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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914086/killing-bacteria-with-cytotoxic-effector-proteins-of-human-killer-immune-cells-granzymes-granulysin-and-perforin
#2
Diego López León, Isabelle Fellay, Pierre-Yves Mantel, Michael Walch
Bacterial pathogens represent a constant threat to human health that was exacerbated in recent years by a dramatic increase of strains resistant to last resort antibiotics. The immune system of higher vertebrates generally evolved several efficient innate and adaptive mechanisms to fight ubiquitous bacterial pathogens. Among those mechanisms, immune proteases were recognized to contribute essentially to antibacterial immune defense. The effector serine proteases of the adaptive immune system, the granzymes, exert potent antimicrobial activity when they are delivered into the bacterial cytosol by prokaryotic membrane disrupting proteins, such as granulysin...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913416/mutagenesis-of-nosm-leader-peptide-reveals-important-elements-in-nosiheptide-biosynthesis
#4
Liang Jin, Xuri Wu, Yanjiu Xue, Yue Jin, Shuzhen Wang, Yijun Chen
: Nosiheptide, a typical member of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), exhibits potent activity against multi-drug resistant Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The precursor peptide of nosiheptide (NosM) is comprised of a leader peptide with 37 amino acids and a core peptide containing 13 amino acids. To pinpoint essential elements in the leader peptide for nosithpetide biosynthesis, a collection of mutants with unique sequence features, including N- and C-terminal motifs, peptide length as well as specific sites in the leader peptide, was generated by mutagenesis in vivo The effects of various mutants on nosiheptide biosynthesis were evaluated...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#5
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913076/biofilm-production-and-beta-lactamic-resistance-in-brazilian-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bovine-mastitis
#6
Viviane Figueira Marques, Cássia Couto da Motta, Bianca da Silva Soares, Dayanne Araújo de Melo, Shana de Mattos de Oliveira Coelho, Irene da Silva Coelho, Helene Santos Barbosa, Miliane Moreira Soares de Souza
Staphylococcus spp. play an important role in the etiology of bovine mastitis. Staphylococcus aureus is considered the most relevant species due to the production of virulence factors such as slime, which is required for biofilm formation. This study aimed to evaluate biofilm production and its possible relation to beta-lactamic resistance in 20 S. aureus isolates from bovine mastitic milk. The isolates were characterized by pheno-genotypic and MALDI TOF-MS assays and tested for genes such as icaA, icaD, bap, agr RNAIII, agr I, agr II, agr III, and agr IV, which are related to slime production and its regulation...
October 18, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913024/impact-of-wastewater-treatment-plant-discharge-on-the-contamination-of-river-biofilms-by-pharmaceuticals-and-antibiotic-resistance
#7
Elodie Aubertheau, Thibault Stalder, Leslie Mondamert, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Dagot, Jérôme Labanowski
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceutical residue in surface water. Epilithic biofilms were collected downstream from 12 WWTPs of various types and capacities to study the impacts of their discharge through the changes in biofilm composition (compared to a corresponding upstream biofilm) in terms of pharmaceutical concentrations and bacterial community modifications (microbial diversity and resistance integrons). The biofilm is a promising indicator to evaluate the impacts of WWTPs on the surrounding aquatic environment...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912845/molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications-of-bacterial-persistence
#8
Joran Elie Michiels, Bram Van den Bergh, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
Any bacterial population harbors a small number of phenotypic variants that survive exposure to high concentrations of antibiotic. Importantly, these so-called 'persister cells' compromise successful antibiotic therapy of bacterial infections and are thought to contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Intriguingly, drug-tolerant persisters have also been identified as a factor underlying failure of chemotherapy in tumor cell populations. Recent studies have begun to unravel the complex molecular mechanisms underlying persister formation and revolve around stress responses and toxin-antitoxin modules...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912842/the-rapid-spread-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae
#9
REVIEW
Robert F Potter, Alaric W D'Souza, Gautam Dantas
Carbapenems, our one-time silver bullet for multidrug resistant bacterial infections, are now threatened by widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Successful expansion of Enterobacteriaceae clonal groups and frequent horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase expressing plasmids are causing increasing carbapenem resistance. Recent advances in genetic and phenotypic detection facilitate global surveillance of CRE diversity and prevalence. In particular, whole genome sequencing enabled efficient tracking, annotation, and study of genetic elements colocalized with carbapenemase genes on chromosomes and on plasmids...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911010/screening-of-mercury-resistant-and-indole-3-acetic-acid-producing-bacterial-consortium-for-growth-promotion-of-cicer-arietinum-l
#10
Aatif Amin, Zakia Latif
Mercury resistant (Hg(R) ) bacteria were screened from industrial effluents and effluents-polluted rhizosphere soils near to districts Kasur and Sheikhupura, Pakistan. Out of 60 isolates, three bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. AZ-1, Bacillus cereus AZ-2, and Enterobacter cloacae AZ-3 showed Hg-resistance as 20 μg ml(-1) of HgCl2 and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production as 8-38 μg ml(-1) . Biochemical and molecular characterization of selected bacteria was confirmed by 16S ribotyping. Mercury resistant genes merA, merB, and merE of mer operon in Bacillus spp...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#11
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909430/bacterial-active-community-cycling-in-response-to-solar-radiation-and-their-influence-on-nutrient-changes-in-a-high-altitude-wetland
#12
Verónica Molina, Klaudia Hernández, Cristina Dorador, Yoanna Eissler, Martha Hengst, Vilma Pérez, Chris Harrod
Microbial communities inhabiting high-altitude spring ecosystems are subjected to extreme changes in solar irradiance and temperature throughout the diel cycle. Here, using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing (cDNA) we determined the composition of actively transcribing bacteria from spring waters experimentally exposed through the day (morning, noon, and afternoon) to variable levels of solar radiation and light quality, and evaluated their influence on nutrient recycling. Solar irradiance, temperature, and changes in nutrient dynamics were associated with changes in the active bacterial community structure, predominantly by Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and 35 other Phyla, including the recently described Candidate Phyla Radiation (e...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908758/thermally-triggered-release-of-the-bacteriophage-endolysin-chapk-and-the-bacteriocin-lysostaphin-for-the-control-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#13
Hollie Hathaway, Jude Ajuebor, Liam Stephens, Aidan Coffey, Ursula Potter, J Mark Sutton, A Toby A Jenkins
Staphylococcus aureus infections of the skin and soft tissue pose a major concern to public health, largely owing to the steadily increasing prevalence of drug resistant isolates. As an alternative mode of treatment both bacteriophage endolysins and bacteriocins have been shown to possess antimicrobial efficacy against multiple species of bacteria including otherwise drug resistant strains. Despite this, the administration and exposure of such antimicrobials should be restricted until required in order to discourage the continued evolution of bacterial resistance, whilst maintaining the activity and stability of such proteinaceous structures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#14
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908256/a-review-on-nano-antimicrobials-metal-nanoparticles-methods-and-mechanisms
#15
Edris Hoseinzadeh, Pouran Makhdoumi, Parisa Taha, John Stelling, Hooshyar Hossini, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Nanotechnology is a scientific and engineering technology conducted at the Nano-scale, such as in the fields of compound fabric manufacturing, food processing, agricultural processing, and engineering, as well as in medical and medicinal application. In recent decade, nanomaterial applications for antimicrobial works have been interested by many researchers. Available reports show that some of the metal oxide Nanoparticles including; Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Co3O4, In2O3, MgO, SiO2, ZrO2, Cr2O3, Ni2O3, Mn2O3, CoO, and Nickel oxide have toxicity toward several microorganisms and they could successfully kill numerous bacteria...
December 1, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907971/-interpretation-of-bacterial-susceptibility-resistance-to-antibiotics
#16
Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#17
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907117/the-composition-and-spatial-patterns-of-bacterial-virulence-factors-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-19-wastewater-treatment-plants
#18
Bing Zhang, Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen, Xiaohui Wang, Yunfeng Yang, Jizhong Zhou, Yu Zhang
Bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance are of concern for environmental safety and public health. Accumulating evidence suggests that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are as an important sink and source of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) are good indicators for bacterial pathogenic potentials. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathogenic potentials and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs, bacterial virulence genes and ARGs in 19 WWTPs covering a majority of latitudinal zones of China were surveyed by using GeoChip 4...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907048/chemical-defence-in-a-millipede-evaluation-and-characterization-of-antimicrobial-activity-of-the-defensive-secretion-from-pachyiulus-hungaricus-karsch-1881-diplopoda-julida-julidae
#19
Slaviša Stanković, Ivica Dimkić, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Sofija Pavković-Lučić, Zvezdana Jovanović, Tatjana Stević, Ivana Sofrenić, Bojan Mitić, Vladimir Tomić
The chemical defence of the millipede Pachyiulus hungaricus is reported in the present paper, in which a chemical characterization is given and antimicrobial activity is determined. In total, independently of sex, 44 compounds were identified. All compounds belong to two groups: quinones and pentyl and hexyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. The relative abundances of quinones and non-quinones were 94.7% vs. 5.3% (males) and 87.3% vs. 12.7% (females), respectively. The two dominant quinones in both sexes were 2-methyl-1,4,-benzoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906650/structure-of-the-70s-ribosome-from-human-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Anthony Bochler, François Grosse, Alexander Myasnikov, Jean-François Ménétret, Johana Chicher, Stefano Marzi, Pascale Romby, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
Comparative structural studies of ribosomes from various organisms keep offering exciting insights on how species-specific or environment-related structural features of ribosomes may impact translation specificity and its regulation. Although the importance of such features may be less obvious within more closely related organisms, their existence could account for vital yet species-specific mechanisms of translation regulation that would involve stalling, cell survival and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the first full 70S ribosome structure from Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium, solved by cryo-electron microscopy...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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