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Robert I Haddad, Christian Nasr, Lindsay Bischoff, Naifa Lamki Busaidy, David Byrd, Glenda Callender, Paxton Dickson, Quan-Yang Duh, Hormoz Ehya, Whitney Goldner, Megan Haymart, Carl Hoh, Jason P Hunt, Andrei Iagaru, Fouad Kandeel, Peter Kopp, Dominick M Lamonica, Bryan McIver, Christopher D Raeburn, John A Ridge, Matthew D Ringel, Randall P Scheri, Jatin P Shah, Rebecca Sippel, Robert C Smallridge, Cord Sturgeon, Thomas N Wang, Lori J Wirth, Richard J Wong, Alyse Johnson-Chilla, Karin G Hoffmann, Lisa A Gurski
The NCCN Guidelines for Thyroid Carcinoma provide recommendations for the management of different types of thyroid carcinoma, including papillary, follicular, Hürthle cell, medullary, and anaplastic carcinomas. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel discussion behind recent updates to the guidelines, including the expanding role of molecular testing for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, implications of the new pathologic diagnosis of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features, and the addition of a new targeted therapy option for BRAF V600E-mutated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma...
December 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Abani Kanta Naik, Aaron T Byrd, Aaron C K Lucander, Michael S Krangel
Expression of Rag1 and Rag2 is tightly regulated in developing T cells to mediate TCR gene assembly. Here we have investigated the molecular mechanisms governing the assembly and disassembly of a transcriptionally active RAG locus chromatin hub in CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes. Rag1 and Rag2 gene expression in CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes depends on Rag1 and Rag2 promoter activation by a distant antisilencer element (ASE). We identify GATA3 and E2A as critical regulators of the ASE, and Runx1 and E2A as critical regulators of the Rag1 promoter...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Duncan MacKellar, Haruka Maruyama, Oscar Ernest Rwabiyago, Claire Steiner, Haddi Cham, Omari Msumi, Rachel Weber, Gerald Kundi, Chutima Suraratdecha, Tewodaj Mengistu, Johnita Byrd, Sherri Pals, Eliufoo Churi, Caitlin Madevu-Matson, Kokuhumbya Kazaura, Fernando Morales, Thomas Rutachunzibwa, Jessica Justman, Anath Rwebembera
Although several studies have evaluated one or more linkage services to improve early enrollment in HIV care in Tanzania, none have evaluated the package of linkage services recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO). We describe the uptake of each component of the CDC/WHO recommended package of linkage services, and early enrollment in HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among persons with HIV who participated in a peer-delivered, linkage case management (LCM) program implemented in Bukoba, Tanzania, October 2014 -May 2017...
2018: PloS One
Oliver J Harrison, Jonathan L Linehan, Han-Yu Shih, Nicolas Bouladoux, Seong-Ji Han, Margery Smelkinson, Shurjo K Sen, Allyson L Byrd, Michel Enamorado, Chen Yao, Samira Tamoutounour, Francois Van Laethem, Charlotte Hurabielle, Nicholas Collins, Andrea Paun, Rosalba Salcedo, John J O'Shea, Yasmine Belkaid
Barrier tissues are primary targets of environmental stressors and home to the largest number of antigen-experienced lymphocytes in the body, including commensal-specific T cells. Here, we show that skin-resident commensal-specific T cells harbor a paradoxical program characterized by a type-17 program associated with a poised type-2 state. Thus, in the context of injury and exposure to inflammatory mediators such as IL-18, these cells rapidly release type-2 cytokines, thereby acquiring contextual functions...
December 6, 2018: Science
Sarah Harper, Sungbok Lee, Louis Goldstein, Dani Byrd
This paper reports on the concurrent use of electroglottography (EGG) and electromagnetic articulography (EMA) in the acquisition of EMA trajectory data for running speech. Static and dynamic intersensor distances, standard deviations, and coefficients of variation associated with inter-sample distances were compared in two conditions: with and without EGG present. Results indicate that measurement discrepancies between the two conditions are within the EMA system's measurement uncertainty. Therefore, potential electromagnetic interference from EGG does not seem to cause differences of practical importance on EMA trajectory behaviors, suggesting that simultaneous EMA and EGG data acquisition is a viable laboratory procedure for speech research...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Kendra A Byrd, Thomas N Williams, Audrie Lin, Amy J Pickering, Benjamin F Arnold, Charles D Arnold, Marion Kiprotich, Holly N Dentz, Sammy M Njenga, Gouthami Rao, John M Colford, Clair Null, Christine P Stewart
Background: The relation between subclinical hemoglobinopathies and concentrations of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is not well characterized. Objective: We investigated the relation of hepcidin concentration with hemoglobinopathies among young children in Kenya. Methods: We quantified serum hepcidin and ferritin in 435 Kenyan children aged 14-20 mo in a subsample of the Water, Sanitation, and Handwashing (WASH) Benefits Trial. Blood samples were genotyped for α+-thalassemia and for sickle cell disorder...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Farid Rajabli, Briseida E Feliciano, Katrina Celis, Kara L Hamilton-Nelson, Patrice L Whitehead, Larry D Adams, Parker L Bussies, Clara P Manrique, Alejandra Rodriguez, Vanessa Rodriguez, Takiyah Starks, Grace E Byfield, Carolina B Sierra Lopez, Jacob L McCauley, Heriberto Acosta, Angel Chinea, Brian W Kunkle, Christiane Reitz, Lindsay A Farrer, Gerard D Schellenberg, Badri N Vardarajan, Jeffery M Vance, Michael L Cuccaro, Eden R Martin, Jonathan L Haines, Goldie S Byrd, Gary W Beecham, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
The ApoE ε4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. The risk conferred by ε4, however, differs across populations, with populations of African ancestry showing lower ε4 risk compared to those of European or Asian ancestry. The cause of this heterogeneity in risk effect is currently unknown; it may be due to environmental or cultural factors correlated with ancestry, or it may be due to genetic variation local to the ApoE region that differs among populations. Exploring these hypotheses may lead to novel, population-specific therapeutics and risk predictions...
December 2018: PLoS Genetics
Jennifer R Brown, Javid Moslehi, Michael S Ewer, Susan M O'Brien, Paolo Ghia, Florence Cymbalista, Tait D Shanafelt, Graeme Fraser, Simon Rule, Steven E Coutre, Marie-Sarah Dilhuydy, Paula Cramer, Ulrich Jaeger, Martin Dreyling, John C Byrd, Steven Treon, Emily Y Liu, Stephen Chang, Amulya Bista, Rama Vempati, Lisa Boornazian, Rudolph Valentino, Vijay Reddy, Michelle Mahler, Huiying Yang, Thorsten Graef, Jan A Burger
Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for treatment of various B-cell malignancies. In ibrutinib clinical studies, low-grade haemorrhage was common, whereas major haemorrhage (MH) was infrequent. We analysed the incidence of and risk factors for MH from 15 ibrutinib clinical studies (N = 1768), including 4 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Rates of any-grade bleeding were similar for single-agent ibrutinib and ibrutinib combinations (39% and 40%). Low-grade bleeding was more common in ibrutinib-treated than comparator-treated patients (35% and 15%), and early low-grade bleeding was not associated with MH...
December 2, 2018: British Journal of Haematology
Jennifer A Woyach, Amy S Ruppert, Nyla A Heerema, Weiqiang Zhao, Allison M Booth, Wei Ding, Nancy L Bartlett, Danielle M Brander, Paul M Barr, Kerry A Rogers, Sameer A Parikh, Steven Coutre, Arti Hurria, Jennifer R Brown, Gerard Lozanski, James S Blachly, Hatice G Ozer, Brittny Major-Elechi, Briant Fruth, Sreenivasa Nattam, Richard A Larson, Harry Erba, Mark Litzow, Carolyn Owen, Charles Kuzma, Jeremy S Abramson, Richard F Little, Scott E Smith, Richard M Stone, Sumithra J Mandrekar, John C Byrd
BACKGROUND: Ibrutinib has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) since 2016 but has not been compared with chemoimmunotherapy. We conducted a phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy of ibrutinib, either alone or in combination with rituximab, relative to chemoimmunotherapy. METHODS: Patients 65 years of age or older who had untreated CLL were randomly assigned to receive bendamustine plus rituximab, ibrutinib, or ibrutinib plus rituximab...
December 1, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Tanya M Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Erin Kelly, Adrienne A White, Karla P Shelnutt, Kristin Riggsbee, Melissa D Olfert, Jesse Stabile Morrell, Anne E Mathews, Terezie T Mosby, Tandalayo Kidd, Kendra Kattelmann, Geoffrey Greene, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Sarah Colby, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Onikia Brown
Background This paper describes the development, reliability, and convergent validity of a practical tool-the Convenience Store Supportive Healthy Environment for Life-Promoting Food (SHELF) Audit. Methods Audit items included: a variety of fresh, processed, and frozen fruits and vegetables; low-fat dairy products; healthy staples and frozen meals; healthy food incentive programs; items sold in check-out areas; portion/cup sizes; and pricing. Each audit item was scored using a five-point semantic-differential scale (1 = provides little or no support for healthful foods to 5 = provides high support for healthful foods)...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
E K Hefni, S Bencharit, S J Kim, K M Byrd, T Moreli, F H Nociti, S Offenbacher, S P Barros
Objectives: The long-term success of dental implants is established by literature. Although clinically well defined, the complex genetic pathways underlying osseointegration have not yet been fully elucidated. Furthermore, patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis are considered to present as higher risk for implant failure. Porous tantalum trabecular metal (PTTM), an open-cell porous biomaterial, is suggested to present enhanced biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of a panel of genes closely associated with osteogenesis and wound healing in osteopenic patients receiving either traditional titanium (Ti) or PTTM cylinders to assess the pathway of genes activation in the early phases of osseointegration...
2018: BDJ Open
Robert M Cronin, Jane S Hankins, Jeannie Byrd, Brandi M Pernell, Adetola Kassim, Patricia Adams-Graves, Alexis Thompson, Karen Kalinyak, Michael DeBaun, Marsha Treadwell
OBJECTIVE: Hospital admissions are significant events in the care of individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) due to associated costs and potential for quality of life compromise. METHODS: This cross-sectional cohort study evaluated risk factors for admissions and readmissions between October 2014 and March 2016 in adults with SCD (n = 201) and caregivers of children with SCD (n = 330) at six centres across the U.S. Survey items assessed social determinants of health (e...
December 2019: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Emily A Byrd, Margaret Kielian
Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the host cell plasma membrane. Alphavirus particles have a highly organized structure, with a nucleocapsid core containing the RNA genome surrounded by the capsid protein, and a viral envelope containing 80 spikes, each a trimer of heterodimers of the E1 and E2 glycoproteins. The capsid protein and envelope proteins are both arranged in organized lattices that are linked via the interaction of the E2 cytoplasmic tail/endodomain with the capsid protein...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Shuai Dong, Bonnie K Harrington, Eileen Y Hu, Joseph T Greene, Amy M Lehman, Minh Tran, Ronni L Wasmuth, Meixiao Long, Natarajan Muthusamy, Jennifer R Brown, Amy J Johnson, John C Byrd
Targeted therapy with small molecules directed at essential survival pathways in leukemia represents a major advance, including the phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) p110δ inhibitor idelalisib. Here, we found that genetic inactivation of p110δ (p110δD910A/D910A) in the Eμ-TCL1 murine chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) model impaired B cell receptor signaling and B cell migration, and significantly delayed leukemia pathogenesis. Regardless of TCL1 expression, p110δ inactivation led to rectal prolapse in mice resembling autoimmune colitis in patients receiving idelalisib...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Keenan Ryan, Thomas F Byrd
In this review we will focus on unique aspects of Mycobacterium abscessus ( MABS ) which we feel earn it the designation of "shapeshifter of the mycobacterial world." We will review its emergence as a distinct species, the recognition and description of MABS subspecies which are only now being clearly defined in terms of pathogenicity, its ability to exist in different forms favoring a saprophytic lifestyle or one more suitable to invasion of mammalian hosts, as well as current challenges in terms of antimicrobial therapy and future directions for research...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shiwei Chen, Teresa Romeo Luperchio, Xianrong Wong, Europe B Doan, Aaron T Byrd, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Karen L Reddy, Michael S Krangel
Tcrb locus V(D)J recombination is regulated by positioning at the nuclear periphery. Here, we used DamID to profile Tcrb locus interactions with the nuclear lamina at high resolution. We identified a lamina-associated domain (LAD) border composed of several CTCF-binding elements that segregates active non-LAD from inactive LAD regions of the locus. Deletion of the LAD border causes an enhancer-dependent spread of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation from the active recombination center into recombination center-proximal LAD chromatin...
November 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Bre'Ana Byrd, Huyen Tran
Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique in protein research that has been used since 1975 to separate proteins based on their isoelectric point. When combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, this procedure allows for high-resolution separation of cellular proteins for analytical purposes. Laboratories perform IEF by (a) using carrier ampholytes that migrate through a gel to create the pH gradient or (b) using immobilized pH gradients (IPG) that contain ampholytes bound covalently to a gel...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Deanna M Hoelscher, Shreela V Sharma, Courtney E Byrd-Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Carolee Hinojosa, David Caldwell, James Byrd, Robert Droleskey, Jason Lee, Phil Stayer, Erin Resendiz, Javier Garcia, Stephanie Klein, Denise Caldwell, Megan Pineda, Morgan Farnell
Transport coops are infrequently washed and have been demonstrated to cross-contaminate broiler carcasses. We hypothesized that peracetic acid or a chlorinated cleaner, commonly used within poultry processing plants, can also be used to disinfect transport coops when applied via a compressed air foam system (CAFS). A mixture of fresh layer manure and concentrated Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) was evenly applied to the floors of four pre-cleaned transport coops and allowed to dry for thirty minutes. Treatments consisted of a (1) water rinse only, (2) product application with a water rinse, (3) product application followed by power washing and (4) power washing followed by application of product...
November 2, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Sarah Melville, James Brian Byrd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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