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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333490/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-on-nanotextured-stainless-steel-316l-by-electrochemical-etching
#1
Yeongseon Jang, Won Tae Choi, Christopher T Johnson, Andrés J García, Preet M Singh, Victor Breedveld, Dennis W Hess, Julie A Champion
Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel 316L (SS316L), which is an alloy typically used in many medical devices and food processing equipment, can cause serious infections along with substantial healthcare costs. This work demonstrates that nanotextured SS316L surfaces produced by electrochemical etching effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but exhibit cytocompatibility and no toxicity toward mammalian cells in vitro. Additionally, the electrochemical surface modification on SS316L results in formation of superior passive layer at the surface, improving corrosion resistance...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331879/structural-and-quantum-mechanical-computations-to-elucidate-the-altered-binding-mechanism-of-metal-and-drug-with-pyrazinamidase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-due-to-mutagenicity
#2
Nouman Rasool, Saima Iftikhar, Anam Amir, Waqar Hussain
Pyrazinamide is known to be the most effective treatment against tuberculosis disease and is known to have bacteriostatic action. By targeting the bacterial spores, this drug reduces the chances for the progression of the infection in organisms. In recent years, increased instances of the drug resistance of bacterial strains are reported. Pyrazinamidase, activator for pyrazinamide, leads to resistance against the drug due to mutagenicity across the world. The present study aimed at the quantum mechanistic analysis of mutations in pyrazinamidase to gain insights into the mechanism of this enzyme...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331783/comparative-study-of-novel-in-situ-decorated-porous-chitosan-selenium-scaffolds-and-porous-chitosan-silver-scaffolds-towards-antimicrobial-wound-dressing-application
#3
Dhee P Biswas, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds, Andrea J O'Connor, Phong A Tran
Dermal defects caused by trauma or disease are challenging to treat due to difficult-to-treat infections that impair wound healing. Due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and dwindling discoveries of new antibiotics, there is currently an urgent need to introduce novel antimicrobials effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria without causing damage to host tissues. As selenium (Se) and silver (Ag) are known for their antimicrobial properties, we investigated the separate loading of these materials into porous chitosan/PVA (CS) scaffolds through a simple in situ deposition method to create two distinct wound dressing materials (CS-Se and CS-Ag)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331368/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-safety-analysis-of-enterococcus-faecium-2c-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#4
Soodabeh Khalkhali, Naheed Mojgani
INTRODUCTION: Safety analysis of probiotic bacteria is an obligatory characteristic to be evaluated prior to application in food or pharmacological products. This study was designed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo safety parameters of Enterococcus faecium 2C strain, a probiotic candidate isolated from human breast milk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: E.faecium 2C was studied for its hemolytic activity and phenotypic antibiotics resistance profile. In vivo safety of the mentioned Enterococcus strain was studied by determining acute oral toxicity in Wistar Male rats...
January 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331154/predicting-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-associated-infection-on-hospital-admission-methodological-issues
#5
Kamyar Mansori, Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330819/preparation-of-a-synthetic-seed-for-the-common-reed-harboring-an-endophytic-bacterium-promoting-seedling-growth-under-cadmium-stress
#6
Ting Gao, Xianyang Shi
Bacterial seed endophytes can facilitate germination and early plant development. Therefore, the introduction of seed-borne endophytes may improve selected plant characteristics across generations. In this study, regenerated plantlets of common reed (Phragmites australis) were inoculated with activated sludge to obtain a specific functional endophytic bacterium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that abundant endophytic bacteria could be enriched in the roots. A siderophore-producing endophytic bacterium was isolated from the roots and identified as Herbaspirillum frisingense RE3-3 based on 16S rRNA sequences...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330772/rice-wrky11-plays-a-role-in-pathogen-defense-and-drought-tolerance
#7
Heyoung Lee, Jooyoung Cha, Changhyun Choi, Naeyoung Choi, Hyun-So Ji, Sang Ryeol Park, Seungbum Lee, Duk-Ju Hwang
BACKGROUND: Plants are frequently subjected to abiotic and biotic stresses, and WRKY proteins play a pivotal role in the response to such stress. OsWRKY11 is induced by pathogens, drought, and heat, suggesting a function in biotic and abiotic stress responses. RESULTS: This study identified OsWRKY11, a member of WRKY group IIc. It is a transcriptional activator that localized to the nucleus. Ectopic expression of OsWRKY11 resulted in enhanced resistance to a bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
January 12, 2018: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330592/genomic-characterization-of-key-bacteriophages-to-formulate-the-potential-biocontrol-agent-to-combat-enteric-pathogenic-bacteria
#8
Krupa M Parmar, Nishant A Dafale, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant J Purohit
Combating bacterial pathogens has become a global concern especially when the antibiotics and chemical agents are failing to control the spread due to its resistance. Bacteriophages act as a safe biocontrol agent by selectively lysing the bacterial pathogens without affecting the natural beneficial microflora. The present study describes the screening of prominent enteric pathogens NDK1, NDK2, NDK3, and NDK4 (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia) mostly observed in domestic wastewater; against which KNP1, KNP2, KNP3, and KNP4 phages were isolated...
January 12, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330557/linear-doggybone-dna-vaccine-induces-similar-immunological-responses-to-conventional-plasmid-dna-independently-of-immune-recognition-by-tlr9-in-a-pre-clinical-model
#9
Alex Allen, Chuan Wang, Lisa J Caproni, Gessa Sugiyarto, Elena Harden, Leon R Douglas, Patrick J Duriez, Kinga Karbowniczek, Jon Extance, Paul J Rothwell, Ifeayinwa Orefo, John P Tite, Freda K Stevenson, Christian H Ottensmeier, Natalia Savelyeva
Vaccination with DNA that encodes cancer antigens is a simple and convenient way to raise immunity against cancer and has already shown promise in the clinical setting. Conventional plasmid DNA is commonly used which together with the encoded antigen also includes bacterial immunostimulatory CpG motifs to target the DNA sensor Toll-like receptor 9. Recently DNA vaccines using doggybone DNA (dbDNA™), have been developed without the use of bacteria. The cell-free process relies on the use of Phi29 DNA polymerase to amplify the template followed by protelomerase TelN to complete individual closed linear DNA...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329747/antibacterial-properties-of-latarcin-1-derived-cell-penetrating-peptides
#10
Deepthi Poornima Budagavi, Archana Chugh
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) share certain physicochemical parameters such as amphipathicity, hydrophobicity, cationicity and pI, due to which these two groups of peptides also exhibit overlapping functional characteristics. In our current work, we have evaluated antimicrobial properties of cell-penetrating peptides derived from Latarcin1. Latarcin derived peptide (LDP) exhibited antimicrobial activity against representative microorganisms tested and bactericidal effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which was used as model organism of study in the present work...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329389/in-vivo-daptomycin-efficacy-against-experimental-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-endocarditis
#11
Sophie Reissier, Azzam Saleh-Mghir, François Guerin, Laurent Massias, Idir Ghout, Clara Sinel, Vincent Cattoir, Anne-Claude Cremieux
Objectives: Daptomycin has become a first-line therapeutic option for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infective endocarditis (IE). Although high doses (≥8 mg/kg) are often recommended, optimal doses, particularly for strains with MICs close to the susceptibility breakpoint (4 mg/L), are still debated. Methods: Daptomycin efficacy at doses equivalent to 8 mg/kg daptomycin (DAP8) and 12 mg/kg daptomycin (DAP12) in humans was evaluated in a rabbit model of aortic valve IE induced by 108 cfu of E...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329376/soil-microbial-species-loss-affects-plant-biomass-and-survival-of-an-introduced-bacterial-strain-but-not-inducible-plant-defences
#12
Viola Kurm, Wim H van der Putten, Ana Pineda, W H Gera Hol
Background and Aims: Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains can influence plant-insect interactions. However, little is known about the effect of changes in the soil bacterial community in general and especially the loss of rare soil microbes on these interactions. Here, the influence of rare soil microbe reduction on induced systemic resistance (ISR) in a wild ecotype of Arabidopsis thaliana against the aphid Myzus persicae was investigated. Methods: To create a gradient of microbial abundances, soil was inoculated with a serial dilution of a microbial community and responses of Arabidopsis plants that originated from the same site as the soil microbes were tested...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327680/mechanisms-of-bacterial-resistance-to-antimicrobial-agents
#13
Engeline van Duijkeren, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Marilyn C Roberts, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz
During the past decades resistance to virtually all antimicrobial agents has been observed in bacteria of animal origin. This chapter describes in detail the mechanisms so far encountered for the various classes of antimicrobial agents. The main mechanisms include enzymatic inactivation by either disintegration or chemical modification of antimicrobial agents, reduced intracellular accumulation by either decreased influx or increased efflux of antimicrobial agents, and modifications at the cellular target sites (i...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327679/natural-and-artificial-strategies-to-control-the-conjugative-transmission-of-plasmids
#14
María Getino, Fernando de la Cruz
Conjugative plasmids are the main carriers of transmissible antibiotic resistance (AbR) genes. For that reason, strategies to control plasmid transmission have been proposed as potential solutions to prevent AbR dissemination. Natural mechanisms that bacteria employ as defense barriers against invading genomes, such as restriction-modification or CRISPR-Cas systems, could be exploited to control conjugation. Besides, conjugative plasmids themselves display mechanisms to minimize their associated burden or to compete with related or unrelated plasmids...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327480/membrane-active-peptide-pv3-efficiently-eradicates-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-mouse-model-of-burn-infection
#15
Hamed Memariani, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The aim of this study was to evaluate the topical bactericidal activity of peptide PV3 against a MDR isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mouse model of burn infection. The structural analysis of PV3 by circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated a low peptide helical content in water, whereas a high helical content was observed in the presence of the more hydrophobic 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol/water buffer. A confocal microscopy analysis indicated that the main action of PV3 occurred at the membrane of bacteria...
January 12, 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327470/investigation-of-the-effect-of-rapid-and-slow-external-ph-increases-on-enterococcus-faecalis-biofilm-grown-on-dentine
#16
Mark Stenhouse, Peter Zilm, Jithendra Ratnayake, Peter Cathro
BACKGROUND: Calcium hydroxide is a common endodontic medicament and has an anti-microbial effect by increasing the localized pH within the root canal. However, Enterococcus faecalis has shown some resistance to calcium hydroxide. METHOD: A flow cell apparatus was used to grow an E. faecalis biofilm on dentine discs. Following 4 weeks growth in Todd Hewitt Broth, flow cells were exposed to either a rapid or slow increase to pH 11.5 or 12.5. Cellular viability was determined using serial plating and the number of colony forming units was normalised against the cellular protein content...
January 11, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327293/overexpression-of-spot-gene-in-coccoid-forms-of-clinical-helicobacter-pylori-isolates
#17
Farkhondeh Poursina, Jamshid Fagri, Nasrin Mirzaei, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can convert to coccoid form in unfavorable conditions or as a result of antibiotic treatment. In order to adapt to harsh environments, H. pylori requires a stringent response which, encoded by the spoT gene, has a bifunctional enzyme possessing both (p)ppGpp synthetic and degrading activity. Our goal in this study was to compare spoT gene expression in spiral and induced coccoid forms of H. pylori with use of amoxicillin. First, clinical isolate coccoid forms were induced with amoxicillin; then, the viability test was analyzed by flow cytometer...
January 11, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327047/histopathological-and-inflammatory-features-of-chronically-discharging-open-mastoid-cavities-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Darius Henatsch, Sultan Alsulami, Adriaan M Duijvestijn, Jack P Cleutjens, Carine J Peutz-Kootstra, Robert J Stokroos
Importance: Many patients with an open radical mastoid cavity experience therapy-resistant otorrhea. Little is known about the underlying histopathological substrate of unstable cavities and the correlation with treatment failure. Objective: To study the histopathological and inflammatory features of chronically discharging open radical mastoid cavities and the influence of different treatments. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial was a histopathology study of tissue samples of a cohort of 30 patients with a chronically discharging open mastoid cavity...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326076/phage-derived-lysins-as-potential-agents-for-eradicating-biofilms-and-persisters
#19
REVIEW
Umender Sharma, Aradhana Vipra, Shankaramurthy Channabasappa
Bacterial biofilms are highly resistant to the action of antibiotics. Presence of persisters, phenotypically resistant populations of bacterial cells, is thought to contribute toward recalcitrance of biofilms. The phage-derived lysins, by virtue of their ability to cleave the peptidoglycan of bacterial cells in an enzymatic manner, have the unique ability to kill dormant cells. Several lysins have shown potent antibiofilm activity in vitro. The fact that lysins have shown better efficacy than conventional drugs in animal models of endocarditis and other infections involving biofilms suggests that the lysins can potentially be developed against difficult-to-treat bacterial infections...
January 8, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325684/respiratory-comorbidities-and-risk-of-mortality-in-hospitalized-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#20
Keishi Oda, Kazuhiro Yatera, Yoshihisa Fujino, Takashi Kido, Tetsuya Hanaka, Konomi Sennari, Kiyohide Fushimi, Shinya Matsuda, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: Respiratory comorbidities are frequently associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, little is known about their prognostic impact in hospitalized patients with IPF. We examined the impact of respiratory comorbidities on the mortality rates of hospitalized patients with IPF using a Japanese nationwide database. METHODS: We identified 5665 hospitalized patients diagnosed with IPF between April 2010 and March 2013. The primary outcome was defined as the in-hospital mortality at 30 days after admission...
January 2018: Respiratory Investigation
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