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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778048/pathogens-constancy-harbinger-of-nosocomial-infection-cum-identification-of-resistant-genes-and-drug-designing
#1
Sana Farooq Ahmad, Ibrar Khan, Abdul Wadood, Sadiq Azam, Noor Rehman, Muhammad Waqas, Kashif Bashir, Asaf Ali Khan
Hospitals are the most prominent places for the growth and spread of bacteria which are resistant to the available antibiotics. This antibiotic resistance is due to the over and misuse of antibiotic dosages of a high-density of patient population which are in frequent interaction with inanimate items of the hospitals and the consequent risk of cross infection. Out of 1010 samples of the current study, 510 (50.49%) were culture positive of which 329 (64.5%) were Gram-positive while 181 (35.49%) Gram negative...
April 22, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778035/formation-of-contact-active-antimicrobial-surfaces-by-covalent-grafting-of-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#2
REVIEW
Poverenov Elena, Klein Miri
Different synthetic strategies for the formation of contact active antimicrobial materials utilizing covalent linkage of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) were reviewed. There is a demand to find methods that will prevent bacterial fouling without the release of antimicrobial agents, because biocides cause environment pollution and promote the development of bacteria resistance mechanisms. The contact active antimicrobial surfaces may provide a useful tool for this purpose. The covalent surface grafting of QACs seems to be a feasible and promising approach for the formation of safe and effective antimicrobial materials that could be utilized for medical devices, food industry, water treatment systems and other applications...
May 16, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777696/sterilized-bifidobacteria-suppressed-fat-accumulation-and-blood-glucose-level
#3
Keita Kikuchi, Mahmoud Ben Othman, Kazuichi Sakamoto
Probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium improve the balance of intestinal microflora and have various physiological functions beneficial to human health. It is not always known whether the ingested microbial cells are viable- or killed. However, even sterilized bacterial cells are functional. Bacterial cell functions are strain-specific and their modes of action are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of sterilized bifidobacteria in obesity and lipid metabolism...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776929/antibacterial-effects-of-phage-lysin-lysgh15-on-planktonic-cells-and-biofilms-of-diverse-staphylococci
#4
Yufeng Zhang, Mengjun Cheng, Hao Zhang, Jiaxin Dai, Zhimin Guo, Xinwei Li, Yalu Ji, Ruopeng Cai, Hengyu Xi, Xinwu Wang, Yibing Xue, Changjiang Sun, Xin Feng, Liancheng Lei, Wenyu Han, Jingmin Gu
Treatment of infections caused by staphylococci has become more difficult because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains as well as biofilm formation. In this study, we observed the ability of the phage lysin LysGH15 to eliminate staphylococcal planktonic cells and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus hominis All these strains were sensitive to LysGH15, showing reductions in bacterial counts of approximately 4 log units within 30 min after treatment with 20 μg/mL LysGH15, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 8 μg/mL to 32 μg/mL...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775741/replacement-of-fishmeal-by-spirulina-arthrospira-platensis-affects-growth-immune-related-gene-expression-in-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-var-cas-iii-and-its-challenge-against-aeromonas-hydrophila-infection
#5
Shenping Cao, Peiyu Zhang, Tao Zou, Shuzhan Fei, Dong Han, Junyan Jin, Haokun Liu, Yunxia Yang, Xiaoming Zhu, Shouqi Xie
The present study examined the effect of dietary spirulina, Arthrospira platensis on growth performance, blood physiological indices, immune-related gene expressions and resistance of juvenile gibel carp against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Four isonitrogenous (360 g kg-1 ) and isolipidic (90 g kg-1 ) diets were formulated with containing different levels of spirulina powder of 0 g (SP0, the control diet), 3.38 g (SP3.38), 6.76 g (SP6.76) and 13.52 g (SP13.52) per 100 g diet to replace 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of fishmeal protein, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775474/the-cryptococcus-neoformans-titan-cell-is-an-inducible-and-regulated-morphotype-underlying-pathogenesis
#6
Ivy M Dambuza, Thomas Drake, Ambre Chapuis, Xin Zhou, Joao Correia, Leanne Taylor-Smith, Nathalie LeGrave, Tim Rasmussen, Matthew C Fisher, Tihana Bicanic, Thomas S Harrison, Marcel Jaspars, Robin C May, Gordon D Brown, Raif Yuecel, Donna M MacCallum, Elizabeth R Ballou
Fungal cells change shape in response to environmental stimuli, and these morphogenic transitions drive pathogenesis and niche adaptation. For example, dimorphic fungi switch between yeast and hyphae in response to changing temperature. The basidiomycete Cryptococcus neoformans undergoes an unusual morphogenetic transition in the host lung from haploid yeast to large, highly polyploid cells termed Titan cells. Titan cells influence fungal interaction with host cells, including through increased drug resistance, altered cell size, and altered Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern exposure...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775296/incorporation-of-a-theranostic-two-tone-luminescent-silver-complex-into-biocompatible-agar-hydrogel-composite-for-the-eradication-of-eskape-pathogens-in-a-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection-model
#7
Miguel N Pinto, Jorge Martinez-Gonzalez, Indranil Chakraborty, Pradip K Mascharak
Microbial invasion and colonization of the skin and underlying soft tissues are among the most common types of infections, becoming increasingly prevalent in hospital settings. Systemic antibiotic chemotherapies are now extremely limited due to emergence of drug-resistant Gram-positive and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. Topical administration of antimicrobials provides an effective route for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Therefore, the development of new and effective materials for the delivery of these agents is of paramount importance...
May 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775283/magnetic-glycol-chitin-based-hydrogel-nanocomposite-for-combined-thermal-and-d-amino-acid-assisted-biofilm-disruption
#8
Eric C Abenojar, Sameera Wickramasinghe, Minseon Ju, Sarika Uppaluri, Alison Klika, Jaiben George, Wael Barsoum, Salvatore J Frangiamore, Carlos A Higuera-Rueda, Anna Cristina S Samia
Bacterial biofilms are highly antibiotic resistant microbial cell associations that lead to chronic infections. Unlike free-floating planktonic bacterial cells, the biofilms are encapsulated in a hardly penetrable extracellular polymeric matrix and, thus, demand innovative approaches for treatment. Recent advancements on the development of gel-nanocomposite systems with tailored therapeutic properties provide promising routes to develop novel antimicrobial agents that can be designed to disrupt and completely eradicate preformed biofilms...
May 18, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775211/proanthocyanidins-will-they-effectively-restrain-conspicuous-bacterial-strains-devolving-on-urinary-tract-infection
#9
REVIEW
Venkataseshan Jagannathan, Pragasam Viswanathan
Struvite or infection stones are one of the major clinical burdens among urinary tract infection, which occur due to the interaction between microbes and urine mineral components. Numerous urinary tract infection (UTI) causing microbes regulate through biofilm formation for survival from host defense, it is often found difficult in its eradication with simple anti-microbial agents and also the chance of recurrence and resistance development is significantly high. Cranberry consumption and maintenance of urinary tract health have been supported by clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775092/a-prospective-multi-centre-us-clinical-trial-to-determine-accuracy-of-febridx-point-of-care-testing-for-acute-upper-respiratory-infections-with-and-without-a-confirmed-fever
#10
Nathan I Shapiro, Wesley H Self, Jeffrey Rosen, Stephan C Sharp, Michael R Filbin, Peter C Hou, Amisha D Parekh, Michael C Kurz, Robert Sambursky
BACKGROUND: FebriDx is a 10-minute disposable point-of-care test designed to identify clinically significant systemic host immune responses and aid in the differentiation of bacterial and viral respiratory infection by simultaneously detecting C-reactive protein (CRP) and myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) from a fingerstick blood sample. FebriDx diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in the emergency room and urgent care setting. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, observational cohort study of acute upper respiratory tract infections (URIs), with and without a confirmed fever at the time of enrolment, was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FebriDx to identify clinically significant bacterial infection with host response and acute pathogenic viral infection...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774759/melatonin-stimulated-biosynthesis-of-anti-microbial-znonps-by-enhancing-bio-reductive-prospective-in-callus-cultures-of-catharanthus-roseus-var-alba
#11
Hafiza Rida Riaz, Syed Salman Hashmi, Tariq Khan, Christophe Hano, Nathalie Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Bilal Haider Abbasi
Melatonin as plant growth regulator induces differential effects on metabolites that are responsible for reduction, capping and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Phytochemical analysis of callus cultures was performed and results were compared with callus cultures supplemented with other plant growth regulators (α-napthalene acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and thidiazuron). Highest total phenolic and flavonoid content [42.23 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g-1 DW and 36.4 mg of (quercetin equivalent) g-1 DW, respectively] were recorded at melatonin (1...
May 18, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774019/long-term-effects-of-residual-chlorine-on-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-simulated-drinking-water-fed-with-low-aoc-medium
#12
Guannan Mao, Yuhao Song, Mark Bartlam, Yingying Wang
Residual chlorine is often required to remain present in public drinking water supplies during distribution to ensure water quality. It is essential to understand how bacteria respond to long-term chlorine exposure, especially with the presence of assimilable organic carbon (AOC). This study aimed to investigate the effects of chlorination on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in low AOC medium by both conventional plating and culture-independent methods including flow cytometry (FCM) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In a simulated chlorinated system using a bioreactor, membrane damage and DNA damage were measured by FCM fluorescence fingerprint...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774018/the-invasive-brazilian-pepper-tree-schinus-terebinthifolius-is-colonized-by-a-root-microbiome-enriched-with-alphaproteobacteria-and-unclassified-spartobacteria
#13
Karim Dawkins, Nwadiuto Esiobu
Little is known about the rhizosphere microbiome of the Brazilian pepper tree (BP) - a noxious category 1 invasive plant inducing an enormous economic and ecological toll in Florida. Some invasive plants have been shown to drastically change the soil microbiome compared to other native plants. The rhizobacteria community structure of BP, two Florida native plants ( Hamelia patens and Bidens alba ) and bulk soils were characterized across six geographical sites. Although all 19 well-known and 10 poorly described phyla were observed in all plant rhizospheres, BP contained the least total bacterial abundance (OTUs) with a distinct bacteria community structure and clustering patterns differing significantly (pCOA and PERMANOVA) from the natives and bulk soil...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773743/genomic-insights-into-the-emergence-and-spread-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#14
REVIEW
Stephen Baker, Nicholas Thomson, François-Xavier Weill, Kathryn E Holt
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge to initiate countermeasures. Although we cannot stop bacterial adaptation, the predictability of many evolutionary processes in AMR bacteria offers us an opportunity to channel them using new control strategies...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773172/seleno-l-methionine-and-l-ascorbic-acid-differentiate-the-biological-activity-of-doxorubicin-and-its-metal-complexes-as-a-new-anticancer-drugs-candidate
#15
Marzena Matejczyk, Grzegorz Świderski, Renata Świsłocka, Stanisław Józef Rosochacki, Włodzimierz Lewandowski
The most important problems of anti-cancer therapy include the toxicity of the drugs applied to healthy cells and the multi-drug cells resistance to chemotherapeutics. One of the most commonly used anticancer drugs is doxorubicin (DOX) used to treat certain leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, as well as bladder, breast, stomach, lung, ovarian, thyroid, multiple myeloma and other cancers. Preliminary studies showed that metal complex with DOX improve its cytostatic activity with changes in their molecular structure and distribution of electrons, resulting in a substantial change of its biological activity (including antitumor activity)...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772761/high-concentrations-of-sodium-chloride-improve-microbicidal-activity-of-ibuprofen-against-common-cystic-fibrosis-pathogens
#16
Adrián J Muñoz, Roxana V Alasino, Ariel G Garro, Valeria Heredia, Néstor H García, David C Cremonezzi, Dante M Beltramo
Ibuprofen (IBU-H), a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa , methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na) and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes...
May 17, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772736/exploring-the-effect-of-phage-therapy-in-preventing-vibrio-anguillarum-infections-in-cod-and-turbot-larvae
#17
Nanna Rørbo, Anita Rønneseth, Panos G Kalatzis, Bastian Barker Rasmussen, Kirsten Engell-Sørensen, Hans Petter Kleppen, Heidrun Inger Wergeland, Lone Gram, Mathias Middelboe
The aquaculture industry is suffering from losses associated with bacterial infections by opportunistic pathogens. Vibrio anguillarum is one of the most important pathogens, causing vibriosis in fish and shellfish cultures leading to high mortalities and economic losses. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics and inefficient vaccination at the larval stage of fish emphasizes the need for novel approaches, and phage therapy for controlling Vibrio pathogens has gained interest in the past few years. In this study, we examined the potential of the broad-host-range phage KVP40 to control four different V...
May 16, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#18
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772525/vaginal-microbiota-dysmicrobism-and-role-of-biofilm-forming-bacteria
#19
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Vincenzo Petix, Lucia Corich, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
Bacterial vaginosis involves the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, guaranteeing immune escape and spread of antibiotic resistance. To spot known biofilm-forming bacteria, we profiled the vaginal microbiome of sixty-four symptomatic women suffering from a different grade of vaginal disorders and sixty asymptomatic healthy women. Specific microbial profiles distinguished symptomatic from asymptomatic women and characterized the grade of dysmicrobism within the symptomatic group. Lactobacillus crispatus and iners predominated on the healthy vaginal mucosa, while Lactobacillus gasseri predominated in the intermediate dysmicrobism...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772500/influence-of-zeolite-and-superphosphate-as-additives-on-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-bacterial-communities-during-factory-scale-chicken-manure-composting
#20
Shuang Peng, Huijie Li, Dan Song, Xiangui Lin, Yiming Wang
Factory-scale chicken manure composting added with zeolite (F), superphosphate (G), or zeolite and ferrous sulfate (FL) simultaneously, were evaluate for their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial communities. After composting, ARGs in manure decreased by 67.3% in the control, whereas the reductions were 86.5%, 68.6% and 72.2% in F, G and FL, respectively. ARGs encoding ribosomal protection proteins (tetO, tetB(P), and tetM) were reduced to a greater extent than tetG, tetL, sul1 and sul2...
April 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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