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Fall reduction

Esso-Hanam Atake
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, health shock is one of the most common idiosyncratic income shock and the main reason why households fall into poverty. Empirical research has shown that in these countries, households are unable to access formal insurance markets in order to insure their consumption against health shocks. Thus, in this study, are the poor and uninsured households more vulnerable from health shocks? We investigate the factors that lead to welfare loss from health shocks, and how to break the vulnerability from health shocks in three Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, namely, Burkina Faso, Niger and Togo...
October 13, 2018: Health Economics Review
Marek Lommatzsch, Maria Klein, Paul Stoll, Johann Christian Virchow
Here, we report that increasing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with not well-controlled asthma from a medium to a high dose results in a profound reduction of blood eosinophils (median fall in blood eosinophil concentrations from 560 to 320 cells/µL). Therefore, 'normal values' of blood eosinophils in patients with asthma need to be considered in view of the individual ICS doses of the patients. In addition, increases in the dose of ICS may result in blood eosinophil concentrations which would formally preclude treatment with biologics targeting the interleukin-5 pathway...
October 12, 2018: Thorax
Erdem Değirmenci, Yasin Emre Kaya, Kutay Engin Özturan
Hip is a stabilized joint due to the surrounding ligaments, and muscles, which can dislocate as a result of high energy trauma, high-level falls, and motor vehicle accidents. Traumatic hip dislocations can either be isolated or simultaneously with acetabular and proximal femur fractures. At the same time injury of sciatic, femoral or obturator nerves can be seen. However, avascular necrosis of femoral head, posttraumatic osteoarthritis, and heterotopic ossifications can be seen as prolonged complications. The period prior to the reduction, severity of the trauma, and performing open or close reductions are the major contributors of the prognosis...
October 2018: Trauma Case Reports
Zheng Dong, Charles T Driscoll, John L Campbell, Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Anne M K Stoner, Katharine Hayhoe
Using statistically downscaled future climate scenarios and a version of the biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) that was modified for use in the alpine tundra, we investigated changes in water, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics under the Representative Concentration Pathways at Niwot Ridge in Colorado, USA. Our simulations indicate that future hydrology will become more water-limited over the short-term due to the temperature-induced increases in leaf conductance, but remains energy-limited over the longer term because of anticipated future decreases in leaf area and increases in annual precipitation...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Chunmei Liu, Jingfei Cheng, Yili Zhuang, Luhuan Ye, Zijuan Li, Yuejun Wang, Meifang Qi, Yijing Zhang
The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA)-induced leaf senescence facilitates nutrient reuse and potentially contributes to enhancing plant stress tolerance. However, excessive senescence causes serious reductions in crop yield, and the mechanism by which senescence is finely tuned at different levels is still insufficiently understood. Here, we found that the double mutant of core enzymes of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is hypersensitive to ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana. To elucidate the interplay between ABA and senescence at the genome level, we extensively profiled the transcriptomic and epigenomic changes triggered by ABA...
October 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
K-U Kern, M Schwickert-Nieswandt
A 68-year-old patient suffered from postzoster neuralgia with severe pain of the left trigeminal nerve V1. Despite medication with gabapentin 1800 mg/d, oxacarbazepine 600 mg, tapentadol 500 mg/d, amitriptyline 20 mg as well as ambroxol 20% ointment and lidocaine patch topically, the pain reached an intensity of 8-10 on the numeric rating scale (NRS). Wearing a CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) mask at night to treat a sleep apnea was impossible or the mask was leaking under lidocaine patch, only topical ambroxol 20% brought a certain pain relief...
October 10, 2018: Der Schmerz
Kate E Elzinga, John R Lien
CASE: A 31-year-old Caucasian man presented with a greater arc perilunate variant injury after falling from a friend's shoulders onto an outstretched hand. Imaging revealed a minimally displaced scaphoid waist fracture and a nondisplaced transverse fracture through a previously unrecognized lunotriquetral coalition. A volar intercalated segmental instability (VISI) deformity was present. Open reduction with osseous fixation (a headless compression screw for the scaphoid waist fracture and 3 Kirschner wires across the midcarpal joint) and repair of the torn volar ligaments partially restored the carpal alignment...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Brian H H Lang, Yu-Cho Woo, Keith Wan-Hang Chiu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe changes in serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and anti-Tg autoantibody shortly following high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation in patients with positive anti-Tg status by comparing them with patients with negative anti-Tg and to correlate them with 6-month nodule shrinkage and treatment success. METHODS: From 2015 to 2017, patients who underwent HIFU ablation of a benign thyroid nodule were analysed. Serum Tg and anti-Tg were checked on treatment day (baseline) and 4 days after treatment...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Patricia C Dykes, Michael Bogaisky, Eileen J Carter, Megan Duckworth, Ann C Hurley, Emily M Jackson, Srijesa Khasnabish, Mary Ellen Lindros, Stuart R Lipsitz, Maureen Scanlan, Shao P Yu, David W Bates, Jason S Adelman
Falls are a serious, persistent problem in hospitals. Ensuring that all hospital staff have adequate knowledge of how to prevent falls is the first step in prevention. We identified validated fall prevention knowledge tests (FPKTs) and planned to conduct a systematic literature review. When the review identified a lack of FPKTs, we developed and evaluated a FPKT, confirmed its conceptual framework, identified the content domain, drafted test items, devised the format, selected items for empirical examination, and conducted a psychometric evaluation...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Brian V Monahan, Jose V Nable, Vince WinklerPrins
PURPOSE: Medical amnesty policies (MAPs) at universities attemptto encourage students to seek emergency medical care by reducing disciplinary sanctions. This study analyzed how a MAP affected requests for emergency medical help to a collegiate-based emergency medical services (CBEMS) agency for alcohol-related issues. METHODS: This before-and-after study analyzed CBEMS call data for the 6 semesters prior to and after MAP implementation. Extracted data included patient demographics, dispatch time, and requests for advanced life support (ALS) resources...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Sandra L Hearn, James K Richardson
Walking confers numerous health benefits, particularly for middle-aged and older patients with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, it brings a risk of injurious falls, especially among populations with diabetes and metabolic syndrome-related distal neuromuscular decline and frank neuropathy. Those who stand to benefit most from walking are at greatest risk. Development of practical clinical tools to more precisely quantify neuromuscular function and link it to mobility outcomes will help clinicians target interventions toward those at risk for falls...
November 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
Immanuel David Madukauwa-David, Eric L Pierce, Fatiesa Sulejmani, Joshua Pataky, Wei Sun, Ajit P Yoganathan
Postoperative suture dehiscence is an important mode of short-term mitral and tricuspid valve (MV, TV) repair failure. We sought to evaluate suture pullout forces and collagen density in human atrioventricular valves for a better understanding of the comparative physiology between the valves and the underlying mechanobiological basis for suture retention. Mitral and tricuspid annuli were each excised from hearts from human donors age 60-79 with no history of heart disease (n = 6). Anchor sutures were vertically pulled until tearing through the tissue...
October 4, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Raúl A Borracci, Silvia V Segal, José H Méndez
Our objective was to develop and test a dynamic simulation model of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases to assess rational vaccination strategies in Argentina. A dynamic stochastic transmission model for hetero- and homosexual transmission of HPV oncogenic and low-risk oncogenic types among females and males was developed. The model included HPV transmission and vaccination, the natural history of HPV-related diseases, disease outcomes, and cervical cancer screening. Considering all cervical cancers, covered or not by the current quadrivalent vaccine, the existing coverage rate would lead to 60% reduction in the global incidence of cervical cancer at 25 years, and to 79% at 50 years...
2018: Medicina
Auda Fares
Fractures are major cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare and social services expenditure in elderly. Fractures often have multifactorial etiologies and the condition emerges due to the interaction between the different predisposing and precipitating factors. One of the most common causes leading to fractures after minimal trauma in older people is osteoporosis. The objective of this article is to describe the clinical concept and summarize the evidence and to explain the future directions for research, focusing on specific issues related to prevent fracture in the elderly...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Monica K Esquivel
The aging US population is increasing, and it is estimated that adults older than 65 years will make up 20% of the population by 2029 and the proportion of individuals in the United States older than 65 years will outnumber individuals younger than 18 years. In older adults, accidental falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries. Prevalence of chronic conditions such as sarcopenia and frailty contribute to the increased risk for fall observed in this population. Nutritional status in elderly individuals is a key predictor of both frailty and sarcopenia, thus ensuring adequacy in these populations has the potential for preventing falls...
March 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Rajesh Kesavan, Sindhu Balakrishnan, Sunil Rajan, Shyam S Purushothaman, Rekha Varghese, Lakshmi Kumar
Background: Apneic mass movement of oxygen by applying continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is possible only when the airway is kept patent which helps to reduce the rate of desaturation. Aims: The aim of this study was to check the efficiency of preoxygenation and apneic oxygenation by assessing the drop in partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2 ) during apnea with and without keeping an oropharyngeal airway to maintain the patency of airway. Settings and Design: This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care center...
July 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Hsien Pin Chang, Jong Won Hong, Won Jai Lee, Young Seok Kim, Yoon Woo Koh, Se-Heon Kim, Dae Hyun Lew, Tae Suk Roh
BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have focused on determining prognostic and causative variables associated with fistula-related complications after head and neck reconstructive surgery, only a few studies have addressed preventive measures. Noting that pooled saliva complicates wound healing and precipitates fistula-related complications, we devised a continuous suction system to remove saliva during early postoperative recovery. METHODS: A continuous suction system was implemented in 20 patients after head and neck reconstructive surgery between January 2012 and October 2017...
September 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Danúbia da Cunha Antunes Saraiva, Sabrina da Silva Santos, Gina Torres Rego Monteiro
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the temporal trend of leukemia mortality in children and adolescents under 20 years old, in Brazilian state capitals and Federal District, between 1980 and 2015. METHODS: this was a descriptive time series study; age-standardized leukemia mortality rates were calculated; the Prais-Winsten regression model was used. RESULTS: leukemia mortality rates fell from 2.73 to 1.58 per 100,000 inhabitants aged under 20 years in the period studied (annual percentage variation of -7...
September 21, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Pavlos Panteliadis, Omar Musbahi, Senthil Muthian, Shivam Goyal, Alexander Sheriff Montgomery, Arun Ranganathan
Background: Management of thoracolumbar fractures remains controversial in the literature. The primary aims of this study were to assess different levels of fixation with respect to radiological outcomes in terms of fracture reduction and future loss of correction. Methods: This is a single center, retrospective study. Fifty-five patients presenting with thoracolumbar fractures between January 2012 and December 2015 were analyzed in the study. The levels of fixation were divided in 3 groups: 1 vertebra above and 1 below the fracture (1/1), 2 above and 2 below (2/2), and 2 above and 1 below (2/1)...
January 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Anna Lena Sander, Maximilian Leiblein, Katharina Sommer, Ingo Marzi, Dorien Schneidmüller, Johannes Frank
PURPOSE: A shift towards surgical treatment of distal radius fractures seems to be apparent. The purpose of the present study was to assess current epidemiological data, the fracture severity according to the AO classification and the changing trend in the treatment. METHODS: This study presents a retrospective review of 268 patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to our level I trauma center with distal radius fractures between 2013 and 2015. The data were obtained from the hospital inpatient enquiry system and review of the radiological examinations...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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