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Yoshihito Takano, Yuji Tomaru, Keizo Nagasaki
HcDNAV (a type species of Genus Dinodnavirus ) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, which lytically infects the bloom-forming marine microalga Heterocapsa circularisquama Horiguchi (Dinophyceae). In the present study, detailed observation of the HcDNAV particle and its infection process was conducted via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy (EFM). Each five-fold vertex of the icosahedral virion was decorated with a protrusion, which may be related to the entry process of HcDNAV into the host...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Weidong Zhao, Wei Cui, Shujun Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ke Zhang, Deyu Wang, Ling-Zhi Cheong, Flemming Besenbacher, Cai Shen
Charge transfer plays fundamental roles in information transmission in cells, especially in neurons. To date, direct observation of charge propagation in neurons at nanometer level has not been achieved yet. Herein, a combined charge injection and Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM) detection approach is applied to directly study charge propagation and distribution at nanometer resolution in spines and synapses of hippocampal neurons. Charge density, charge mobility and membrane potential in neural signal transmission process through the spines of axons and dendrites of hippocampal neurons were investigated quantitatively...
September 21, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
Robert D Eden, Mark I Evans, David W Britt, Shara M Evans, Barry S Schifrin
OBJECTIVE: The cardiotocograph (CTG) or electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) was developed to prevent fetal asphyxia and subsequent neurological injury. From a public health perspective, it has failed these objectives while increasing emergency operative deliveries (emergency operative deliveries (EODs) - emergency cesarean delivery or operative vaginal delivery) for newborns, who in retrospect, actually did not require the assistance. EODs increase the risks of complications and stress for patients, families, and medical personnel...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Benazir Huma, Sudip Kundu, Mark G Poolman, Nicholas J Kruger, David A Fell
Analysis of the impact of photorespiration on plant metabolism is usually based on manual inspection of small network diagrams. Here we create a structural metabolic model that contains the reactions that participate in photorespiration in the plastid, peroxisome, mitochondrion and cytosol and the metabolite exchanges between them. This model was subjected to elementary flux modes analysis, a technique that enumerates all the component, minimal pathways of a network. Any feasible photorespiratory metabolism in the plant will be some combination of the elementary flux modes (EFMs) that contain the Rubisco oxygenase reaction...
September 26, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Habiba Kapaya, Roslyn Williams, Grace Elton, Dilly Anumba
Background: Despite major advances in perinatal medicine, intrapartum asphyxia remains a leading and potentially preventable cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. The umbilical cord pH is considered an essential criteria for the diagnosis of acute intrapartum hypoxic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether obstetric risk factors are associated with fetal acidaemia at delivery. Methodology: In a case-control study, 294 women with term singleton pregnancies complicated by an umbilical artery cord pH < 7...
2018: Journal of Pregnancy
David Hochberg, Josep M Ribó
We use stoichiometric network analysis (SNA) to obtain a flux-based approach for the evaluation and description of the entropy production and exchange for chemical reactions in open systems. For non-equilibrium stationary states (NESS) the production and exchange are expressed as functions over the convex cone of the stationary reaction rates, revealing the reaction pathways and elementary flux modes (EFM) responsible for both entropy production and balance. The analysis of the entropy production of EFMs leads to a unique description of the contribution of the coupling between linear or cyclic reaction network paths, and the fluxes due to the matter exchange of the system with the system's surroundings...
September 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Peng Wen, Min-Hua Zong, Teng-Gen Hu, Lin Li, Hong Wu
To improve the oral bioavailability of quercetin (Q) and achieve colon-specific release, a core-sheath electrospun fiber mat containing Q-loaded chitosan nanoparticle (Q-loaded EFM) was developed in this study. The nanoparticle was first fabricated, and its antioxidant activity was as effective as free Q. Then the uniform Q-loaded EFM was obtained using response surface methodology optimization, and its core-sheath structure was characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vitro release kinetics confirmed the colon targeting profile, and the release rate of Q varied inversely with fiber diameter...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Thomas Arn Hansen, Martin Schou Pedersen, Lone Gilmor Nielsen, Chih Man German Ma, Lillian Marie Søes, Peder Worning, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Westh, Mette Pinholt, Kristian Schønning
Background: Primary screening for VRE with PCR directed against vanA allowed identification of vanA+ samples from which VRE could not be isolated when selective culture methods were used. From such a sample a vancomycin-susceptible, vanA+ Enterococcus faecium, Efm-V1511, was isolated, when vancomycin selection was not used during culture. Similar isolates with variable susceptibility to vancomycin were obtained in the following months. Objectives: To characterize Efm-V1511 and investigate the causes of variable susceptibility to vancomycin...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Moses M Solomon, Saviour A Umoren, Ime B Obot, Ahmad A Sorour, Husnu Gerengi
The possibility of utilizing dextran as a green corrosion inhibitor for steel in strong acid environment was explore using weight loss, electrochemical (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP), and linear polarization (LPR)) supported with surface analysis via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques...
August 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sung Soo Yoo, Kyoung Hoon Chu, Il-Hwan Choi, Ji Sung Mang, Kwang Baik Ko
This study investigated the cost and CO2 emission reduced as a result of optimizing operating conditions for chemical cleaning in a membrane filtration process used for water treatment. A new protocol was proposed and operating conditions for chemical cleaning of a pilot-scale membrane filtration process were optimized. The critical flux for irreversibility was identified as the permeate flux using a modified flux-step method, and was 100 l m-2  h-1 , 20 l m-2  h-1 higher than the vendor recommended permeate flux...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Liam Collins, Jason I Kilpatrick, Sergei V Kalinin, Brian J Rodriguez
Fundamental mechanisms of energy storage, corrosion, sensing, and multiple biological functionalities are directly coupled to electrical processes and ionic dynamics at solid-liquid interfaces. In many cases, these processes are spatially inhomogeneous taking place at grain boundaries, step edges, point defects, ion channels, etc and possess complex time and voltage dependent dynamics. This necessitates time-resolved and real-space probing of these phenomena. In this review, we discuss the applications of force-sensitive voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy (SPM) for probing electrical phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces...
August 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Philip J Steer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Hua Xing, Lirong Zhang, Jinshu Ma, Zhen Liu, Changlong Song, Yuxia Liu
Lapatinib and capecitabine have been widely used in the therapy of breast cancer. However, long-term use of lapatinib and capecitabine often causes the most common side effect diarrhea, which limit the medicine use. Fructus mume (F. mume) has been proved to be effective to treat chronic diarrhea with few side effects. The compounds from F. mume were extracted by using an ethanol method. Extracts of F. mume (EFM) were analyzed by HPLC. We investigated the protective effects of EFM on the diarrhea caused by lapatinib and capecitabine...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Rui Xu, Shili Ye, Kunqi Xu, Le Lei, Sabir Hussain, Zhiyue Zheng, Fei Pang, Shuya Xing, Xinmeng Liu, Wei Ji, Zhihai Cheng
Understanding the process of charge generation, transfer, and diffusion between two-dimensional (2D) materials and their supporting substrates is very important for potential applications of 2D materials. Compared with the systematic studies of triboelectric charging in a bulk sample, a fundamental understanding of the triboelectrification of the 2D material/insulator system is rather limited. Here, the charge transfer and diffusion of both the SiO2 surface and MoS2 /SiO2 interface through contact electrification and frictional electrification are investigated systematically in situ by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy and dual-harmonic electrostatic force microscopy...
August 31, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yuki Kojima, Katsusuke Ozawa, Rika Sugibayashi, Seiji Wada, Haruhiko Sago
The neonatal prognosis in gastroschisis is generally good; however, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) and nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) sometimes occur in fetal cases of gastroschisis. Previously, we reported stomach herniation as a possible risk factor for IUFD or NRFS in fetuses with gastroschisis. We report a case of fetal gastroschisis showing stomach herniation and increased velocity of the umbilical venous (UV) flow the day before NRFS by electronic fetal monitoring (EFM). A 27-year-old pregnant woman was followed up from 16 weeks' gestation due to fetal gastroschisis...
July 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Sabine Peres, Stefan Schuster, Philippe Dague
Metabolic pathway analysis is a key method to study metabolism and the elementary flux modes (EFMs) is one major concept allowing one to analyze the network in terms of minimal pathways. Their practical use has been hampered by the combinatorial explosion of their number in large systems. The EFMs give the possible pathways at steady state, but the real pathways are limited by biological constraints. In this review, we display three different methods that integrate thermodynamic constraints in terms of Gibbs free energy in the EFMs computation...
June 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Mark Barok, Maija Puhka, Gyorgy Vereb, Janos Szollosi, Jorma Isola, Heikki Joensuu
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that carries a cytotoxic drug (DM1) to HER2-positive cancer. The target of T-DM1 (HER2) is present also on cancer-derived exosomes. We hypothesized that exosome-bound T-DM1 may contribute to the activity of T-DM1. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from the cell culture medium of HER2-positive SKBR-3 and EFM-192A breast cancer cells, HER2-positive SNU-216 gastric cancer cells, and HER2-negative MCF-7 breast cancer cells by serial centrifugations including two ultracentrifugations, and treated with T-DM1...
May 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
Yue Shen, Ying Wang, Yuan Zhou, Chunxi Hai, Jun Hu, Yi Zhang
Electrostatic force spectroscopy (EFS) is a method for monitoring the electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) phase with high resolution as a function of the electrical direct current bias applied either to the probe or sample. Based on the dielectric constant difference of graphene oxide (GO) sheets (reduced using various methods), EFS can be used to characterize the degree of reduction of uniformly reduced one-atom-thick GO sheets at the nanoscale. In this paper, using thermally or chemically reduced individual GO sheets on mica substrates as examples, we characterize their degree of reduction at the nanoscale using EFS...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Dotun Ogunyemi, Andrew Jovanovski, Perry Friedman, Brittany Sweatman, Ichchha Madan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the associations of electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) patterns and adverse neonatal outcomes Study design: From 2013 to 2016; 12,067 term, singleton deliveries in labor ≥2 h with abnormal EFM defined as absent accelerations, variable, late or prolonged decelerations, tachycardia, bradycardia, or minimal variability were analyzed as any documentation during labor, in first hour and last hour of labor. Outcomes were composite neonatal adverse outcomes, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, neonatal hypoxia, neonatal hypoglycemia, umbilical artery pH, and base excess...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Susanna Timonen, Kaisa Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring was introduced with the goal to reduce fetal hypoxia and deaths. However, continuous fetal heart rate monitoring has been shown to have a high sensitivity but also a high false-positive rate. To improve specificity, adjunctive technologies have been developed to identify fetuses at risk for intrapartum asphyxia. Intensive research on the value of ST-segment analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram as an adjunct to standard electronic fetal monitoring in lowering the rates of fetal metabolic acidosis and operative deliveries has been ongoing...
June 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
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