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virus infection

Weifan Xu, Ying Fan, Haiping Wang, Min Feng, Xiaofeng Wu
In group I nucleopolyhedrovirus such as Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), the biological functions of F-like protein (Bm14) still remain elusive. Here, we found that the deletion of Bm14 reduced the production rate of infectious budded viruses in cell culture, delayed the lethal time of infected larvae by approximately 26 h, and produced less occlusion bodies (OBs). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that its disruption affected OB morphogenesis, forming irregular OBs with a pitted surface and irregular profiles...
October 17, 2018: Virology
K P Stoltz, C N Jondle, K Pulakanti, P A Sylvester, R Urrutia, S Rao, V L Tarakanova
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) comprise 10% of the genome, with many of these transcriptionally silenced post early embryogenesis. Several stimuli, including exogenous virus infection and cellular transformation can reactivate ERV expression via a poorly understood mechanism. We identified Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1), a tumor suppressor and an antiviral host factor, as a suppressor of ERV expression. IRF-1 decreased expression of a specific mouse ERV in vitro and in vivo. IRF-3, but not IRF-7, also decreased expression of distinct ERV families, suggesting that suppression of ERVs is a relevant biological function of the IRF family...
October 17, 2018: Virology
Ratsiri Thato, Ekkachai Daengsaard, Nutthavit Sukrak
PURPOSE: To test the effectiveness of a brief Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention program on HIV and STIs knowledge, perceived benefits of condom use, risk reduction self-efficacy, risk reduction behaviors and reinfection rate among Thai males with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). METHOD: A quasi-experimental design was conducted. Subjects were selected from men with STIs symptoms. They were randomly assigned to a brief HIV prevention program or usual care, 100 each...
October 17, 2018: Asian Nursing Research
Anita Schuch, Britta Franziska Zecher, Philipp Andreas Müller, Margareta P Correia, Franziska Daul, Charlotte Rennert, Catrin Tauber, Karolin Schlitt, Tobias Boettler, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Hartmut Hengel, Hanspeter Pircher, Adelheid Cerwenka, Robert Thimme, Maike Hofmann
BACKGROUND: Phenotypical and functional NK-cell alterations are well described in chronic Hepatitis B virus (cHBV) infection. However, it is largely unknown whether these alterations result from general effects on the overall NK-cell population or the emergence of distinct NK-cell subsets. Indeed, memory-like NK cells emerge in association with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection that is common in cHBV infection. These memory-like NK cells display an altered phenotype and functionality including superior CD16-mediated effector functions...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
Deo Ndumu, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Eugene Arinaitwe, Richard Erechu, Eugene Kidega, John Kayiwa, Edward Muwanga, Mukasa Kirumira, Gerald Kirembe, Julius Lutwama, Isabella Monne
In early January 2017, outbreaks of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) were reported for the first time in wild and domestic birds along the shores and on some islands of Lake Victoria, in central-southern Uganda. Our whole-genome phylogenetic analyses revealed that the H5N8 viruses recovered from the outbreak in Uganda belonged to genetic clade group-B and clustered with viruses collected in 2017 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in West Africa. Our results suggested that infected migratory wild birds might have played a crucial role in the introduction of HPAI H5N8 into this region...
October 17, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Xinsheng Liu, Qiaoling Zhang, Liping Zhang, Peng Zhou, Jun Yang, Yuzhen Fang, Zhaoliang Dong, Donghong Zhao, Weiyan Li, Jiaxin Feng, Baofeng Cui, Yongguang Zhang, Yonglu Wang
Since October 2010, severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) outbreaks caused by highly virulent PED virus (PEDV) strains have occurred continuously in the Chinese pig population and caused considerable economic losses. Although PEDV vaccines based on classical PEDV strains have been widely used in China in recent years, the morbidity and mortality in piglets remain high. Therefore, virulent genotype GII PEDV strains that are prevalent in the field should be isolated and used to develop next-generation vaccines...
October 17, 2018: Virus Research
Anne J Jääskeläinen, Essi M Korhonen, Eili Huhtamo, Maija Lappalainen, Olli Vapalahti, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Thomas F Baumert, Thomas Berg, Joseph K Lim, David R Nelson
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Following the discovery of HCV 3 decades ago, the identification of the structure of the viral proteins, combined with high-throughput replicon models, enabled the discovery and development of direct-acting antivirals. These agents have revolutionized care of patients, with cure rates of more than 90%. We review the status of direct-acting antiviral therapies for HCV infection and discuss remaining challenges...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Yee Hui Yeo, Hsiu J Ho, Hwai-I Yang, Tai-Chung Tseng, Tetsuya Hosaka, Huy N Trinh, Min-Sun Kwak, Young Min Park, James Yan Yue Fung, Maria Buti, Manuel Rodriguez, Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Carmen Monica Preda, Teerapat Ungtrakul, Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Xiangyong Li, Jiayi Li, Jian Zhang, Michael Huan Le, Bin Wei, Biyao Zou, An Le, Donghak Jeong, Nicholas Chien, Leslie Kam, Chiao-Chin Lee, Mar Riveiro-Barciela, Doina Istratescu, Tassanee Sriprayoon, Yutian Chong, Tawesak Tanwandee, Mariko Kobayashi, Fumitaka Suzuki, Man-Fung Yuen, Hyo-Suk Lee, Jia-Horng Kao, Anna S Lok, Chun-Ying Wu, Mindie H Nguyen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Seroclearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a marker for clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but reported annual incidence rates of HBsAg seroclearance vary. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide more precise estimates of HBsAg seroclearance rates among subgroups and populations. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library for cohort studies that reported HBsAg seroclearance in adults with chronic HBV infection with more than 1 year of follow up and at least 1 repeat test for HBsAg...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Junjie Zhu, Pengcheng Wang, Feng Li, Jie Lu, Amina I Shehu, Wen Xie, Deborah McMahon, Xiaochao Ma
Dolutegravir (DTG), a potent integrase inhibitor, is part of a recommended initial regimen for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Prior reports demonstrated that the clearance of DTG was higher in current smokers than non- smokers, but the mechanism remains unclear. Using a metabolomic approach, M4 (an aldehyde) was identified as a novel metabolite of DTG. In addition, the formation of M4 was found to be mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1, the enzymes that can be highly induced by cigarette smoking...
October 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jacint G Sanchez, Konstantin M J Sparrer, Cindy Chiang, Rebecca A Reis, Jessica J Chiang, Matthew A Zurenski, Yueping Wan, Michaela U Gack, Owen Pornillos
TRIM25 is a multi-domain, RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase of the tripartite motif family that has important roles in multiple RNA-dependent processes. In particular, TRIM25 functions as an effector of RIG-I and ZAP, which are innate immune sensors that recognize viral RNA and induce ubiquitin-dependent anti-viral response mechanisms. TRIM25 is reported to also bind RNA, but the molecular details of this interaction or its relevance to anti-viral defense have not been elucidated. Here, we characterize the RNA-binding activity of TRIM25 and find that the protein binds both single-stranded and double-stranded RNA...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Shaik Afsar Pasha, Shaik Arif Pasha, T Suhasini, D Ankamma Rao
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common infection worldwide and is an emerging infectious disease in the developed countries. The unique characteristics of HEV is that it displays different epidemiological and clinical characteristics between developing and developed countries. Neurological disorders are emerging extra hepatic manifestations of both acute and chronic Hepatitis E virus infection. We report a 17 year old sportsman presenting with acute encephalitic Parkinsonism concurrent with acute hepatitis. Serology was positive for Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and HEV RNA was confirmed...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Julia Kęsik-Maliszewska, Aleksandra Antos, Jerzy Rola, Magdalena Larska
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is the member of Peribunyaviridae family, which comprises pathogens of importance for human and veterinary medicine. The virus is transmitted only between animals and mainly by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. This study was performed in order to determine SBV genetic diversity and elucidate the host-vector adaptation. All three viral segments were analysed for sequence variability and phylogenetic relations. The Polish SBV strains obtained from acute infections of cattle, congenital cases in sheep, and from Culicoides midges were sequenced using Sanger and next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods...
October 19, 2018: Virus Genes
Yayun Lin, Yan Liu, Guifeng Ding, Lhousseine Touqui, Weimin Wang, Na Xu, Keying Liu, Lingyan Zhang, Dunjin Chen, Yongzheng Wu, Guiqin Bai
Mother-to-child transmission is the major cause of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This double-blind trial tested the effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in preventing vertical transmission. Pregnant women who were HBsAg/HBeAg-positive with a HBV DNA titer ≥ 2×106 IU/mL were randomly assigned to the control (n = 60) and TDF-treated (n = 60) groups. TDF treatment (oral dose 300 mg/day) was initiated at 24 weeks of gestation and continued to 4 weeks after delivery. The subjects were followed up to 28 weeks postpartum...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina M Davy, Michael E Donaldson, Sonu Subudhi, Noreen Rapin, Lisa Warnecke, James M Turner, Trent K Bollinger, Christopher J Kyle, Nicole A S-Y Dorville, Emma L Kunkel, Kaleigh J O Norquay, Yvonne A Dzal, Craig K R Willis, Vikram Misra
Spillover of viruses from bats to other animals may be associated with increased contact between them, as well as increased shedding of viruses by bats. Here, we tested the prediction that little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) co-infected with the M. lucifugus coronavirus (Myl-CoV) and with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), exhibit different disease severity, viral shedding and molecular responses than bats infected with only Myl-CoV or only P. destructans...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Siying Ye, Christopher J Cowled, Cheng-Hon Yap, John Stambas
Current prophylactic and therapeutic strategies targeting human influenza viruses include vaccines and antivirals. Given variable rates of vaccine efficacy and antiviral resistance, alternative strategies are urgently required to improve disease outcomes. Here we describe the use of HiSeq deep sequencing to analyze host gene expression in primary human alveolar epithelial type II cells infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus. At 24 hours post-infection, 623 host genes were significantly upregulated, including the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Florencia Correa-Fiz, Giovanni Franzo, Anna Llorens, Joaquim Segalés, Tuija Kekarainen
Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) is a virus characterized by a high evolutionary rate, promoting the potential emergence of different genotypes and strains. Despite the likely relevance in the emergence of new PCV-2 variants, the subtle evolutionary patterns of PCV-2 at the individual-host level or over short transmission chains are still largely unknown. This study aimed to analyze the within-host genetic variability of PCV-2 subpopulations to unravel the forces driving PCV-2 evolution. A longitudinal weekly sampling was conducted on individual animals located in three farms after the first PCV-2 detection...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ngan N T Nguyen, Yun-Sook Lim, Lap P Nguyen, Si C Tran, Trang T D Luong, Tram T T Nguyen, Hang T Pham, Han N Mai, Jae-Woong Choi, Sang-Seop Han, Soon B Hwang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits an extensive network of host proteins to maintain chronic infection. Using RNA-Seq technology, we identified 30 host genes that were differentially expressed in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these candidate genes, we selected solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2) for further investigation. SLC3A2, also known as CD98hc, is a member of the solute carrier family and encodes a subunit of heterodimeric amino acid transporter. SLC3A2 and LAT1 constitute a heterodimeric transmembrane protein complex that catalyzes amino acid transport...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manfred S Green, James LeDuc, Daniel Cohen, David R Franz
Global terrorism is a rapidly growing threat to world security, and increases the risk of bioterrorism. In this Review, we discuss the potential threat of bioterrorism, agents that could be exploited, and recent developments in technologies and policy for detecting and controlling epidemics that have been initiated intentionally. The local and international response to infectious disease epidemics, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and west African Ebola virus epidemic, revealed serious shortcomings which bioterrorists might exploit when intentionally initiating an epidemic...
October 16, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Fahad S Al-Jasser, Randa M Nouh, Randa M Youssef
BACKGROUND: MERS-CoV emerged as a zoonotic disease in Saudi Arabia with 1437 cases as of July 2016. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of MERS-CoV infection, clinical aspects of the disease and the determinants of survival. METHODS: The medical records of Prince Mohamed Bin Abdulaziz Hospital were reviewed between April 2014 and December 2015 to identify admission and discharge with MERS-CoV. Patient's characteristics, epidemiologic and clinical data and laboratory results were extracted and described...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
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