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Fall reduction

Jacob D Meyer, Elisa R Torres, Maggie L Grabow, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Hao Yang Teng, Christopher L Coe, Bruce P Barrett
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and aerobic exercise training (AET) programs improve health and well-being. Exercise participation has been related to mindfulness and may be altered by MBSR training. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare 8 wk of MBSR, AET, and no-treatment control during the fall season on objectively measured physical activity in healthy adults. METHODS: Participants (n = 66) wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 7 d prerandomization and after 8 wk MBSR or AET interventions, or neither (control)...
September 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karl Schwaiger, Paul Panzenbeck, Martin Purschke, Elisabeth Russe, René Kaplan, Klemens Heinrich, Patrick Mandal, Gottfried Wechselberger
Meralgia paresthetica (MP) is a rare lateral femoral cutaneous nerve-(LFCN)-mononeuropathy. Treatment for this disorder includes conservative and operative approaches; the latter is considered if conservative therapy fails. The most commonly used surgical approaches are decompression/neurolysis and avulsion/neurectomy. However, there are no definitive guidelines on the optimal surgical approach to be used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical decompression of the LFCN for the treatment of persistent MP with preservation of sensation along the distribution of the LFCN...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Evanta Kabir, Dhruti Patel, Kevin Clark, Thomas S Teets
Formazanates are a class of monoanionic, chromophoric, redox-active chelating ligands, and until recently, the coordination chemistry of formazanates with third-row transition metals was unexplored. Described here is a series of heteroleptic cyclometalated platinum formazanate complexes of the type Pt(C^N)(Fz), where "C^N" is the cyclometalating ligand and "Fz" is the formazanate. This work includes a set of 14 complexes derived from four different cyclometalating ligands and five different formazans, greatly expanding the structural and electronic diversity of this class of complexes...
August 16, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Roberto Walter Israel Olivares, Gabriela Cintia Postma, Andrea Schapira, Dario Ezequiel Iglesias, Laura Beatriz Valdez, Elizabeth Breininger, Pablo Daniel Gazzaneo, Leonardo Minatel
Copper deficiency is an important disease of cattle that produces several clinical signs and lesions, due to alterations in copper-dependent enzymes. One of the organs affected by this deficiency is the heart (falling disease), but nevertheless, these cardiac lesions have not been extensively studied in bovines. The aim of this work was to propose a possible pathogenic mechanism for cardiac lesions in cattle affected by copper deficiency. Because of the possible existence of oxidative distress caused by low levels of copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase, ultrastructural and histological lesions have been evaluated in the heart of bovines in which a Cu deficiency had been induced using high molybdenum and sulfur levels in the diet...
August 15, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Namki Hong, Chang Oh Kim, Yoosik Youm, Jin-Young Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Yumie Rhee
In a community-dwelling elderly cohort, dysmobility syndrome was associated with elevated odds of morphometric vertebral fracture or any prevalent fracture, independent of age and covariates. Dysmobility syndrome improved discrimination for fracture when added to the FRAX score. INTRODUCTION: Dysmobility syndrome was coined to indicate patients with impaired musculoskeletal health. Data on the association of dysmobility syndrome with prevalent morphometric vertebral fracture (VF) in elderly persons are limited...
August 14, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Ruth M Tappen, David Newman, Peter Huckfeldt, Zhiyou Yang, Gabriella Engstrom, David G Wolf, Jill Shutes, Carolina Rojido, Joseph G Ouslander
BACKGROUND: Medicare incentivizes the reduction of hospitalizations of nursing facility (NF) residents. The effects of these incentives on resident safety have not been examined. OBJECTIVE: Examine safety indicators in NFs participating in a randomized, controlled trial of the INTERACT Quality Improvement Program. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial in which intervention NFs exhibited a statistically nonsignificant reduction in hospitalizations...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Hannah Dills, Kruti Shah, Barbara Messinger-Rapport, Kevin Bradford, Quratulain Syed
OBJECTIVES: Perform a systematic review to evaluate the outcome of deprescription compared with standard care. The focus was on chronic medical and mental health conditions managed in primary care. DESIGN: The databases searched include PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science. Each study was assessed for bias with the Cochrane Collaboration tool. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: This review included outpatient, assisted living, nursing home, and acute care settings (if medications for chronic disease were deprescribed)...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Karolina Piotrowicz, Krzysztof Rewiuk, Stanisław Górski, Weronika Kałwak, Barbara Wizner, Agnieszka Pac, Michał Nowakowski, Tomasz Grodzicki
BACKGROUND: In hospital settings, delirium affects as many as 50% of older patients, aggravating their symptoms and worsening their condition, and therefore increasing the risk of in-hospital complications and death. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of structured, non-pharmacological care, delivered to older hospitalised patients by trained volunteers (students of medical fields), on the reduction of incidence of adverse health-related outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial will be a randomised, investigator-blind, controlled trial conducted in an internal medicine and geriatric ward in Poland...
August 14, 2018: Trials
Zhen Yang, Shi Gu, Nicolas Honnorat, Kristin A Linn, Russell T Shinohara, Irem Aselcioglu, Steven Bruce, Desmond J Oathes, Christos Davatzikos, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett, Yvette I Sheline
Despite widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinical practice, its mechanisms with respect to brain networks remain sparsely described. In this study, we applied tools from graph theory and network science to better understand the transdiagnostic neural mechanisms of this treatment for depression. A sample of 64 subjects was included in a study of network dynamics: 33 patients (15 MDD, 18 PTSD) received longitudinal fMRI resting state scans before and after 12 weeks of CBT. Depression severity was rated on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Mark Eilertsen, Andrew Merryweather, Shad Roundy
BACKGROUND: Drywall installation has an injury rate four times that of the construction industry average. Workers are exposed to hazards related to slips, falls, and falling objects, in addition to the large and awkward loads they must carry. Drywall sheets can weigh more than 100 lb. and contribute to disabling musculoskeletal injuries of the shoulders and back. OBJECTIVE: In this study, an unpowered lift assist device was developed to manage the load of a drywall sheet during the installation process...
August 9, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Annaliese Blair, Katrina Anderson, Catherine Bateman
ABSTRACTObjectives:Evaluate the clinical outcomes for patients with dementia, delirium, or at risk for delirium supported by the person-centered volunteer program in rural acute hospitals. DESIGN: A non-randomized, controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults admitted to seven acute hospitals in rural Australia. Intervention (n = 270) patients were >65 years with a diagnosis of dementia or delirium or had risk factors for delirium and received volunteer services...
August 13, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Lisa M Kalisch Ellett, Renly Lim, Nicole L Pratt, Mhairi Kerr, Emmae N Ramsay, Tammy V LeBlanc, John D Barratt, Elizabeth E Roughead
BACKGROUND: The Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) Veterans' Medicines Advice and Therapeutics Education Services (Veterans' MATES) programme conducted two intervention (March 2009, follow-up intervention June 2012) both of which aimed to reduce hypnotic use among Australian veterans. We evaluated the effectiveness of the interventions, and estimated the associated health consequences. METHODS: Both interventions targeted veterans who had been dispensed hypnotics prior to the intervention...
August 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Stephan Rein, Philipp Lewe, Susana L Andrade, Sylwia Kacprzak, Stefan Weber
Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR, alternatively called DEER for double electron-electron resonance) pulse sequences allow for the detection of echo decay curves that are modulated by dipole-dipole-coupling frequencies of interacting electron spins. With increasing distance between them, the echo decay needs to be monitored over a progressively extended time period. However, since the echo intensity typically falls off exponentially with increasing time, this might be problematic with respect to the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required for a sound data analysis...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Lawrence DuBuske, Paul Newbold, Yanping Wu, Frank Trudo
BACKGROUND: Benralizumab is a humanized, afucosylated, monoclonal antibody that targets interleukin-5 receptor alpha and induces direct, rapid, and nearly complete depletion of eosinophils via enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In the United States, benralizumab is indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients greater than or equal to 12 years old with severe asthma and an eosinophilic phenotype. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of benralizumab treatment on seasonal asthma exacerbation rates for patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma...
August 4, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Kenton R Kaufman, Kathie A Bernhardt, Kevin Symms
BACKGROUND: The benefits of a microprocessor-controlled knee are well documented in transfemoral amputees who are unlimited community ambulators. There have been suggestions that transfemoral amputees with limited community ambulation will also benefit from a microprocessor-controlled knee. Current medical policy restricts microprocessor-controlled knees to unlimited community ambulators and, thereby, potentially limits function. This clinical trial was performed to determine if limited community ambulators would benefit from a microprocessor-controlled knee...
July 19, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Tammy T Hshieh, Tinghan Yang, Sarah L Gartaganis, Jirong Yue, Sharon K Inouye
BACKGROUND: Delirium, defined as an acute disorder of attention and cognition with high morbidity and mortality, can be prevented by multicomponent nonpharmacological interventions. The Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) is the original evidence-based approach targeted to delirium risk factors, which has been widely disseminated. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current state of the evidence regarding HELP and to highlight its effectiveness and cost savings. METHODS: Systematic review of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1999 to 2017, using a combination of controlled vocabulary and keyword terms...
June 26, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Seth J Prins, Adam Reich
Risk assessment and risk reduction have become increasingly central to criminal justice policy and practice in the last 25 years. Yet there remains a lack of consensus both on the theoretical and methodological foundations of risk and on its social and practical implications. Some proponents see risk assessment and reduction as solutions to the inefficiencies and injustices of contemporary mass incarceration. Some critics see actuarial risk as being partially responsible for mass incarceration, and warn that recent iterations will only reinscribe existing inequalities under a new guise of objectivity...
May 1, 2018: Theoretical Criminology
John M Dennis, William E Henley, Michael N Weedon, Mike Lonergan, Lauren R Rodgers, Angus G Jones, William T Hamilton, Naveed Sattar, Salim Janmohamed, Rury R Holman, Ewan R Pearson, Beverley M Shields, Andrew T Hattersley
OBJECTIVE: The choice of therapy for type 2 diabetes after metformin is guided by overall estimates of glycemic response and side effects seen in large cohorts. A stratified approach to therapy would aim to improve on this by identifying subgroups of patients whose glycemic response or risk of side effects differs markedly. We assessed whether simple clinical characteristics could identify patients with differing glycemic response and side effects with sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones...
August 2, 2018: Diabetes Care
Lida Shahsavani Mojarrad, Ali Rafe
Mixture experiment was applied to optimize the canned cross-linked high-amylose starch yellow alkaline noodle formula. Processing factors of canned yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) cross-linked by MTGase at different levels of Hylon VII were surveyed. The factors were wheat flour, Hylon VII starch (HAS) as a high-amylose starch, and water in the mixture to achieve reduction in cooking loss, water uptake, swelling index, and thickness. Due to the effect of retort processing on YAN, pH, color, and texture were also examined...
July 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Alexandru Oanță, Veronica Iliescu, Smaranda Țărean
Half and half nails or Lindsay's nails were first mentioned by Bean (1) in 1964 and later described by Lindsay (2) in 1967 in patients with chronic kidney disease. They can occur in various diseases but also in healthy individuals. A 57-year-old patient with no significant pathological personal history consulted us for discoloration of all his nails on the fingers (Figure 1) and toes (Figure 2). The change in color occurred 17 years ago and had persisted since. The patient had no significant family history and denied a longer period of consumption of drugs, tobacco, or alcohol...
December 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
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