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virus infection

Gizem Alpay, Eda Baldan Toker, Kadir Yeşilbağ
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible risk of bovine viral diarrhea virus transport from imported live animals. For this purpose, two different groups of animals were sampled in this study. Group 1 consisted of pregnant heifers; group 2 consisted of male beef cattle imported during 2011-2012 and 2015, respectively. Blood samples were tested for pestivirus antigen using a commercial BVDV antigen ELISA. All the pregnant heifers were negative, but 9 out of 412 offspring and 5 of the 332 male cattle were BVDV antigen positive...
August 18, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Olivier Zablocki, Leonardo van Zyl, Marla Trindade
Bacterial viruses ("phages") play important roles in the regulation and evolution of microbial communities in most ecosystems. Terrestrial hot springs typically contain thermophilic bacterial communities, but the diversity and impacts of its associated viruses ("thermophilic phages") are largely unexplored. Here, we provide a taxonomic overview of phages that have been isolated strictly from terrestrial hot springs around the world. In addition, we placed 17 thermophilic phage genomes in a global phylogenomic context to detect evolutionary patterns...
August 18, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Adriana Lucía-Sanz, Jacobo Aguirre, Susanna Manrubia
Multipartite viruses have a segmented genome encapsidated in different viral particles that, in principle, propagate independently. Current empirical knowledge on the molecular, ecological and evolutionary features underlying the very existence of multipartitism is fragmented and puzzling. Although it is generally assumed that multipartitism is viable only when propagation occurs at high multiplicity of infection, evidence indicates that severe population bottlenecks are common. Mathematical models aimed at describing the dynamics of multipartite viruses typically assign an advantage to the multipartite form to compensate for the cost of high multiplicity of infection...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Gihan S Gunaratne, Yang Yang, Fang Li, Timothy F Walseth, Jonathan S Marchant
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections are associated with a significant mortality rate, and existing drugs show poor efficacy. Identifying novel targets/pathways required for MERS infectivity is therefore important for developing novel therapeutics. As an enveloped virus, translocation through the endolysosomal system provides one pathway for cellular entry of MERS-CoV. In this context, Ca2+ -permeable channels within the endolysosomal system regulate both the luminal environment and trafficking events, meriting investigation of their role in regulating processing and trafficking of MERS-CoV...
August 9, 2018: Cell Calcium
Silvia Spriano, Seiji Yamaguchi, Francesco Baino, Sara Ferraris
Evolution of metal implants progressively shifted the focus from adequate mechanical strength to improved biocompatibility and absence of toxicity and, finally, to fast osseointegration. Recently, new frontiers and challenges of Ti implants have been addressed to improvement of bioactivity, fighting of bacterial infection and biofilm formation, as well as modulation of inflammation. This is closely related to the clinical demand of multifunctional implants able to simultaneously have a number of specific responses with respect to body fluids, cells (osteoblasts, fibroblasts, macrophages) and pathogenic agents (bacteria, viruses)...
August 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Maike Bossert, Eric B Carstens
Homologous regions (hrs) have been predicted to act as origins of baculovirus DNA replication. Hrs have also been shown to function as enhancers of virus transcription. Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) carries eight hrs. In order to assess the role of hrs in virus replication in vivo, we applied a two-step RED recombination system for site-specific mutagenesis to sequentially delete each hr from a bacmid copy of AcMNPV. We then characterized the ability of the bacmids carrying different numbers of hrs or no hr to produce polyhedra and budded virus in transfected cells...
August 16, 2018: Virus Research
Maryam Kherad Pezhouh, James Adam Miller, Rajni Sharma, David Borzik, Ogechukwu Eze, Kevin Waters, Maria A Westerhoff, Alyssa M Parian, Mark G Lazarev, Lysandra Voltaggio
A potential role for viral infections has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unresponsive to medical treatment. It is well known that Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection can elicit a brisk mononuclear response in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of EBV in patients with refractory IBD and compare them to non-refractory IBD cases. Surgically resected colonic specimens from 67 patients with refractory IBD (62 with ulcerative colitis, 3 patients with Crohn's disease and 2 patients with indeterminate colitis) were retrieved...
August 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Meike Dirks, Kim Haag, Henning Pflugrad, Anita Blanka Tryc, Ramona Schuppner, Heiner Wedemeyer, Andrej Potthoff, Hans Ludger Tillmann, Kajetan Sandorski, Hans Worthmann, Xiaoqi Ding, Karin Weissenborn
Chronic fatigue, mood alterations and cognitive impairment are frequent accessory symptoms of HCV-infection. Fatigue and mood alterations have also been observed in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), but not in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infection, thus indicating an autoimmune response as possible cause of HCV-infection associated encephalopathy. Data, however, are sparse. This study aims to prove that HCV patients feature similar to those with autoimmune liver disease but contrary to HBV patients regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Cleetus Cherupanakkal, Daisy Mariya Samadanam, Krishna Raja Muthuraman, Surya Ramesh, Amrit Venkatesan, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna Pillai, Soundravally Rajendiran
Interplay between the apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress as a host response to dengue viral infections remains unclear. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 60 dengue infected patients, 20 patients with febrile illness other than dengue (OFI) and 10 non-febrile illness (NFI) patients. DNA damage in the PBMCs was assessed using single cell gel electrophoresis and stages of apoptosis underwent by the PBMCs were studied by Annexin-PI staining using flow cytometry. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde levels were estimated using thiobarbituric acid assay...
August 18, 2018: IUBMB Life
Yeon Joo Lee, Dionysios Neofytos, Seong Jin Kim, Leslie Cheteyan, Yao-Ting Huang, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, Ann A Jakubowski, Genovefa A Papanicolaou
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at risk for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Routine prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended during periods of immunosuppression. Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001), a lipid conjugate of cidofovir, is active in vitro activity against HSV/VZV, but has not been formally studied for HSV/VZV prophylaxis. We report our clinical experience of BCV for HSV/VZV prophylaxis in HCT recipients...
August 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Mingyuan Han, Charu Rajput, Joanna L Hinde, Qian Wu, Jing Lei, Tomoko Ishikawa, J Kelley Bentley, Marc B Hershenson
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) causes the common cold and asthma exacerbations. The RV genome is a 7.3 kb single-strand positive-sense RNA. OBJECTIVE: Using minor group RV1A as a backbone, we sought to design and generate a recombinant RV1A accommodating fluorescent marker expression, thereby allowing tracking of viral infection. METHOD: Recombinant RV1A infectious cDNA clones harboring the coding sequence of green fluorescent protein (GFP), Renilla luciferase or iLOV (for light, oxygen or voltage sensing) were engineered and constructed...
August 17, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
F Rosso, S Rodríguez, J A Cedano, B L Mora, P A Moncada, J D Velez
Chikungunya virus is a recent emerging arbovirus in Latin America, and the clinical manifestations can vary from fever and rash to severe chronic inflammatory arthritis. Few reports have been published regarding this infection in immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. We report a case series of solid organ transplant recipients with confirmed Chikungunya infection by positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), identified between January 2014 and December 2016...
August 17, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Sheridan M Hoy
Tecovirimat (TPOXX® ) is an orthopoxvirus-specific antiviral drug developed by SIGA Technologies in conjunction with the US Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advances Research and Development Authority. It acts by inhibiting the activity of the orthopoxvirus VP37 envelope wrapping protein, thereby preventing the formation of egress-competent enveloped virions, which are essential for dissemination of the virus in the host. In July 2018, oral tecovirimat was approved in the USA for the treatment of human smallpox disease caused by variola virus in adults and paediatric patients weighing ≥ 13 kg...
August 17, 2018: Drugs
Ciro Dantas Soares, Roman Carlos, Juan Pablo Díaz Molina, Thayná Melo de Lima Morais, Oslei Paes de Almeida
Smooth muscle tumors associated with Epstein-Barr virus infections (EBV-SMT) of laryngeal origin are exceedingly rare and have been reported in few adult patients, but not in children. This reported case describes a lesion found in the larynx of an 8-year-old Guatemalan undernourished girl. Microscopically, the lesion showed a highly cellular mesenchymal spindle cell tumor, containing frequent lymphocytes. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed positivity for α-smooth muscle actin and h-caldesmon. In addition, most of the tumor cells were positive for EBV by in situ hybridization...
August 17, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
Timothée Bonifay, Jean-François Lienne, Cécile Bagoée, Florin Santa, Guillaume Vesin, Gaëlle Walter, Mathieu Nacher, Nathalie Vaserman, Félix Djossou, Loïc Epelboin
The estimated seroprevalence in the general population after chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemics ranged from 38 to 63%. Despite a low case fatality, subacute and chronic rheumatic forms of CHIKV infection generate significant morbidity and have a socioeconomic impact. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic post-CHIKV rheumatic or musculoskeletal pain (pCHIK-RMSP) at 3 and 6 months after the initial symptoms. An observational study was conducted at Cayenne General Hospital in French Guiana between April 1 and June 30, 2014...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Shambhavi Shubham, Jan Hoinka, Soma Banerjee, Emma Swanson, Jacob A Dillard, Nicholas J Lennemann, Teresa M Przytycka, Wendy Maury, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton
With properties such as stability to long-term storage and amenability to repetitive use, nucleic acid aptamers are compatible with many sensing/transducing platforms intended for use in remote locations. Sensors with these properties are important for quickly identifying ebolavirus outbreaks, which frequently start in locations that lack sophisticated equipment. Soluble glycoprotein (sGP), an excellent biomarker for ebolaviruses, is produced from the same gene as the ebolavirus glycoprotein GP1,2 that decorates the surface of the viral particle and is secreted in abundance into the blood stream even during the early stages of infection...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Juan Huang, Renyong Jia, Haoyue Shen, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin, Anchun Cheng
A flavivirus, named duck tembusu virus (DTMUV), emerged in China in 2010. This virus has caused great economic losses in the poultry industry in China and may pose a threat to public health. As a safe, efficient and convenient vaccine development strategy, DNA-based vaccines have become a popular approach for both human and veterinary applications. Attenuated bacteria have been widely used as vehicles to deliver heterologous antigens to the immune system. Thus, an efficient and low-cost oral delivery DNA vaccine SL7207 (pVAX1-SME) based on envelope proteins (prM and E) of DTMUV and attenuated Salmonella typhimurium aroA- strain SL7207 was developed and evaluated in this study...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy Jennings, Emily Gascoigne, Alastair Macrae, Elizabeth Burrough, James Patrick Crilly
Ovine pestiviruses have the potential to reduce productivity in the British sheep flock. However, their prevalence and impact are currently poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the exposure to pestiviruses in adult breeding ewe stock. Blood samples collected for metabolic profiling before lambing were tested using an ELISA that detected antibodies raised to both bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Border disease virus. A group of 15 animals were tested per flock. A total of 34 farms were tested, of which 13 had at least one seropositive animal...
August 18, 2018: Veterinary Record
Yun-Zhong Nie, Yun-Wen Zheng, Kei Miyakawa, Soichiro Murata, Ran-Ran Zhang, Keisuke Sekine, Yasuharu Ueno, Takanori Takebe, Takaji Wakita, Akihide Ryo, Hideki Taniguchi
Therapies against hepatitis B virus (HBV) have improved in recent decades; however, the development of individualized treatments has been limited by the lack of individualized infection models. In this study, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) to generate a functional liver organoid (LO) that inherited the genetic background of the donor, and evaluated its application in modeling HBV infection and exploring virus-host interactions. To establish a functional hiPSC-LO, we cultured hiPSC-derived endodermal, mesenchymal, and endothelial cells with a chemically defined medium in a three-dimensional microwell culture system...
August 14, 2018: EBioMedicine
Reyna Torres-Obregón, Dora Julia Onofre-Rodríguez, Raquel Alicia Benavides-Torres, Cristóbal Calvillo, María Eugenia Garza-Elizondo, Juan Yovani Telumbre-Terrero
The perceived risk to HIV and the decisional balance (pros and cons) towards HIV testing are fundamental aspects for understanding the motivation of men who have sex with men to engage in behaviours that reduce or increase the risk of infection with the virus. OBJECTIVES: To describe the perceived risk of HIV and the decisional balance towards HIV testing and determine the association between perceived risk and the decisional balance towards HIV testing of men who have sex with men. METHOD: Descriptive correlational design, we used respondent-driven sampling, with which we recruited 202 men who have sex with men...
August 14, 2018: Enfermería Clínica
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