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Pulmonary clearance

Akaninyene Otu, Philip Langridge, David W Denning
Many chronic lung diseases are characterized by the hypersecretion of mucus. In these conditions, the administration of mucoactive agents is often indicated as adjuvant therapy. N -acetylcysteine (NAC) is a typical example of a mucolytic agent. A retrospective review of patients with pulmonary aspergillosis treated at the National Aspergillosis Centre in Manchester, United Kingdom, with NAC between November 2015 and November 2017 was carried out. Six Caucasians with Aspergillus lung disease received NAC to facilitate clearance of their viscid bronchial mucus secretions...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Katharine Yang, Robert L Kruse, Weijie V Lin, Daniel M Musher
Background: In most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), an etiologic agent is not determined; the most common report from the microbiological evaluation of sputum cites "normal respiratory flora." Non-diphtheria Corynebacterium spp. , a component of this flora, is commonly viewed as a contaminant, but it may be the cause of pneumonia and the frequency with which it causes CAP may be underestimated. Case presentations: This report present 3 cases of CAP in which Corynebacterium spp...
2018: Pneumonia
Jun Zhi Er, Ricky Abdi Gunawan Koean, Jeak Ling Ding
The transcription factor, T-bet, regulates type 1 inflammatory responses against a range of infections. Here, we demonstrate a previously unaddressed role of T-bet, to influenza virus and bacterial superinfection. Interestingly, we found that T-bet deficiency did not adversely affect the efficacy of viral clearance or recovery compared to wild-type hosts. Instead, increased infiltration of neutrophils and production of Th17 cytokines (IL-17 and IL-22), in lungs of influenza virus-infected T-bet-/- mice, were correlated with survival advantage against subsequent infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae Neutralization of IL-17, but not IL-22, in T-bet-/- mice increased pulmonary bacterial load, concomitant with decreased neutrophil infiltration and reduced survival of T-bet-/- mice...
October 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Roberta Guagliardo, Jésus Pérez-Gil, Stefaan De Smedt, Koen Raemdonck
Pulmonary surfactant (PS) has been extensively studied because of its primary role in mammalian breathing. The deposition of this surface-active material at the alveolar air-water interface is essential to lower surface tension, thus avoiding alveolar collapse during expiration. In addition, PS is involved in host defense, facilitating the clearance of potentially harmful particulates. PS has a unique composition, including 92% of lipids and 8% of surfactant proteins (SPs) by mass. Although they constitute the minor fraction, SPs to a large extent orchestrate PS-related functions...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Lieve Boel, Kurt Pernet, Michel Toussaint, Kris Ides, Glenn Leemans, Jurn Haan, Kim Van Hoorenbeeck, Stijn Verhulst
Respiratory problems have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). In particular, recurrent aspiration, impaired airway clearance, spinal and thoracic deformity, impaired lung function, poor nutritional status, and recurrent respiratory infections negatively affect respiratory status. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia may contribute to pulmonary problems, but asthma is not more common in CP than in the general population. We discuss treatment options for each of these factors...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
C Martin, L Regard, G Chassagnon, P-R Burgel
Bronchiectasis is defined by a permanent and irreversible increase in airway caliber. Computed tomography (CT) scan is required for diagnosis and allows differentiating localized (affecting only one lobe) from diffuse (affecting two or more lobes) bronchiectasis. Localized bronchiectasis is usually related to a local cause (e.g., tumor, compression by lymph nodes, foreign body) whereas there are multiple causes of diffuse bronchiectasis. Main causes of diffuse bronchiectasis can be grouped into 5 categories: (1) immune deficiencies; (2) genetic disorders responsible for abnormal mucociliairy clearance (e...
October 11, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
Yazeed Toukan, Michal Gur, Fahed H Hakim, Yuval Geffen, Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Vered Nir, Lea Bentur
INTRODUCTION: CF pulmonary guidelines recommend alternate therapy (one month on, one month off) with inhaled tobramycin for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in cystic fibrosis (CF). Tobramycin-inhaled powder (TIP™) is increasingly replacing time-consuming nebulizer therapy. It is unclear whether laboratory parameters change during the month off period compared with the month on therapy. PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess whether spirometry, lung clearance index and circulating inflammatory markers differ between on/off treatment periods...
September 30, 2018: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
Lei Yue, Zheng Pang, Hua Li, Ting Yang, Lei Guo, Longding Liu, Junjie Mei, Xia Song, Tianhong Xie, Ye Zhang, Xin He, Tong-Jun Lin, Zhongping Xie
Platelets have been implicated in pulmonary inflammation following exposure to bacterial stimuli. The mechanisms involved in the platelet-mediated host response to respiratory bacterial infection remain incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that platelet-derived chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 4 (CXCL4) plays critical roles in a mouse model of acute bacterial pneumonia using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Platelets are activated during P. aeruginosa infection, and mice depleted of platelets display markedly increased mortality and impaired bacterial clearance...
2018: PloS One
Lusine Ambartsumyan, Hengqi B Zheng, Ramesh S Iyer, Jennifer Soares, Gretchen Henstorf, Anne M Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile systemic sclerosis (jSSc) is a disabling autoimmune condition that affects multiple organs in addition to skin, notably the gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. The relationship between esophageal abnormalities and pulmonary disease in jSSc is not well understood. We describe associations between radiologic esophageal abnormalities and pulmonary function. METHODS: Clinical and radiographic data of children less than 18 years who fulfilled 2007 Pediatric Rheumatology Provisional Classification Criteria for jSSc between 1994 and 2016 were reviewed...
October 8, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Tanzir Mortuza, Srinivasa Muralidhara, Catherine A White, Brian S Cummings, Carey Hines, James V Bruckner
Trichloroethylene (TCE) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TRI) are frequent contaminants of drinking water and of groundwater at hazardous waste sites. There is relatively little information on the target organ deposition of TRI, despite its ingestion and common occurrence in humans. An important aim of the study was to delineate and contrast the toxicokinetics (TK) and bioavailability (F) of TRI and its well metabolized congener, TCE. Blood profiles were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats given aqueous emulsions of 6 or 48 mg TRI/kg and 10 or 50 mg TCE/kg as an oral bolus (po) or by gastric infusion (gi) over 2 h...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Peter Wark, Vanessa M McDonald
BACKGROUND: Impaired mucociliary clearance characterises lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypertonic saline enhances mucociliary clearance and may lessen the destructive inflammatory process in the airways. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy and tolerability of treatment with nebulised hypertonic saline on people with CF compared to placebo and or other treatments that enhance mucociliary clearance. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings...
September 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tomás Sou, Irena Kukavica-Ibrulj, Fadi Soukarieh, Nigel Halliday, Roger C Levesque, Paul Williams, Michael Stocks, Miguel Cámara, Lena E Friberg, Christel A S Bergström
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat worldwide. In particular, about 80% of cystic fibrosis patients have chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) lung infection resistant to many current antibiotics. We are therefore developing a novel class of anti-virulence agents, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs), which inhibit biofilm formation and sensitise PA to antibiotic treatments. For respiratory conditions, targeted delivery to the lung could achieve higher local concentrations with reduced risk of adverse systemic events...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tomoko Kamei, Yuko Yamamoto, Takuya Kanamori, Yuki Nakayama, Sarah E Porter
Chronic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and diabetes mellitus, require long-term management, which daily telenurse monitoring can provide. The aim of the present feasibility study was to determine if using a telenursing protocol with home monitoring during a 12 week implementation could also identify early signs of deterioration and factors correlated with participants' change in status, while attaining patient acceptance and satisfaction. The purposive sample of 43 participants provided 4533 combined days of monitoring...
September 4, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
Zheng Xing, Chunchen Zhang, Chen Zhao, Zeeshan Ahmad, Jing-Song Li, Ming-Wei Chang
Chronic lung diseases (e.g. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) are associated with oxidative stress and common treatments include various types of inhalation therapies. In this work Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), a naturally occurring antioxidant is loaded into porous Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) particles using a single step tri-needle coaxial electrospray process (Tri-needle CES); with a view to develop therapies to combat oxidative stress. Based on the core-shell structure of porous yolk shell particles (YSPs), GLP-loaded YSPs displayed a bi-phasic release pattern...
September 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Laxman Ghimire, Sagar Paudel, Liliang Jin, Pankaj Baral, Shanshan Cai, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus are endemic in the U.S., which cause life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. Neutrophils are known to be critical for clearance of S. aureus infection from the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. Therefore, we investigated whether the NLRP6 inflammasome regulates neutrophil-dependent host immunity during pulmonary S. aureus infection. Unlike their wild-type (WT) counterparts, NLRP6 knockout (KO) mice were protected against pulmonary S. aureus infection as evidenced by their higher survival rate and lower bacterial burden in the lungs and extrapulmonary organs...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yun Luo, Caroline Fritz, Nefissa Hammache, Daniel Grandmougin, Antoine Kimmoun, Sophie Orlowski, N'Guyen Tran, Eliane Albuisson, Bruno Levy
OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to assess the effect of two veno-arterial ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) blood-flow strategies in an experimental model of Extracorporeal Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (ECPR) on macrocirculatory, metabolic and microcirculatory parameters in the first six hours of ECMO initiation. METHODS: Cardiac arrest was induced in 18 pigs by surgical ligature of the left descending coronary artery followed by a low-flow time of 40 min using internal cardiac massage...
September 20, 2018: Resuscitation
Sara Gago, David W Denning, Paul Bowyer
Aspergillus colonization of the lower respiratory airways is common in normal people, and of little clinical significance. However, in some patients, colonization is associated with severe disease including poorly controlled asthma, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) with sputum plugs, worse lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary aspergillosis (COPD), invasive aspergillosis, and active infection in patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Therefore, understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of fungal colonization in disease is essential to develop strategies to avert or minimise disease...
September 15, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Qin Luo, Xingxing Yan, Hongmei Tu, Yibing Yin, Ju Cao
Progranulin (PGRN) exerts multiple functions in various inflammatory diseases. However, the role of PGRN in the pathogenesis of virus infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that PGRN production was up-regulated in clinical and experimental influenza, which contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. PGRN-deficient mice were protected from influenza virus-induced lung injury and mortality. Decreased mortality was associated with significantly reduced influx of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, release of cytokines and chemokines, and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier without affecting viral clearance...
September 18, 2018: Thorax
Camila Infantosi Vannucchi, Liege Cristina Garcia Silva, Silvana Maria Unruh, Cristina Fátima Lúcio, Gisele Almeida Lima Veiga
Neonatal immediate adaptation to extrauterine life depends mainly on adequate lung function, which is under the influence of previous fetal maturation and obstetrical condition, both acting to stimulate the efficient liquid removal from the pulmonary parenchyma during the immediate transition period. The objective of the present study is to identify chest radiographic changes of neonatal calves born under the influence of different duration of calving and obstetric assistance and correlate with clinical analysis and blood acid-base balance...
2018: PloS One
Woosuk Choi, Alina X Yang, Michelle A Waltenburg, Shawn Choe, Madeline Steiner, Ahmed Radwan, Jingjun Lin, Carrol W Maddox, Adam W Stern, Richard L Fredrickson, Gee W Lau
Because of exposure to environmental pollutants, infectious agents and genetic predisposition, companion animals develop respiratory illnesses similar to those in humans. Older dogs of smaller breeds develop canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD), chronic bronchitis (CB), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with chronic lung infection, airway goblet cell hyperplasia and metaplasia (GCHM) and mucus hypersecretion. Excessive mucus clogs airways, reduces gas exchanges, disables the mucociliary clearance and reduces drug penetration...
September 16, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
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