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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724074/high-resolution-genetic-and-physical-mapping-of-the-eastern-filbert-blight-resistance-region-in-jefferson-hazelnut-corylus-avellana-l
#1
Vidyasagar Sathuvalli, Shawn A Mehlenbacher, David C Smith
Eastern filbert blight (EFB), caused by the pyrenomycete (Peck) E. Müller, is a devastating disease of European hazelnut ( L) in the US Pacific Northwest. A dominant allele at a single locus from the obsolete pollenizer 'Gasaway' confers a high level of resistance to EFB. To identify the gene responsible for resistance, we initiated map-based cloning efforts in a population of 1488 seedlings that segregated for resistance. Chromosome walking was initiated using primers designed from eight previously identified random amplified polymorphic DNA markers linked to resistance...
July 2017: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722654/a-lectin-receptor-kinase-as-a-potential-sensor-for-extracellular-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Chenggang Wang, Mingqi Zhou, Xudong Zhang, Jin Yao, Yanping Zhang, Zhonglin Mou
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) participates in intracellular and extracellular signaling events unrelated to metabolism. In animals, purinergic receptors are required for extracellular NAD(+) (eNAD(+)) to evoke biological responses, indicating that eNAD(+) may be sensed by cell-surface receptors. However, the identity of eNAD(+)-binding receptors still remains elusive. Here, we identify a lectin receptor kinase (LecRK), LecRK-I.8, as a potential eNAD(+) receptor in Arabidopsis. The extracellular lectin domain of LecRK-I...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722626/capacity-and-utilization-of-blood-culture-in-two-referral-hospitals-in-indonesia-and-thailand
#3
Nittaya Teerawattanasook, Patricia M Tauran, Prapit Teparrukkul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, David A B Dance, Mansyur Arif, Direk Limmathurotsakul
It is generally recommended that sepsis patients should have at least two blood cultures obtained before antimicrobial therapy. From 1995 to 2015, the number of blood cultures taken each year in a 1,100-bed public referral hospital in Ubon Ratchathani northeast Thailand rose from 5,235 to 56,719, whereas the number received in an 840-bed referral public hospital in south Sulawesi, Indonesia, in 2015 was 2,779. The proportion of patients sampled for blood cultures out of all inpatients in south Sulawesi in 2015 (9%; 2,779/30,593) was lower than that in Ubon Ratchathani in 2003 (13%; 8,707/66,515), at a time when health expenditure per capita in the two countries was comparable...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722231/bacteria-antibiotic-resistance-new-challenges-and-opportunities-for-implant-associated-orthopaedic-infections
#4
Bingyun Li, Thomas J Webster
There has been a dramatic increase in the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains, which has made antibiotic choices for infection control increasingly limited and more expensive. In the U.S. alone, antibiotic resistant bacteria cause at least 2 million infections and 23,000 deaths a year resulting in a $55-70 billion per year economic impact. Antibiotics are critical to the success of surgical procedures including orthopaedic prosthetic surgeries, and antibiotic resistance is occurring in nearly all bacteria that infect people, including the most common bacteria that cause orthopaedic infections, such as Staphylococcus aureus (S...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721833/role-of-nutrients-and-phyto-compounds-in-the-modulation-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#5
Steve Harakeh, Imran Khan, Saad B Almasaudi, Esam I Azhar, Soad Al-Jaouni, Aleksandra Niedzweicki
Antimicrobial resistance is quickly spreading and has become a major public health problem worldwide. If this issue is not resolved, it may cause a shift back to the pre-antibiotics era and infectious disease will again be a serious problem, especially in developing countries. Since the discovery of antibiotics, bacterial resistance has emerged, enabling certain bacteria to withstand antibiotic effects. The emergence of antibiotic resistance is fueled by excessive and improper use of antimicrobial agents, especially in developing countries...
July 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721657/biological-decolorization-and-degradation-of-malachite-green-by-pseudomonas-sp-yb2-process-optimization-and-biodegradation-pathway
#6
Yanbin Tao, Fei Wang, Lingjun Meng, Yang Guo, Mengshu Han, Jinhai Li, Cheng Sun, Shaomang Wang
A novel strain Pseudomonas sp. YB2, which was isolated from activated sludge, was studied for biological decolorization and degradation of malachite green (MG). The results show that this aerobic strain is an aerobic bacterium, which has relatively high salt tolerance and high antibiotic resistance. The optimal performance condition for both bacterial growth and decolorization of MG was at 25-35 °C and pH 5.0-7.0. It could efficiently decolorize 90.40% MG at a high concentration up to 1500 mg/L in 24 h, and concentrations of MG lower than 1000 mg/L could be completely decolorized in 12 h...
July 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721617/effect-of-membrane-property-and-feed-water-organic-matter-quality-on-long-term-performance-of-the-gravity-driven-membrane-filtration-process
#7
Dongwhi Lee, Yuri Lee, Shin Sik Choi, Sang-Ho Lee, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Yunho Lee
This study investigated the influence of membrane property and feed water organic matter quality on the permeate flux and water quality during gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration. GDM filtration was continuously carried out over 500 days at hydrostatic pressure of 65 mbar in dead-end mode without any back-flushing or membrane cleaning. Three ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (PES-100 kDa, PVDF-120 kDa, and PVDF-100 kDa) and one microfiltration (MF) membrane (PTFE-0.3 μm) were tested for treating lake water with varied organic matter qualities due to algal growth...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721477/imipenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-isolates-carried-by-persons-upon-medical-examination-in-korea
#8
So Yeon Kim, Sang Yop Shin, Ji-Young Rhee, Kwan Soo Ko
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CR-GNB) have emerged and disseminated worldwide, become a great concern worldwide including Korea. The prevalence of fecal carriage of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (IR-GNB) in persons in Korea was investigated. Stool samples were collected from 300 persons upon medical examination. Samples were screened for IR-GNB by using MacConkey agar with 2 μl/ml imipenem. Species were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721078/incomplete-recovery-of-the-fecal-flora-of-hematological-patients-with-neutropenia-and-repeated-fluoroquinolone-prophylaxis
#9
Yong Chong, Shinji Shimoda, Noriko Miyake, Takatoshi Aoki, Yoshikiyo Ito, Tomohiko Kamimura, Nobuyuki Shimono
BACKGROUND: Routine fluoroquinolone prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies is still controversial, because of antibiotic resistance concerns. The recovery of the fecal microbiota to the initial composition in patients receiving multiple courses of quinolone prophylaxis and repeated chemotherapy has not been evaluated. METHODS: We prospectively examined the changes in the fecal bacterial composition before and after levofloxacin prophylaxis...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721044/stimulated-phase-shift-acoustic-nanodroplets-enhance-vancomycin-efficacy-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilms
#10
Hao Guo, Ziming Wang, Quanyin Du, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Aimin Wang
PURPOSE: Bacterial biofilms on the surface of prostheses are becoming a rising concern in managing prosthetic joint infections. The inherent resistant features of biofilms render traditional antimicrobial therapy unproductive and revision surgery outcomes uncertain. This situation has prompted the exploration of novel antimicrobial strategies. The synergy of ultrasound microbubbles and vancomycin has been proposed as an efficient alternative for biofilm eradication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm effect of stimulated phase-shift acoustic nanodroplets (NDs) combined with vancomycin...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721040/effect-of-ultraviolet-treatment-on-bacterial-attachment-and-osteogenic-activity-to-alkali-treated-titanium-with-nanonetwork-structures
#11
Honghao Zhang, Satoshi Komasa, Chiho Mashimo, Tohru Sekino, Joji Okazaki
PURPOSE: Alkali-treated titanium with nanonetwork structures (TNS) possesses good osteogenic activity; however, the resistance of this material to bacterial contamination remains inadequate. As such, TNS implants are prone to postoperative infection. In this work, we attempted to alter the biological properties of TNS by treatment with short-duration high-intensity ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. METHODS: TNS discs were treated with UV light (wavelength =254 nm, strength =100 mW/cm(2)) for 15 minutes using a UV-irradiation machine...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720734/lack-of-acrb-efflux-function-confers-loss-of-virulence-on-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#12
Xuan Wang-Kan, Jessica M A Blair, Barbara Chirullo, Jonathan Betts, Roberto M La Ragione, Alasdair Ivens, Vito Ricci, Timothy J Opperman, Laura J V Piddock
AcrAB-TolC is the paradigm resistance-nodulation-division (RND) multidrug resistance efflux system in Gram-negative bacteria, with AcrB being the pump protein in this complex. We constructed a nonfunctional AcrB mutant by replacing D408, a highly conserved residue essential for proton translocation. Western blotting confirmed that the AcrB D408A mutant had the same native level of expression of AcrB as the parental strain. The mutant had no growth deficiencies in rich or minimal medium. However, compared with wild-type SL1344, the mutant had increased accumulation of Hoechst 33342 dye and decreased efflux of ethidium bromide and was multidrug hypersusceptible...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720731/an-in-vitro-chicken-gut-model-demonstrates-transfer-of-a-multidrug-resistance-plasmid-from-salmonella-to-commensal-escherichia-coli
#13
Roderick M Card, Shaun A Cawthraw, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Richard J Ellis, Gemma Kay, Mark J Pallen, Martin J Woodward, Muna F Anjum
The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaCTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720726/mitochondrial-cochaperone-mge1-is-involved-in-regulating-susceptibility-to-fluconazole-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-candida-species
#14
Liesbeth Demuyser, Erwin Swinnen, Alessandro Fiori, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Kevin Vestrepen, Patrick Van Dijck
MGE1 encodes a yeast chaperone involved in Fe-S cluster metabolism and protein import into the mitochondria. In this study, we identified MGE1 as a multicopy suppressor of susceptibility to the antifungal fluconazole in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We demonstrate that this phenomenon is not exclusively dependent on the integrity of the mitochondrial DNA or on the presence of the drug efflux pump Pdr5. Instead, we show that the increased dosage of Mge1 plays a protective role by retaining increased amounts of ergosterol upon fluconazole treatment...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720345/the-potential-of-phage-therapy-in-cystic-fibrosis-essential-human-bacterial-phage-interactions-and-delivery-considerations-for-use-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infected-airways
#15
REVIEW
Stephanie Trend, Angela M Fonceca, William G Ditcham, Anthony Kicic, Arest Cf
As antimicrobial-resistant microbes become increasingly common and a significant global issue, novel approaches to treating these infections particularly in those at high risk are required. This is evident in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), who suffer from chronic airway infection caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, typically Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One option is bacteriophage (phage) therapy, which utilises the natural predation of phage viruses upon their host bacteria. This review summarises the essential and unique aspects of the phage-microbe-human lung interactions in CF that must be addressed to successfully develop and deliver phage to CF airways...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720045/neonatal-acute-paronychia
#16
Luke Grome, Gregory Borah
BACKGROUND: Paronychia is defined as infection afflicting the eponychial nail folds of the hand or foot. Such infections are rarely reported in the perinatal age group, and not previously described in a neonate younger than 2 weeks. Trauma resulting in inoculation of the nail fold is the most common predisposing factor to paronychia. Oral trauma in the pediatric population from finger sucking predisposes this population to a different set of bacterial pathogens than adults. Contamination can progress to infection and abscess formation within the nail fold with the most prevalent vector in adult infections being Staphylococcus aureus...
February 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719845/the-effects-of-ibuprofen-on-activated-sludge-shift-in-bacterial-community-structure-and-resistance-to-ciprofloxacin
#17
Madars Davids, Dita Gudra, Ilze Radovica-Spalvina, Davids Fridmanis, Vadims Bartkevics, Olga Muter
Ibuprofen (IBP) is ranked at the 4th place among 57 pharmaceutical compounds according to the number of citations in prioritization documents. The response of microbial community of activated sludge to IBP was studied at the concentrations of 50-5000mg/L. Batch incubation was performed in an OxiTop® device for 21days. The reduction of biological oxygen demand depended on the IBP concentration and varied in the range from 321 to 107mg O2/L. Massive DNA sequencing analysis of the activated sludge revealed that Proteobacteria became more dominant when grown in the presence of IBP...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719657/isolation-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-bacteriophages-against-mdr-bacterial-isolates-from-septic-wound-infections
#18
Roja Rani Pallavali, Vijaya Lakshmi Degati, Dakshayani Lomada, Madhava C Reddy, Vijaya Raghava Prasad Durbaka
Multi-drug resistance has become a major problem for the treatment of pathogenic bacterial infections. The use of bacteriophages is an attractive approach to overcome the problem of drug resistance in several pathogens that cause fatal diseases. Our study aimed to isolate multi drug resistant bacteria from patients with septic wounds and then isolate and apply bacteriophages in vitro as alternative therapeutic agents. Pus samples were aseptically collected from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), Kadapa, A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719354/thymol-and-carvacrol-strongly-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-growth-of-carbapenemase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli
#19
P Raei, T Pourlak, M Y Memar, N Alizadeh, M Aghamali, E Zeinalzadeh, M Asgharzadeh, H S Kafil
Discovery of novel drugs with new mechanisms of action and without cross-reaction with current therapeutic agents is crucial in the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of carvacrol and thymol on biofilm formation and antimicrobial activity against different carbapenemase-producing Gram negative bacilli. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm effect of thymol and carvacrol was investigated against strains harboring different genes related to carbapenemase resistance...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719350/characterization-of-candidate-probionts-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#20
S Khalkhali, N Mojgani
This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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