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fibroblast cells metastasis

Sun-Young Lee, Sery Lim, Dong-Hyu Cho
A 16-year-old female with Ewing sarcoma, a very rare disease with poor prognosis in women, was admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparotomy revealed the Ewing sarcoma originating from the extramural uterus. Histological examination yielded positive test results for CD99, vimentin, S-100, eosin 5-maleimide and periodic acid-Shiff. EWS-FLI1 type 1 translocation was confirmed. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 (c.1162G> A) and HRas proto-oncogene (HRAS; c.182A> G) mutations were also detected...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Mahboobeh Razmkhah, Shabnam Abtahi, Abbas Ghaderi
Mesenchymal Stem Cells [MSCs] are a heterogeneous population of fibroblast-like cells which maintain self-renewability and pluripotency. Many studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune cells. As a result of interactions with tumor cells, microenvironment and immune-stimulating milieu, MSCs contribute to tumor progression by several mechanisms, including sustained proliferative signal in cancer stem cells [CSCs], inhibition of tumor cell apoptosis, transition to tumor associated fibroblasts [TAFs], promotion of angiogenesis, stimulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition [EMT], suppression of immune responses, and consequential promotion of tumor metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Nkechiyere G Nwani, Livia E Sima, Wilberto Nieves-Neira, Daniela Matei
Cancer⁻stroma interactions play a key role in cancer progression and response to standard chemotherapy. Here, we provide a summary of the mechanisms by which the major cellular components of the ovarian cancer (OC) tumor microenvironment (TME) including cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), myeloid, immune, endothelial, and mesothelial cells potentiate cancer progression. High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is characterized by a pro-inflammatory and angiogenic signature. This profile is correlated with clinical outcomes and can be a target for therapy...
August 10, 2018: Cancers
Qing Zhang, Xiaonan Hou, Bradley J Evans, Jamison L VanBlaricom, Saravut J Weroha, William A Cliby
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling has pleiotropic functions regulating cancer initiation, development, and metastasis, and also plays important roles in the interaction between stromal and cancer cells, making the pathway a potential therapeutic target. LY2157299 monohydrate (LY), an inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I (TGFBRI), was examined for its ability to inhibit ovarian cancer (OC) growth both in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) cell lines and xenograft models. Immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and Western blot were performed to study the effect of LY treatment on expression of cancer- and fibroblast-derived genes...
August 7, 2018: Cancers
Jing Ren, Liang Ding, Dongya Zhang, Guoping Shi, Qianyun Xu, Sunan Shen, Yaping Wang, Tingting Wang, Yayi Hou
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathology of various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The crosstalk between carcinoma- associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor development and confers chemoresistance. In this study, we further investigated the underlying tumor-promoting roles of CAFs and the molecular mediators involved in these processes. Methods: The AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) mouse model was established, and RNA sequencing was performed...
2018: Theranostics
Guang Liu, Yan Wang, Fei Fei, Xinlu Wang, Chunyuan Li, Kai Liu, Jiaxing Du, Yuan Cao, Shiwu Zhang
The clinical data and paraffin-embedded samples of 47 cases of primary anorectal malignant melanomas (ARMMs) detected from 2004 to 2017 were collected to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics. The ARMMs were grouped according to tumour size, appearance of melanin granules in the plasma of the tumour cell, linearly patterned programmed cell necrosis (LPPCN) in tumour tissue and lymph node metastasis. On the basis of size, these tumours were divided into two groups: group I (volume of tumour >20 cm, or minimal diameter >1 cm and volume of tumour <20 cm, but >10 cm) and group II (volume of tumour <20 cm and minimal diameter <1 cm)...
August 3, 2018: Melanoma Research
Hui Zhong, Abdelkader Daoud, Jichun Han, Xiaohong An, Caili Qiao, Lanlan Duan, Yichuan Wang, Zhenfeng Chen, Jia Zhou, Jing Shang
Targeting tumor microenvironment (TME) is crucial in order to overcome the anti-cancer therapy resistance. In this study, we report the antitumor activity of a newly synthesized β-carboline derivative "B-9-3." Here, this small molecule showed a promising antitumor activity in vivo along with an enhanced immune response as reflected by a reduction of regulatory T cells and increased CD4+/CD8+ T cells. Further, B-9-3 decreased the number of myofibroblasts not only in the tumor but also in the lung suggesting an anti-metastatic action...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Lisa M Becker, Valerie S LeBleu
On endothelial cells, the TGFβ/BMP-9 co-receptor endoglin emerged as a promising anti-angiogenic target in colorectal cancer (CRC). Its promiscuous expression in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) emerges to facilitate metastasis. The multi-target impact of neutralizing endoglin may offer added benefit in controlling CRC.
August 3, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Xiangdong Zhao, Faliang Xu, Nestor Prieto Dominguez, Yuanping Xiong, Zhongxun Xiong, Hong Peng, Chloe Shay, Yong Teng
Although genetic amplification and overexpression of the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) gene are found in human breast cancer, mechanisms that contribute to such functional alterations remain elusive. We report here that high expression of FGF19 is associated with the aggressive malignant behavior and poor survival outcome of breast cancer patients. FGF19 is particularly highly expressed in luminal molecular subtype of breast tumors and its expression levels are positively associated with its secretion levels from breast cancer cells...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Sarah Cattin, Laurent Ramont, Curzio Rüegg
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Local invasion and metastasis formation are events associated with poor prognosis for which today there are no effective therapeutic options. Invasion and metastasis are strongly modulated by cells of the tumor microenvironment (TME), in particular fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Unraveling interactions between tumor cells and cells of the TME may identify novel mechanisms and therapeutic targets to prevent or treat metastasis...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Mozhdeh Iranmanesh, Reza Mohebbati, Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Mostafa Karimi Roshan, Ahmad Ghorbani, Mohammad Jalili Nik, Mohammad Soukhtanloo
The role of angiogenesis in tumor progression and metastasis formation has been well recognized. Recent studies have reported that Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) seed extracts have potential anticancer properties. The current study was planned to investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of fenugreek (HAEF) in vitro and in vivo . Effect of HAEF (50-3000 µg/mL) and thalidomide (200-3000 µmol/L), as a positive control, on the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and 3T3 fibroblast cells was assessed by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
August 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
L Roncati, A Manenti, G Barbolini, A Maiorana
The histology of signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRC) of the stomach has been revisited with the support of current immuno- histochemical techniques in order to explain particular features of this tumor; its great capacity of local diffusion and lymph node metastasis, also through a neo-lymphoangiogenesis. An observational retrospective study on 50 cases of SRC in stage II and III has been performed with the addition of histochemical (Alcian Blue, DDD-Fast Blue B, Mercury Orange) and immunohistochemical (cytocheratin, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD10, CD56, CD68, perforin, granzyme B, podoplanin, collagen type IV) investigations for each case...
2018: Neoplasma
Meng Sha, Seogsong Jeong, Bi-Jun Qiu, Ying Tong, Lei Xia, Ning Xu, Jian-Jun Zhang, Qiang Xia
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a highly fatal tumor characterized by an abundant stromal environment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts play key roles in tumor growth and invasiveness and have been regarded as a potential therapeutic target. This study was designed to isolate human primary cancer-associated fibroblasts of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to study tumor-stroma interactions and to analyze the clinical relevance of alpha-smooth muscle actin -positive cancer-associated fibroblasts in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma...
July 31, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Angelica Facoetti, Carmela DI Gioia, Francesca Pasi, Riccardo DI Liberto, Franco Corbella, Rosanna Nano, Mario Ciocca, Francesca Valvo, Roberto Orecchia
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cell migration and invasion are fundamental components of tumor cell metastasis that represent the biggest threat to the survival and quality of life of cancer patients. There is clear evidence that ionizing radiation can differently modulate migration and invasiveness of cancer cells depending on the cell lines, the doses and the radiation types investigated. This suggests that motile cells are able to adopt different migration strategies according to their molecular characteristics and external signals...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Yu Hisano, Timothy Hla
While normal angiogenesis is critical for development and tissue growth, pathological angiogenesis is important for the growth and spread of cancers by supplying nutrients and oxygen as well as providing a conduit for distant metastasis. The interactions among extracellular matrix molecules, tumor cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells is critical in pathological angiogenesis, in which various angiogenic growth factors, chemokines, and lipid mediators produced from these cells as well as hypoxic microenvironment promote angiogenesis by regulating expression and/or activity of various related genes...
July 23, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rebekka Bent, Lorna Moll, Stephan Grabbe, Matthias Bros
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is induced by inflammatory signals in a broad number of immune cell types. IL-1β (and IL-18) are the only cytokines which are processed by caspase-1 after inflammasome-mediated activation. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about parameters of regulation of IL-1β expression and its multi-facetted role in pathophysiological conditions. IL-1 signaling activates innate immune cells including antigen presenting cells, and drives polarization of CD4+ T cells towards T helper type (Th) 1 and Th17 cells...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gábor Valcz, Edit Irén Buzás, Zoltán Szállási, Alexandra Kalmár, Tibor Krenács, Zsolt Tulassay, Péter Igaz, Béla Molnár
Carcinomas are complex structures composed of hierarchically organized distinct cell populations such as cancer stem cells and non-stem (bulk) cancer cells. Their genetic/epigenetic makeup and the dynamic interplay between the malignant cell populations and their stromal fibroblasts are important determinants of metastatic tumor invasion. Important mediators of these interactions are the small, membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles, in particular exosomes. Both cancer cell and fibroblast-derived exosomes carry a set of regulatory molecules, including proteins and different species of RNA, which cooperatively support metastatic tumor spread...
2018: NPJ Breast Cancer
Daiji Ikuta, Toru Miyake, Tomoharu Shimizu, Hiromichi Sonoda, Ken-Ichi Mukaisho, Aya Tokuda, Tomoyuki Ueki, Hiroyuki Sugihara, Masaji Tani
Background: Tumor microenvironment including fibrosis has a pivotal role in cancer growth and distant metastasis. Fibrosis is a known risk factor for carcinogenesis, but its biological role in disease invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In particular, there is no report on how fibrosis of metastatic lymph nodes (MLNs) in CRC contributes to prognosis. Methods: We reviewed 94 colorectal adenocarcinoma patients with MLNs who underwent colectomy...
July 3, 2018: Oncotarget
Atena Zahedi, Rattapol Phandthong, Angela Chaili, Guadalupe Remark, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVES: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the initial step enabling the metastasis of cancer cells, which often leads to death. Although smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, there is still widespread use of conventional cigarettes. Recently, the tobacco industry has been transformed by the introduction of electronic cigarettes (ECs), which have lower levels of carcinogens and may provide a safer alternative. Here, we investigate the ability of EC liquids and aerosols to induce an EMT in A549 lung cancer cells...
August 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Giuseppe Curigliano
Chest wall inflammatory and lymphangitic breast cancer represents a clinical spectrum and a model disease. Inflammation and the immune response have a role in the natural history of this special clinical presentation. Preclinical models and biomarker studies suggest that inflammatory breast cancer comprises a more important role for the tumour microenvironment, including immune cell infiltration and vasculogenesis, especially lympho-angiogenesis. Across this clinical continuum of the chest wall disease there is an important role of the inflammation cascade...
August 2018: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
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