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population dynamics

María Fernanda Olarte-Sierra, Roberto Suárez, María Alejandra Rubio
This article explores the sociocultural aspects of a program of pediatric cardiology health brigades that provides care to children from low-income populations in peripheral regions of Colombia. We analyzed the brigades as a humanitarian strategy to close the gaps of inequity in access to health care, and as a particular context of the medical encounter, the experience of heart disease and the definition of care trajectories. Based on ethnographic observation of brigades and interviews with families receiving care and with health personnel, carried out in 2016 in five different cities, we looked at the dynamics that shape the medical encounter and questioned the mechanisms (medical and social) through which it is evaluated and decided which families can access care in Bogota...
July 2018: Salud Colectiva
Zuliang Wang, Shiqi Huang, Linyan Fan, Ting Zhang, Libin Wang, Yufan Wang
Radio frequency identification (RFID) has recently experienced unprecedented development. Among many other areas, it has been widely applied in blood station management, automatic supermarket checkout, and logistics. In the application of RFID for large-scale passive tags, tag collision is inevitable owing to the non-cooperation mechanism among tags. Therefore, a tag anti-collision method is a key factor affecting the identification efficiency. In this paper, we propose a tag anti-collision method based on Aloha technology for RFID...
2018: PloS One
Bikram Shrestha, Joxerra Aihartza, Pavel Kindlmann
Visual attractiveness and rarity often results in large carnivores being adopted as flagship species for stimulating conservation awareness. Their hunting behaviour and prey selection can affect the population dynamics of their prey, which in turn affects the population dynamics of these large carnivores. Therefore, our understanding of their trophic ecology and foraging strategies is important for predicting their population dynamics and consequently for developing effective conservation programs. Here we concentrate on an endangered species of carnivores, the snow leopard, in the Himalayas...
2018: PloS One
G C Loh
The well-being of the ever-escalating world population hinges largely upon the adequacy of clean, fresh water. Desalination is one of the most promising approaches in such an endeavor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we take a close look at nanoporous hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets as desalination membranes, and study how C dopants affect their performance. The calculations predict that the desalination performance of C-doped BN membranes compares favorably to that of MoS2 membranes: the water flux through the 0% (0CB -0CN ), 25% (3CB -0CN ), 75% (3CB -6CN ), and 100% C terminated BN membrane (6CB -6CN ) is 29...
February 1, 2019: Nanotechnology
Kelly A Jeans, Lori A Karol, Ashley L Erdman, Wilshaw R Stevens
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess function, at the age of 10 years, of children initially treated nonoperatively for clubfoot with either the Ponseti or French physiotherapy program and to compare outcomes in feet that had undergone only nonoperative treatment with those that required subsequent surgery. METHODS: Gait analysis, isokinetic ankle strength, parent-reported outcomes, and daily step activity data were collected when patients who had been treated for idiopathic clubfoot reached the age of 10 years...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Beau Kelly, James E Squires, Brian Feingold, David K Hooper, George V Mazariegos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric transplantation faces unique challenges in implementing dynamic quality improvement measures because of proportionally smaller volumes compared to adults, logistics of being integrated successfully within larger or complex hospital systems, lack of adult-affiliated transplant centers, varying focus in prioritization of relevant outcome metrics, and potential lack of sufficient resources. RECENT FINDINGS: To address these challenges, multiinstitutional collaborations have developed which have proven increasingly effective in driving awareness and quality improvement measures to supplement regulatory efforts in the pediatric population...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Heather L Storer, Maria Rodriguez, Roxanne Franklin
One of the most frequent refrains heard in the public discourse on intimate partner violence (IPV) is why do they stay? The literature has demonstrated that IPV victims face multiple barriers to safely exiting their relationships. Currently, there has been a limited examination of the role social media can play in elucidating the lived experience of IPV. With 25% of the population using Twitter, there are opportunities to examine its utility for deepening understandings of IPV. Using data generated from the #WhyIStayed Twitter campaign, the purpose of this study is to examine Twitter users' reasons for staying in their abusive relationships...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Richard Neptune, Arian Vistamehr
Walking can be exceedingly complex to analyze due to highly nonlinear multi-body dynamics, nonlinear relationships between muscle excitations and resulting muscle forces, dynamic coupling that allows muscles to accelerate joints and segments they do not span, and redundant muscle control. Walking requires the successful execution of a number of biomechanical functions such as providing body support, forward propulsion and balance control, with specific muscle groups contributing to their execution. Thus, muscle injury or neurological impairment that affects muscle output can alter the successful execution of these functions and impair walking performance...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Jeffery A McGarvey, Thao Tran, Ruyang Han, Robert Hnasko, Patrick Brown
AIMS: To describe the effects of foliar fertilizer application on the bacterial populations of almond tree leaves. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied a commercially available foliar fertilizer or a water control onto the leaves of almond trees and collected leaves after 1, 7, 14 and 56 days and examined their bacterial populations by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. After 1 day, we observed significant differences in 3 of the 4 predominant bacterial phyla, and 5 of the 13 predominant bacterial families...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jason L Strickland, Cara F Smith, Andrew J Mason, Drew R Schield, Miguel Borja, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Carol L Spencer, Lydia L Smith, Ann Trápaga, Nassima M Bouzid, Gustavo Campillo-García, Oscar A Flores-Villela, Daniel Antonio-Rangel, Stephen P Mackessy, Todd A Castoe, Darin R Rokyta, Christopher L Parkinson
Snake venoms represent an enriched system for investigating the evolutionary processes that lead to complex and dynamic trophic adaptations. It has long been hypothesized that natural selection may drive geographic variation in venom composition, yet previous studies have lacked the population genetic context to examine these patterns. We leverage range-wide sampling of Mojave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) and use a combination of venom, morphological, phylogenetic, population genetic, and environmental data to characterize the striking dichotomy of neurotoxic (Type A) and hemorrhagic (Type B) venoms throughout the range of this species...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wendy K Jo, Jochen Kruppa, Andre Habierski, Marco van de Bildt, Sandro Mazzariol, Giovanni Di Guardo, Ursula Siebert, Thijs Kuiken, Klaus Jung, Albert Osterhaus, Martin Ludlow
Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has emerged as the pathogen that poses the greatest risk of triggering epizootics in cetacean populations worldwide, and has a high propensity for interspecies transmission, including sporadic infection of seals. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary history of CeMV by deep sequencing wild-type viruses from tissue samples representing cetacean species with different spatiotemporal origins. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis generated an estimated evolutionary rate of 2...
December 5, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Elin Karlsson, Eva Andersson, Jakob Dogan, Stefano Gianni, Per Jemth, Carlo Camilloni
Many intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) attain a well-defined structure in a coupled folding and binding reaction with another protein. Such reactions may involve early to late formation of different native structural regions along the reaction pathway. To obtain insights into the transition state for a coupled binding and folding reaction, we performed restrained molecular dynamics simulations using previously determined experimental binding Φb values of the interaction between two IDP domains, the activation domain from the p160 transcriptional co-activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) and the nuclear co-activator binding domain (NCBD) of CREB-binding protein, each forming three well-defined α-helices upon binding...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shankar Lalitha Sridhar, Joseph K E Ortega, Franck J Vernerey
Expansive growth is a process by which walled cells of plants, algae, and fungi use turgor pressure to mediate irreversible wall deformation and regulate their shape and volume. The molecular structure of the primary cell wall must therefore perform multiple functions simultaneously, including providing structural support by combining elastic and irreversible deformation and facilitating the deposition of new material during growth. This is accomplished by a network of microfibrils and tethers composed of complex polysaccharides and proteins that can dynamically mediate the network topology via periodic detachment and reattachment events...
November 17, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Caroline Millins, Eleanor R Dickinson, Petra Isakovic, Lucy Gilbert, Agnieszka Wojciechowska, Victoria Paterson, Feng Tao, Martin Jahn, Elizabeth Kilbride, Richard Birtles, Paul Johnson, Roman Biek
BACKGROUND: Landscape structure can affect pathogen prevalence and persistence with consequences for human and animal health. Few studies have examined how reservoir host species traits may interact with landscape structure to alter pathogen communities and dynamics. Using a landscape of islands and mainland sites we investigated how natural landscape fragmentation affects the prevalence and persistence of the zoonotic tick-borne pathogen complex Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis...
December 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Laura Pryor, Katrine Strandberg-Larsen, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Naja Hulvej Rod, Maria Melchior
Children exposed to socioeconomic adversity have elevated levels of psychological difficulties immediately and long-term. However, few studies have examined the consequences of long-term patterns of dynamic trajectories of family income. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) is a longitudinal, population-based birth cohort study (1996-2002). Data on household poverty from the year before birth until the child was 10 years of age (n = 12 measures) were obtained from the National Danish Registries and modeled using semiparametric group-based modeling...
November 22, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Xiao-Long Jiang, Elliot M Gardner, Hong-Hu Meng, Min Deng, Gang-Biao Xu
The South China Mainland (SCM) and its adjacent continental islands are a global biodiversity hotspot. However, how and when plants dispersed between SCM and Hainan/Taiwan Islands remains largely unknown. In this study, we used restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) to identify the demographic dynamics and local adaptation of Quercus championii, a dominant forests tree distributed in SCM and Hainan/Taiwan Islands. Through phylogenetic reconstruction, principal components analysis (PCA) and structure analysis, we identified four distinct Q...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Martyna Lukoseviciute, Daria Gavriouchkina, Ruth M Williams, Tatiana Hochgreb-Hagele, Upeka Senanayake, Vanessa Chong-Morrison, Supat Thongjuea, Emmanouela Repapi, Adam Mead, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler
The neural crest (NC) is a transient embryonic stem cell-like population characterized by its multipotency and broad developmental potential. Here, we perform NC-specific transcriptional and epigenomic profiling of foxd3-mutant cells in vivo to define the gene regulatory circuits controlling NC specification. Together with global binding analysis obtained by foxd3 biotin-ChIP and single cell profiles of foxd3-expressing premigratory NC, our analysis shows that, during early steps of NC formation, foxd3 acts globally as a pioneer factor to prime the onset of genes regulating NC specification and migration by re-arranging the chromatin landscape, opening cis-regulatory elements and reshuffling nucleosomes...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Cell
Elizabeth R Stevens, Qinlian Zhou, Kimberly A Nucifora, Glen B Taksler, Marc N Gourevitch, Matthew C Stiefel, Patricia Kipnis, R Scott Braithwaite
In integrated health care systems, techniques that identify successes and opportunities for targeted improvement are needed. The authors propose a new method for estimating population health that provides a more accurate and dynamic assessment of performance and priority setting. Member data from a large integrated health system (n = 96,246, 73.8% female, mean age = 44 ± 0.01 years) were used to develop a mechanistic mathematical simulation, representing the top causes of US mortality in 2014 and their associated risk factors...
December 4, 2018: Population Health Management
Simon T Bond, Sarah C Moody, Yingying Liu, Mete Civelek, Claudio J Villanueva, Paul Gregorevic, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Andrea L Hevener, Aldons J Lusis, Darren C Henstridge, Anna C Calkin, Brian G Drew
Mitochondrial dynamics refers to the constant remodelling of mitochondrial populations by multiple cellular pathways which help maintain mitochondrial health and function. Disruptions to mitochondrial dynamics often leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is frequently associated with disease in rodents and humans. Consistent with this, obesity is associated with reduced mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue, partly via alterations in mitochondrial dynamics. Several proteins are known to regulate mitochondrial dynamics including the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5; however, the role of these proteins in adipocytes has been poorly studied...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Suresh Joshi, Santosh Jatrana, Yin Paradies
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Earlier research evidence suggests that there is a difference and over time change in the prevalence of tobacco smoking between immigrants and native-born population. This study investigates the differences in smoking among immigrants from English speaking (ESC) and non-English speaking (NESC) countries relative to native-born (NB) Australians, and how those differences change with duration of residence (DoR) and age at arrival (AA). METHODS: Information on 12 634 individuals from the first twelve waves (2001-2012) of Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) longitudinal survey was analysed using multilevel group-mean-centred mixed logistic regression models...
December 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
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