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Cerebal Cortex

Yoriko Ando, Hirohito Sawahata, Takeshi Kawano, Kowa Koida, Rika Numano
Bundled fiber optics allow in vivo imaging at deep sites in a body. The intrinsic optical contrast detects detailed structures in blood vessels and organs. We developed a bundled-fiber-coupled endomicroscope, enabling stereoscopic three-dimensional (3-D) reflectance imaging with a multipositional illumination scheme. Two illumination sites were attached to obtain reflectance images with left and right illumination. Depth was estimated by the horizontal disparity between the two images under alternative illuminations and was calibrated by the targets with known depths...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Emily Graber, Rhimmon Simchy-Gross, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
The speech-to-song (STS) illusion is a phenomenon in which some spoken utterances perceptually transform to song after repetition [Deutsch, Henthorn, and Lapidis (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 2245-2252]. Tierney, Dick, Deutsch, and Sereno [(2013). Cereb. Cortex. 23, 249-254] developed a set of stimuli where half tend to transform to perceived song with repetition and half do not. Those that transform and those that do not can be understood to induce a musical or linguistic mode of listening, respectively...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Carl Michael Galang, Katherine R Naish, Keon Arbabi, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Excitability in the motor cortex is modulated when we observe other people receiving a painful stimulus (Avenanti et al., Nat Neurosci 8(7):955-960, 2005). However, the task dependency of this modulation is not well understood, as different paradigms have yielded seemingly different results. Previous neurophysiological work employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggests that watching another person's hand being pierced by a needle leads to a muscle specific inhibition, assessed via motor evoked potentials...
November 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Jacqueline Cummine, Wahab Hanif, Inna Dymouriak-Tymashov, Kavya Anchuri, Stephanie Chiu, Carol A Boliek
A differentiation in function between the pre-SMA (i.e., cognitive load) and the SMA-proper (i.e., motor execution) has been described (Zhang et al., Cereb Cortex 22:99-111, 2012). These differential SMA functions may be influential in overt reading tasks. The present study examined the relationships between various segments of the SMA and overt reading through the modulation of task demands in an effort to explore the complexity of the print-to-speech network. Skilled reading adults (N = 15) took part in five overt reading tasks: pure regular word reading, pure exception word reading, mixed regular word and exception word reading, go/no-go reading with nonword foils and go/no-go reading with pseudohomophone foils...
September 2017: Brain Topography
Zoe Samara, Elisabeth A T Evers, Alexandros Goulas, Harry B M Uylings, Grazyna Rajkowska, Johannes G Ramaekers, Peter Stiers
The orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) has been implicated in decision-making, reward and emotion processing, and psychopathology, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human and monkey anatomical studies indicate the presence of various cortical subdivisions and suggest that these are organized in two extended networks, a medial and an orbital one. Attempts have been made to replicate these neuroanatomical findings in vivo using MRI techniques for imaging connectivity. These revealed several consistencies, but also many inconsistencies between reported results...
September 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Francisco L Colino, Ji-Hang Lee, Gordon Binsted
A multitude of events bombard our sensory systems at every moment of our lives. Thus, it is important for the sensory and motor cortices to gate unimportant events. Tactile suppression is a well-known phenomenon defined as a reduced ability to detect tactile events on the skin before and during movement. Previous experiments (Buckingham et al. in Exp Brain Res 201(3):411-419, 2010; Colino et al. in Physiol Rep 2(3):e00267, 2014) found detection rates decrease just prior to and during finger abduction and decrease according to the proximity of the moving effector...
January 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Fuyuki Karube, Katalin Sári, Zoltán F Kisvárday
To uncover the functional topography of layer 6 neurons, optical imaging was combined with three-dimensional neuronal reconstruction. Apical dendrite morphology of 23 neurons revealed three distinct types. Type Aa possessed a short apical dendrite with many oblique branches, Type Ab was characterized by a short and less branched apical dendrite, whereas Type B had a long apical dendrite with tufts in layer 2. Each type had a similar number of boutons, yet their spatial distribution differed from each other in both radial and horizontal extent...
April 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Karolina Laskowska-Macios, Julie Nys, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Monika Zapasnik, Anke Van der Perren, Malgorzata Kossut, Kalina Burnat, Lutgarde Arckens
BACKGROUND: Binocular pattern deprivation from eye opening (early BD) delays the maturation of the primary visual cortex. This delay is more pronounced for the peripheral than the central visual field representation within area 17, particularly between the age of 2 and 4 months [Laskowska-Macios, Cereb Cortex, 2014]. RESULTS: In this study, we probed for related dynamic changes in the cortical proteome. We introduced age, cortical region and BD as principal variables in a 2-D DIGE screen of area 17...
2015: Molecular Brain
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Alex Filipowicz, Elahe Marandi, Nadine Quehl, James Danckert, Britt Anderson
It has been hypothesized that many of the cognitive impairments commonly seen after right brain damage (RBD) can be characterized as a failure to build or update mental models. We (Danckert et al. in Neglect as a disorder of representational updating. NOVA Open Access, New York, 2012a; Cereb Cortex 22:2745-2760, 2012b) were the first to directly assess the association between RBD and updating and found that RBD patients were unable to exploit a strongly biased play strategy in their opponent in the children's game rock, paper, scissors...
June 2014: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Tomas Drabek, Andreas Janata, Caleb D Wilson, Jason Stezoski, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Samuel A Tisherman, Lesley M Foley, Jonathan D Verrier, Patrick M Kochanek
Neuro-cognitive disabilities are a well-recognized complication of hypothermic circulatory arrest. We and others have reported that prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) produces neuronal death and microglial proliferation and activation that are only partially mitigated by hypothermia. Microglia, and possibly other cells, are suggested to elaborate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which can trigger neuronal death cascades and exacerbate edema after CNS insults. Minocycline is neuroprotective in some brain ischemia models in part by blunting the microglial response...
February 2014: Resuscitation
Florian A Siebzehnrubl, Dennis A Steindler
Adult neural precursor cells are an essential part of the brain, and a focus of two decades of intense research (Ming and Song, Neuron 70:687-702, 2011). Even though adult human stem/progenitor cells have been identified early on (Kirschenbaum et al., Cereb Cortex 4:576-589, 1994; Eriksson et al., Nat Med 4:1313-1317, 1998), progress in the field of adult human neurogenesis has been slow. The reasons for this may be more advanced neighboring fields of pluripotent stem cell research, and lacking study material as well as well-established and standardized protocols...
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ada Le, Matthias Niemeier
Grasping using two forelimbs in opposition to one another is evolutionary older than the hand with an opposable thumb (Whishaw and Coles in Behav Brain Res 77:135-148, 1996); yet, the mechanisms for bimanual grasps remain unclear. Similar to unimanual grasping, the localization of matching stable grasp points on an object is computationally expensive and so it makes sense for the signals to converge in a single cortical hemisphere. Indeed, bimanual grasps are faster and more accurate in the left visual field, and are disrupted if there is transcranial stimulation of the right hemisphere (Le and Niemeier in Exp Brain Res 224:263-273, 2013; Le et al...
October 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Giorgio M Innocenti, Alessandro Vercelli, Roberto Caminiti
In primates, different cortical areas send axons of different diameters into comparable tracts, notably the corpus callosum (Tomasi S, Caminiti R, Innocenti GM. 2012. Areal differences in diameter and length of corticofugal projections. Cereb Cortex. 22:1463-1472). We now explored if an area also sends axons of different diameters to different targets. We find that the parietal area PEc sends thicker axons to area 4 and 6, and thinner ones to the cingulate region (area 24). Areas 4 and 9, each sends axons of different diameters to the nucleus caudatus, to different levels of the internal capsule, and to the thalamus...
August 2014: Cerebral Cortex
Katherine E Travis, Megan M Curran, Christina Torres, Matthew K Leonard, Timothy T Brown, Anders M Dale, Jeffrey L Elman, Eric Halgren
Recently, our laboratory has shown that the neural mechanisms for encoding lexico-semantic information in adults operate functionally by 12-18 months of age within left frontotemporal cortices (Travis et al., 2011. Spatiotemporal neural dynamics of word understanding in 12- to 18-month-old-infants. Cereb Cortex. 8:1832-1839). However, there is minimal knowledge of the structural changes that occur within these and other cortical regions important for language development. To identify regional structural changes taking place during this important period in infant development, we examined age-related changes in tissue signal properties of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) intensity and contrast...
July 2014: Cerebral Cortex
Eva H Rosenthal, Anton B Tonchev, Anastassia Stoykova, Kamal Chowdhury
The molecular mechanisms of regionalization of the medial pallium (MP), the anlage of the hippocampus, and transitional (cingulate and retrosplenial) cortices are largely unknown. Previous analyses have outlined an important role of the transcription factor (TF) Zbtb20 for hippocampal CA1 field specification (Nielsen et al. (2007) Development 134:1133-1140; Nielsen et al. (2010) Cereb Cortex 20:1904-1914; Xie et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:6510-6515). Here, we present novel data showing that Zbtb20 exhibits a ventral(high)-to-dorsal(low) gradient of expression in MP progenitors as well as an expression in postmitotic cells at the transitional cortex/neocortex border...
November 2012: Hippocampus
Kalina Burnat, Estelle Van Der Gucht, Wioletta J Waleszczyk, Malgorzata Kossut, Lutgarde Arckens
Binocular deprivation of pattern vision (BD) early in life permanently impairs global motion perception. With the SMI-32 antibody against neurofilament protein (NFP) as a marker of the motion-sensitive Y-cell pathway (Van der Gucht et al. [2001] Cereb. Cortex 17:2805-2819), we analyzed the impact of early BD on the retinal circuitry in adult, perceptually characterized cats (Burnat et al. [2005] Neuroreport 16:751-754). In controls, large retinal ganglion cells exhibited a strong NFP signal in the soma and in the proximal parts of the dendritic arbors...
August 1, 2012: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Daniel Bendor
Pitch perception is an important component of hearing, allowing us to appreciate melodies and harmonies as well as recognize prosodic cues in speech. Multiple studies over the last decade have suggested that pitch is represented by a pitch-processing center in auditory cortex. However, recent data (Barker D, Plack CJ, Hall DA. Cereb Cortex. In press; Hall DA, Plack CJ. Cereb Cortex 19: 576-585, 2009) now challenge these previous claims of a human "pitch center."
February 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ruben Martins, France Simard, Jean-Sebastien Provost, Oury Monchi
Some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain high-level performance when submitted to cognitive tasks. However, whether and how these mechanisms affect fronto-striatal activity has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate how aging affects brain patterns during the performance of a lexical analog of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, which has been shown to strongly depend on fronto-striatal activity. In the present study, both younger and older individuals revealed significant fronto-striatal loop activity associated with planning and execution of set-shifts, though age-related striatal activity reduction was observed...
June 2012: Cerebral Cortex
Jarrod Blinch, Brendan D Cameron, Ian M Franks, Romeo Chua
We examined the movement trajectories of symmetric and asymmetric bimanual reaches to targets specified by direct spatial cues and by indirect symbolic cues. Symbolically cued asymmetric reaches have been shown to exhibit longer reaction times compared with symmetric reaches, whereas no such reaction time cost is observed when targets are spatially cued--a pattern thought to implicate increased demands on response selection (Diedrichsen et al. in Psychol Sci 12(6):493-498, 2001). As symbolically cued reaches impose greater demands on cognitive visuomotor translation than spatially cued reaches (Diedrichsen et al...
August 2011: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
L Barnett, C L Buckley, S Bullock
One of the central challenges facing modern neuroscience is to explain the ability of the nervous system to coherently integrate information across distinct functional modules in the absence of a central executive. To this end, Tononi et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91, 5033 (1994)] proposed a measure of neural complexity that purports to capture this property based on mutual information between complementary subsets of a system. Neural complexity, so defined, is one of a family of information theoretic metrics developed to measure the balance between the segregation and integration of a system's dynamics...
April 2011: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
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