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population dynamics

Soo-Hwan Kim, Jieun Jung, Kyung Jin Cho, Jong-Ho Choi, Hyeong Seon Lee, Gi Jin Kim, Seung Gwan Lee
The immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important mediator of their therapeutic effects in stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The regulation mechanism of MSCs is orchestrated by several factors in both intrinsic and extrinsic events. Recent studies have shown that the dynamic expression of cytokines secreted from MSCs control T cell function and maturation by regulating the expression of FoxP3, which figures prominently in T cell differentiation. However, there is no evidence that placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) have strong immunomodulatory effects on T cell function and maturation via FoxP3 expression...
October 31, 2018: International Journal of Stem Cells
Benjamin D Groff, Andrew W L Kinman, Jacob F Woodroof, Rebecca R Pompano
Explants of lymphoid tissue provide a rare opportunity to assess the organization of the immune system in a living, dynamic environment. Traditionally, ex vivo immunostaining is conducted in fixed tissue sections, while live tissues are analyzed using genetically engineered fluorescent reporters or adoptively transferred, pre-labelled cell populations. Here, we validated a protocol for immunostaining and imaging in live, thick slices of lymph node tissue, thus providing a spatial "map" of the lymph node while maintaining the viability and functionality of the slices...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Hadis Dashtestani, Rachel Zaragoza, Hamed Pirsiavash, Kristine M Knutson, Riley Kermanian, Joy Cui, J Douglas Harrison, Milton Halem, Amir Gandjbakhche
Individuals differ in the extent to which they make decisions in different moral dilemmas. In this study, we investigated the relationship between functional brain activities during moral decision making and psychopathic personality traits in a healthy population. We measured the hemodynamic activities of the brain by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). FNIRS is an evolving non-invasive neuroimaging modality which is relatively inexpensive, patient friendly and robust to subject movement. Psychopathic traits were evaluated through a self-report questionnaire called the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Revised (PPI-R)...
October 18, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ritabrata Dutta, Zacharias Faidon Brotzakis, Antonietta Mira
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give access to equilibrium structures and dynamic properties given an ergodic sampling and an accurate force-field. The force-field parameters are calibrated to reproduce properties measured by experiments or simulations. The main contribution of this paper is an approximate Bayesian framework for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of the force-field parameters, without assuming parameter uncertainty to be Gaussian. To this aim, since the likelihood function of the MD simulation models is intractable in the absence of Gaussianity assumption, we use a likelihood-free inference scheme known as approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and propose an adaptive population Monte Carlo ABC algorithm, which is illustrated to converge faster and scales better than the previously used ABCsubsim algorithm for the calibration of the force-field of a helium system...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
G G De Assis, E V Gasanov, M B C de Sousa, A Kozacz, E Murawska-Cialowicz
Currently, literature has accumulated great knowledge over the effect of exercise on the neurotrophin named brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its role in neuronal plasticity. However, there is no enough discussion about how the exercise is related to enrichment of BDNF in specific metabolic properties. This review provides the current evidences regarding aerobic metabolism relation to BDNF concentrations in healthy individuals. A PICOS strategy was applied considering the mesh terms for: P - healthy subjects; I - physical exercise; C - aerobic metabolism demands; O - BDNF concentrations; S - before and after aerobic exercise; on PubMed, Scopus and Medline databases...
June 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
David Kabelik, Chelsea A Weitekamp, Shelley C Choudhury, Jacob T Hartline, Alexandra N Smith, Hans A Hofmann
Animals have evolved flexible strategies that allow them to evaluate and respond to their social environment by integrating the salience of external stimuli with internal physiological cues into adaptive behavioral responses. A highly conserved social decision-making network (SDMN), consisting of interconnected social behavior and mesolimbic reward networks, has been proposed to underlie such adaptive behaviors across all vertebrates, although our understanding of this system in reptiles is very limited. Here we measure neural activation across the SDMN and associated regions in the male brown anole (Anolis sagrei), within both reproductive and agonistic contexts, by quantifying the expression density of the immediate early gene product Fos...
October 17, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Weigang Wang, Yuan Yan, Chengkang Song, Mianli Pan, Yayi Wang
In anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) systems, temperature may regulate the activity of functional bacteria (e.g., anammox bacteria) and the composition of the microbial population, ultimately determining the performance of the anammox reactor. Knowledge of the dynamic changes in nitrogen removal rates and the microbial anammox community at low and/or ambient temperature is still limited. This study explored the response of an anammox sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to a gradient of decreasing temperature (33, 25, 20, 15, 10 °C), followed by recovery to 22 °C, over 360 days...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yijun Wang, Yali Wang, Jia Zhao, Jiayu Huang, Yining Shi, Dexiang Deng
We report coding and long noncoding RNAs in maize upon phytohormone gibberellin stimulation. Plant hormone gibberellin (GA) orchestrates various facets of biological processes. Dissection the transcriptomic dynamics upon GA stimulation has biological significance. Feature of maize transcriptome in response to GA application remains largely elusive. Herein, two types of plants, one was with normal height, the other was GA-sensitive dwarfism, were selected from advanced backcross population for GA3 treatment with different concentrations...
October 19, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Pierce T O'Neil, Alexandra J Machen, Jackie A Thompson, Wei Wang, Quyen Q Hoang, Michael R Baldwin, Karen R Khar, John Karanicolas, Mark T Fisher
Methods to assess the kinetic stability of proteins, particularly those that are aggregation prone, are very useful in establishing ligand induced stabilizing effects. Because aggregation prone proteins are by nature difficult to work with, most solution based methods are compromised by this inherent instability. Here, we describe a label-free method that examines the denaturation of immobilized proteins where the dynamic unfolded protein populations are captured and detected by chaperonin binding.
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Daniel A Charlebois, Kevin Hauser, Sylvia Marshall, Gábor Balázsi
Most organisms must cope with temperature changes. This involves genes and gene networks both as subjects and agents of cellular protection, creating difficulties in understanding. Here, we study how heating and cooling affect expression of single genes and synthetic gene circuits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We discovered that nonoptimal temperatures induce a cell fate choice between stress resistance and growth arrest. This creates dramatic gene expression bimodality in isogenic cell populations, as arrest abolishes gene expression...
October 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Li Liang, David A Steinman, Olivier Brina, Christophe Chnafa, Nicole M Cancelliere, Vitor M Pereira
BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are vascular dilations on cerebral vessels that affect between 1%-5% of the general population, and can cause life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage when ruptured. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a promising tool to study IAs in recent years, particularly for rupture risk assessment. However, despite dozens of studies, CFD is still far from clinical use due to large variations and frequent contradictions in hemodynamic results between studies...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Randi Stokke
BACKGROUND: Due to demographic changes with an aging population, there is a demand for technology innovations in care services. However, technology innovations have proven difficult to implement in regular use. To understand the complexity of technology innovations in care practices, we need a knowledge base of the complex and diverse experiences of people interacting with established technologies. OBJECTIVE: This paper addresses the research gap in relation to understanding the microcontext of co-production of care involving established technologies integrated into care practices...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Wilbroad Mutale, Susan Cleary, Jill Olivier, Roma Chilengi, Lucy Gilson
BACKGROUND: Under the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's African Health Initiative, five Population Health Implementation and Training partnerships were established as long-term health system strengthening projects in five Sub-Saharan Countries. In Zambia, the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia began to implement the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship and Assessments (BHOMA) in 2009. This was a combined community and health systems project involving 42 public facilities and their catchment populations...
October 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
David I Armstrong McKay, John A Dearing, James G Dyke, Guy M Poppy, Les G Firbank
Agricultural intensification has significantly increased yields and fed growing populations across the planet, but has also led to considerable environmental degradation. In response an alternative process of 'Sustainable Intensification' (SI), whereby food production increases while environmental impacts are reduced, has been advocated as necessary, if not sufficient, for delivering food and environmental security. However, the extent to which SI has begun, the main drivers of SI, and the degree to which degradation is simply 'offshored' are uncertain...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kangshun Zhao, Jorge García Molinos, Huan Zhang, Min Zhang, Jun Xu
Dynamics of inland fishery remain poorly understood despite their increasing socioeconomic importance and rapid growth. Here we analyze the changes in the dynamics of Chinese traditional and new inland fisheries by examining 26 years (1991-2016) of reported annual catch and mean trophic level in relation to socioeconomic development in China at provincial level. Results from spatial panel linear models indicate a significant correlation between socioeconomic and fishery variables, strongly suggesting that the development of these fisheries is nested in the socioeconomic context specific to each province...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
El Hadji Amadou Niang, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Ibrahima Dia
Despite extensive genetic studies on their variability and differentiation, few is known about the specific and relative role of An. coluzzii, An. gambiae and An. arabiensis in areas of sympatry. Indeed, their behavioral dissimilarities and divergent population dynamics can impact on malaria transmission level and intensity. This study was undertaken in four sympatric sites belonging to two different ecosystems with differential insecticide pressure to study the bionomics of these species and their relative role in malaria transmission...
October 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Rebeca Buzzo Feltrin, Maria Cristina Rodrigues Guilam, Manoel Barral-Netto, Nísia Trindade Lima, Milton Ozório Moraes
Public policy planning associated with the management of the Science, Technology, and Innovation is decisive to improve public health. It is important to develop novel strategies to plan, supervise, manage, use and evaluate research using indicators that extrapolates metrics in current use. In 2011, the Brazilian government introduced the Brazil Without Extreme Poverty plan (BWEP) that aimed to integrate several conditional cash transfer programs (CCT). The original that aimed to integrate of the CCTs were expanded in order to integrate social justice and dignity that induced several actions towards the promotion of social development of the beneficiaries...
2018: PloS One
Claudio Busettini, Jennifer Braswell Christy
SIGNIFICANCE: Saccades present a direct relationship between the size of the movement (SACSIZE) and its peak velocity (SACPEAK), the main sequence, which is traditionally quantified using the model SACPEAK = Vmax × (1 - e). This study shows that Vmax and SAT are not veridical indicators of saccadic dynamics. PURPOSE: Alterations in saccadic dynamics are used as a diagnostic tool. Are the 95% reference ranges (RRs) of Vmax and SAT correctly quantifying the variability in saccadic dynamics of a population? METHODS: Visually driven horizontal and vertical saccades were acquired from 116 normal subjects using the Neuro Kinetics Inc...
October 18, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Claudio Busettini, Jennifer Braswell Christy
SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that the area under the main sequence (MSAREA) is a valid alternative to the standard peak-velocity main sequence in measuring saccadic dynamics. A one-parameter area model, MSAREA = GPW = 1.55 × SACSIZE, with SACSIZE as the size of the saccade, 1.55 as a power factor, and GPW = 1.55 as a gain parameter, is presented. PURPOSE: SACPEAK = Vmax × (1 - e) is the traditional model used to describe the saccadic main sequence, the relationship between the size of the movement and its peak velocity (SACPEAK)...
October 18, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Giuseppe Malleo, Laura Maggino, Cristina R Ferrone, Giovanni Marchegiani, Andrew L Warshaw, Keith D Lillemoe, Claudio Bassi, Carlos Fernàndez-Del Castillo, Roberto Salvia
OBJECTIVE: To reappraise the concept of conditional survival (CS) following pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), accounting for the patient's present disease status relative to recurrence. BACKGROUND: CS, defined as the probability of surviving an additional time frame based on accrued lifespan, offers dynamic survival projections as compared with baseline overall survival. METHODS: Patients undergoing pancreatectomy for PDAC at 2 institutions from 2000 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed...
October 17, 2018: Annals of Surgery
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