderlei José Haas, Jair Lício Ferreira Santos
OBJECTIVE: to compare the frailty syndrome among elderly people living at home in two Brazilian cities and to identify factors related to sociodemographic and health-related variables. METHOD: population-based cross-sectional study with 480 elderly individuals from the cities of Ribeirão Preto/SP and João Pessoa/PB, with application of the Mini Mental State Examination instruments and the Edmonton Frailty, Geriatric Depression and Lawton and Brody scales. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test, Fisher's test, Student's t-test, Spermann's correlation and Logistic regression were used...
November 29, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Antônio Rafael da Silva, Pedro Martins Lima Neto, Leonardo Hunaldo Dos Santos, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima, Pedro Luiz Tauil, Eloísa da Graça do Rosário Gonçalves
INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Program of Leprosy Control was initiated in the municipality of Buriticupu, Maranhão, Brazil, an area considered hyperendemic for leprosy in 2003. It aims at assessing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the disease to reduce the detection rate of new cases until 2015. Here, we present the evolution of the indicators of leprosy within the period from 2003 to 2015. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analytical study based on the active search for and voluntary referral of cases of leprosy...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Gabriel de Almeida Ferreira, Marcelo Abrão Rezende, Roberta Lilian Fernandes de Sousa Meneghim, Silvana Artioli Schellini
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of mobile ophthalmic unit screenings and to investigate barriers between community care and resolution of the problem at a tertiary center. METHODS: This prospective study evaluated a convenience sample from 10 municipalities in São Paulo State, Brazil. Patients were assessed in the municipality by a mobile ophthalmic unit and underwent a complete ophthalmic consultation. Patients were referred as warranted to a tertiary hospital...
November 29, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
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