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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553031/zika-virus-diagnosis-challenges-and-solutions
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Peters, Mario Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Since its sudden appearance and link to microcephaly in 2015, the number of PubMed references for Zika virus (ZIKV) has risen from 181 to 5,163, as of writing, with a vast proportion focused on the consequences of ZIKV infection during pregnancy. This level of attention underlies increased demand for sensitive and specific diagnostic tools able to assess risk to an unborn child, as well as to understand the dynamics and consequences of viral persistence. AIM: Review the expanding knowledge on ZIKV persistence and diagnostic challenges and summarize current advancements in detection...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552954/non-covalent-hitchhiking-on-endogenous-carriers-as-a-protraction-mechanism-for-antiviral-macromolecular-prodrugs
#2
Camilla Kaas Frich, Franziska Krüger, Raoul Walther, Cecilie Domar, Anna H F Andersen, Anne Tvilum, Frederik Dagnæs-Hansen, Paul W Denton, Martin Tolstrup, Søren R Paludan, Jan Münch, Alexander N Zelikin
Albumin is a highly successful tool of drug delivery providing drastically extended body and blood residence time for the associated cargo, but it only traffics single drug copies at a time. In turn, macromolecular prodrugs (MP) are advantaged in carrying a high drug payload but offering only a modest extension of residence time to the conjugated drugs. In this work, we engineer MP to contain terminal groups that bind to albumin via non-covalent association and reveal that this facile measure affords a significant protraction for the associated polymers...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552880/arbovirus-investigation-in-patients-from-mato-grosso-during-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-introdution-in-brazil-2015-2016
#3
Michell Charlles de Souza Costa, Laura Marina Siqueira Maia, Victor Costa de Souza, Andréia Maria Gonzaga, Vergínia Correa de Azevedo, Letícia Ramos Martins, Juliana Helena Chaves Pavoni, Felipe Gomes Naveca, Renata Dezengrini Slhessarenko
Arboviruses have become a major public health concern in Brazil, especially after Zika virus (ZIKV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) introduction, leading to massive epidemics. We conducted an investigation of arboviruses in patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days in Mato Grosso state (MT) during the period of ZIKV and CHIKV dissemination in Brazil. To achieve that, 453 human serum samples of patients suspected of Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), ZIKV or CHIKV collected in health units of 31 cities of MT were subjected to RT-PCR protocols for 10 flaviviruses, 5 alphaviruses and orthobunyaviruses from Simbu serogroup, nucleotide sequencing and viral isolation...
December 12, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552864/first-report-of-two-consecutive-respiratory-syncytial-virus-outbreaks-by-the-novel-genotypes-on-1-and-na-2-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
Daniella Gregoria Bomfim Prado da Silva, Flávia Jacqueline Almeida, Mariana Volpe Arnoni, Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi, Marcelo Jenne Mimica, Daniel Jarovsky, Gabriela Pereira de Almeida Rossetti, Mauricio Magalhães, Danielle Bruna Leal de Oliveira, Luciano Matsumiya Thomazelli, Thais Cristina Colmanetti, Edison Luiz Durigon, Eitan Naaman Berezin
OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus is a pathogen frequently involved in nosocomial outbreaks. Although several studies have reported nosocomial outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units, molecular epidemiology data are scarce. Here, the authors describe two consecutive respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks caused by genotypes ON-1 and NA-2 in a neonatal intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A prospective search for respiratory syncytial virus was performed after diagnosing the index case and four other symptomatic newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit...
December 12, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552766/emergence-of-oncogenic-enhancing-hepatitis-b-virus-x-gene-mutants-in-patients-receiving-suboptimal-entecavir-treatment
#5
Chih-Lang Lin, Yu-De Chu, Chau-Ting Yeh
Entecavir is a widely used nucleoside analogue for antiviral therapy against chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Despite its remarkable efficacy in suppressing HBV replication, a substantial proportion of cirrhotic patients still developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after entecavir treatment (1). Presumably, it is largely attributed to the existing precancerous hepatocytes, which sturdily progresses into cancer despite effective viral suppression. HBV X (HBx) protein is a well-known oncogenic protein...
December 15, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552753/probable-reverse-zoonosis-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm-09-in-a-striped-skunk-mephitis-mephitis
#6
Ann P Britton, Melissa Trapp, Suzana Sabaiduc, William Hsiao, Tomy Joseph, Helen Schwantje
Striped skunks (skunks) are susceptible to respiratory infection by influenza A viruses (IAV). As they are common synanthropes, maintenance of IAV in skunks could provide a source of infection for humans. We previously studied the nasal turbinates, lungs and faeces of 50 free-ranging skunks for the presence of IAV and identified two individuals with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 flu seasons. Subsequent to publication of that study, ferrets were shown to preferentially replicate and harbour A(H1N1)pdm09 in the soft palate, a site which had not been investigated in the skunks...
December 14, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552663/pediatric-encephalic-ultrasonography-the-essentials
#7
REVIEW
Valerio Vitale, Eugenio Rossi, Marco Di Serafino, Rocco Minelli, Ciro Acampora, Francesca Iacobellis, Chiara D'Errico, Aniello Esposito, Francesco Esposito, Gianfranco Vallone, Massimo Zeccolini
Nowadays, cranial ultrasonography (US) of the newborn represents the first imaging method in brain damage study and its possible outcomes. This exam is performed using the natural fontanelles, especially the anterior one. It is fast, non-invasive and does not produce any side effect. Ultrasonographic examination is usually performed in cases of prematurity, especially in children with birth weight less than 1500 g, because important informations about the possible presence of pathologies such as cerebral hemorrhage and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are given...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552635/recent-progress-on-functional-genomics-research-of-enterovirus-71
#8
REVIEW
Huiqiang Wang, Yuhuan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD caused by EV71 infection is mostly self-limited; however, some infections can cause severe neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, and even death. There are still no effective clinical drugs used for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. Studying EV71 protein function is essential for elucidating the EV71 replication process and developing anti-EV71 drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in the studies of EV71 non-coding regions (5' UTR and 3' UTR) and all structural and nonstructural proteins, especially the key motifs involving in viral infection, replication, and immune regulation...
December 14, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552628/stochastic-modeling-and-simulation-of-viral-evolution
#9
Luiza Guimarães Fabreti, Diogo Castro, Bruno Gorzoni, Luiz Mario Ramos Janini, Fernando Antoneli
RNA viruses comprise vast populations of closely related, but highly genetically diverse, entities known as quasispecies. Understanding the mechanisms by which this extreme diversity is generated and maintained is fundamental when approaching viral persistence and pathobiology in infected hosts. In this paper, we access quasispecies theory through a mathematical model based on the theory of multitype branching processes, to better understand the roles of mechanisms resulting in viral diversity, persistence and extinction...
December 14, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552559/spatiotemporal-dynamics-and-risk-factors-of-rotavirus-a-circulation-in-backyard-pig-farms-in-a-philippine-setting
#10
Lyre Anni E Murao, Michael G Bacus, Nicole Xyza T Junsay, Denia Lou D Albarillo, Ma Catherine B Otero, Sheryl Grace C Buenaventura, Kim Dianne B Ligue, Pedro A Alviola
Rotavirus A is one of the leading etiological agents of porcine gastroenteritis, a condition which results to stunted growth among piglets. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for zoonosis of rotavirus A (RVA), which is also the principal cause of diarrhea in children. In the absence of rigorous animal health monitoring in Philippine backyard farms, there is therefore a strong need for RVA surveillance. In this study, 30 randomly selected backyard farms were subjected to surveillance for RVA for 12 months...
December 14, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552347/nanopore-based-detection-and-characterization-of-yam-viruses
#11
Denis Filloux, Emmanuel Fernandez, Etienne Loire, Lisa Claude, Serge Galzi, Thierry Candresse, Stephan Winter, M L Jeeva, T Makeshkumar, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
We here assessed the capability of the MinION sequencing approach to detect and characterize viruses infecting a water yam plant. This sequencing platform consistently revealed the presence of several plant virus species, including Dioscorea bacilliform virus, Yam mild mosaic virus and Yam chlorotic necrosis virus. A potentially novel ampelovirus was also detected by a complimentary Illumina sequencing approach. The full-length genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrosis virus was determined using Sanger sequencing, which enabled determination of the coverage and sequencing accuracy of the MinION technology...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552244/clinical-effectiveness-of-pharmacy-led-versus-conventionally-delivered-antiviral-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-in-patients-receiving-opioid-substitution-therapy-a-study-protocol-for-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomised-trial
#12
Andrew Radley, Marijn de Bruin, Sarah K Inglis, Peter T Donnan, John F Dillon
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 0.7% of the general population, and up to 40% of people prescribed opioid substitution therapy (OST) in Scotland. In conventional care, less than 10% of OST users are tested for HCV and less than 25% of these initiate treatment. Community pharmacists see this group frequently to provide OST supervision. This study examines whether a pharmacist-led 'test & treat' pathway increases cure rates for HCV. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a cluster-randomised trial where 60 community pharmacies provide either conventional or pharmacy-led care...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552191/contrasting-patterns-of-virus-protection-and-functional-incompatibility-genes-in-two-conspecific-wolbachia-strains-from-drosophila-pandora
#13
Angelique K Asselin, Simon Villegas-Ospina, Ary A Hoffmann, Jeremy C Brownlie, Karyn N Johnson
Wolbachia infections can present different phenotypes in hosts, including different forms of reproductive manipulation and antiviral protection, which may influence infection dynamics within host populations. In populations of Drosophila pandora two distinct Wolbachia strains co-exist, each manipulating host reproduction: w PanCI, causes cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereas w PanMK, causes male-killing (MK). CI occurs when a Wolbachia -infected male mates with a female not infected with a compatible type of Wolbachia, leading to non-viable offspring...
December 14, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552188/molecular-identification-of-enteroviruses-from-cattle-and-goat-feces-and-environment-in-thailand
#14
Nicharee Income, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Sarawut Taksinoros, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Pannamas Maneekan, Irwin Fernandez Chavez
The identification and characterization of the viruses of the genus Enterovirus in healthy and infected livestock, including cattle and goats, have been increasing. Enterovirus E (EV-E) and F (EV-F) are commonly found in cattle, whereas Enterovirus G (EV-G) is found in goats. In this study, molecular and phylogenetic analyses were performed to determine the prevalence of EVs in cattle and goat feces from the Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. The presence of EVs in water samples and feces of other animals collected from the areas surrounding cattle and goat farms was also investigated...
December 14, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552164/aging-of-antiviral-cd8-memory-t-cells-fosters-increased-survival-metabolic-adaptations-and-lymphoid-tissue-homing
#15
Bennett Davenport, Jens Eberlein, Verena van der Heide, Kevin Jhun, Tom T Nguyen, Francisco Victorino, Andrew Trotta, Jerry Chipuk, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Eric T Clambey, Donald K Scott, Dirk Homann
Aging of established antiviral T cell memory can foster a series of progressive adaptations that paradoxically improve rather than compromise protective CD8+ T cell immunity. We now provide evidence that this gradual evolution, the pace of which is contingent on the precise context of the primary response, also impinges on the molecular mechanisms that regulate CD8+ memory T cell (TM ) homeostasis. Over time, CD8+ TM generated in the wake of an acute infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus become more resistant to apoptosis and acquire enhanced cytokine responsiveness without adjusting their homeostatic proliferation rates; concurrent metabolic adaptations promote increased CD8+ TM quiescence and fitness but also impart the reacquisition of a partial effector-like metabolic profile; and a gradual redistribution of aging CD8+ TM from blood and nonlymphoid tissues to lymphatic organs results in CD8+ TM accumulations in bone marrow, splenic white pulp, and, particularly, lymph nodes...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552137/influenza-virus-n-linked-glycosylation-and-innate-immunity
#16
Ian A York, James Stevens, Irina V Alymova
Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics in humans. The virus's ability to change its antigenic nature through mutation and recombination, and the difficulty in developing highly effective universal vaccines against it, make it a serious global public health challenge. Influenza virus's surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are all modified by the host cell's N-linked glycosylation pathways. Host innate immune responses are the first line of defense against infection, and glycosylation of these major antigens plays an important role in the generation of host innate responses toward the virus...
December 14, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552063/is-hepatitis-a-virus-infection-under-control-lessons-in-the-application-of-viral-sequencing-for-the-development-of-vaccination-schemes-in-emergency-situations
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552056/treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-rwanda-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-shared-a-single-arm-trial
#18
Neil Gupta, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi, Jules Kabahizi, Fabien Ntaganda, Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Fabienne Shumbusho, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Constance Mukabatsinda, Cyprien Ntirenganya, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Fredrick Kateera, Gregory Camus, Makuza Jean Damascene, Sabin Nsanzimana, Joia Mukherjee, Philip M Grant
BACKGROUND: Limited treatment data are available for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa, especially for genotype 4. Our objective was to establish the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for chronic HCV genotype 1 or 4 infection in adults in Rwanda. METHODS: We did a single-arm trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in Rwandan adults with chronic HCV infection at a single study site (Rwanda Military Hospital, Kigali, Rwanda)...
December 10, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30552025/vaccine-induced-protection-from-homologous-tier-2-shiv-challenge-in-nonhuman-primates-depends-on-serum-neutralizing-antibody-titers
#19
Matthias G Pauthner, Joseph P Nkolola, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Ben Murrell, Samantha M Reiss, Raiza Bastidas, Jérémie Prévost, Rebecca Nedellec, Benjamin von Bredow, Peter Abbink, Christopher A Cottrell, Daniel W Kulp, Talar Tokatlian, Bartek Nogal, Matteo Bianchi, Hui Li, Jeong Hyun Lee, Salvatore T Butera, David T Evans, Lars Hangartner, Andrés Finzi, Ian A Wilson, Richard T Wyatt, Darrell J Irvine, William R Schief, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders, Shane Crotty, George M Shaw, Dan H Barouch, Dennis R Burton
Passive administration of HIV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) can protect macaques from hard-to-neutralize (tier 2) chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. However, conditions for nAb-mediated protection after vaccination have not been established. Here, we selected groups of 6 rhesus macaques with either high or low serum nAb titers from a total of 78 animals immunized with recombinant native-like (SOSIP) Env trimers. Repeat intrarectal challenge with homologous tier 2 SHIVBG505 led to rapid infection in unimmunized and low-titer animals...
November 29, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551986/a-trivalent-gc2-gd2-ge2-vaccine-for-herpes-simplex-virus-generates-antibody-responses-that-block-immune-evasion-domains-on-gc2-better-than-natural-infection
#20
Lauren M Hook, Sita Awasthi, Jonathan Dubin, Jessica Flechtner, Deborah Long, Harvey M Friedman
Vaccines for prevention and treatment of genital herpes are high public health priorities. Our approach towards vaccine development is to focus on blocking virus entry mediated by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) and to prevent the virus from evading complement and antibody attack by blocking the immune evasion domains on HSV-2 glycoproteins C (gC2) and E (gE2), respectively. HSV-2 gC2 and gE2 are expressed on the virion envelope and infected cell surface where they are potential targets of antibodies that bind and block their immune evasion activities...
December 12, 2018: Vaccine
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