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nest predation

Jere Tolvanen, Janne-Tuomas Seppänen, Mikko Mönkkönen, Robert L Thomson, Hannu Ylönen, Jukka T Forsman
BACKGROUND: Breeding site choice constitutes an important part of the species niche. Nest predation affects breeding site choice, and has been suggested to drive niche segregation and local coexistence of species. Interspecific social information use may, in turn, result in copying or rejection of heterospecific niche characteristics and thus affect realized niche overlap between species. We tested experimentally whether a migratory bird, the pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, collects information about nest predation risk from indirect cues of predators visiting nests of heterospecific birds...
December 4, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Robert Heinsohn, George Olah, Matthew Webb, Rod Peakall, Dejan Stojanovic
Sex-biased mortality can lead to altered adult sex ratios (ASRs), which may in turn lead to harassment and lower fitness of the rarer sex and changes in the mating system. Female critically endangered swift parrots (Lathamus discolor) suffer high predation while nesting due to an introduced mammalian predator, the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps). High predation on females is causing severe population decline alongside strongly biased adult sex ratios (≥73% male). Our 6-year study showed that 50.5% of critically endangered swift parrot nests had shared paternity although the birds remained socially monogamous...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Mack W Frantz, Petra B Wood, George T Merovich
We related Louisiana Waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla) demographic response and nest survival to benthic macroinvertebrate aquatic prey and to shale gas development parameters using models that accounted for both spatial and non-spatial sources of variability in a Central Appalachian USA watershed. In 2013, aquatic prey density and pollution intolerant genera (i.e., pollution tolerance value <4) decreased statistically with increased waterthrush territory length but not in 2014 when territory densities were lower...
2018: PloS One
Konrad Leniowski, Ewa Węgrzyn
Because parental care is costly, conflict between mates over their roles in reproduction seems unavoidable unless they both benefit from parental labour split equally between partners. In the current paper we analyse the division of parental investment in the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), a species that experiences high nest predation. We show that both sexes invest in the incubation of eggs as well as feeding and brooding nestlings at a similar level. We also found that pairs which divided feeding duties more equally produced nestlings that grew faster...
2018: PloS One
Liam Dowling, Frances Bonier
Flight initiation distance (FID)-the distance at which an individual leaves in response to the approach of a perceived threat-provides a measurement of risk-taking behavior. If individuals optimize their FID, this distance should reflect the point at which the fitness resulting from leaving exceeds the fitness resulting from all other possible decisions. Previous theory of FID has often been aimed at explaining this behavior in foraging individuals. Yet flight initiation in response to approaching threats occurs in a range of contexts that might influence optimal behavior...
2018: PloS One
James J Roper, André M X Lima, Angélica M K Uejima
Food limitation may interact with nest predation and influence nesting patterns, such as breeding season length and renesting intervals. If so, reproductive effort should change with food availability. Thus, when food is limited, birds should have fewer attempts and shorter seasons than when food is not limiting. Here we experimentally test that increased food availability results in increased reproductive effort in a fragmented landscape in the Variable Antshrike ( Thamnophilus caerulescens ) in southern Brazil...
2018: PeerJ
Vojtěch Kubelka, Miroslav Šálek, Pavel Tomkovich, Zsolt Végvári, Robert P Freckleton, Tamás Székely
Ongoing climate change is thought to disrupt trophic relationships, with consequences for complex interspecific interactions, yet the effects of climate change on species interactions are poorly understood, and such effects have not been documented at a global scale. Using a single database of 38,191 nests from 237 populations, we found that shorebirds have experienced a worldwide increase in nest predation over the past 70 years. Historically, there existed a latitudinal gradient in nest predation, with the highest rates in the tropics; however, this pattern has been recently reversed in the Northern Hemisphere, most notably in the Arctic...
November 9, 2018: Science
T Parmentier, F De Laender, T Wenseleers, D Bonte
Indirect interactions occur when a species affects another species by altering the density (density-mediated interactions) or influencing traits (trait-mediated interactions) of a third species. We studied variation in these two types of indirect interactions in a network of red wood ants and symbiotic arthropods living in their nests. We tested whether the ant workers indirectly affected survival of a symbiotic prey species (Cyphoderus albinus) by changing the density and/or traits of three symbiotic predators, i...
December 2018: Oecologia
Sergio Osorio-Canadas, Xavier Arnan, Emili Bassols, Narcís Vicens, Jordi Bosch
Ecological communities are composed of species that interact with each other forming complex interaction networks. Although interaction networks have been usually treated as static entities, interactions show high levels of temporal variation, mainly due to temporal species turnover. Changes in taxonomic composition are likely to bring about changes in functional trait composition. Because functional traits influence the likelihood that two species interact, temporal changes in functional composition and structure may ultimately affect interaction network structure...
2018: PloS One
Anders Pape Møller, Mario Díaz
Human proximity often have negative consequences for wildlife. However, animals may also benefit from human proximity in terms of availability of resources and protection against predators and parasites. We recorded the distance between all birds detected during the breeding season along 18 5-km transects and the nearest inhabited house in three areas of 50 km2 in Spain, France, and Denmark. More than three quarters of birds were located closer than 100 m to the nearest house, while the null expectation was less than a third...
October 2018: Current Zoology
Arkadiusz Fröhlich, Michał Ciach
Noise, an obvious effect of urbanization, has a negative impact on animal vocalizations and the hunting efficiency of acoustic predators. However, the influence of noise pollution on the spatial distribution of populations remains understudied. The aim was to assess the factors shaping the distribution pattern of an acoustic predator (long-eared owl Asio otus ) in an urban-farmland matrix. We hypothesized that the probability of an acoustic predator occurring decreases with growing nocturnal noise emission...
October 2018: Current Zoology
Martin Stervander, Peter G Ryan, Martim Melo, Bengt Hansson
Rails (Aves: Rallidae) are renowned for their extreme dispersal capability, which has given rise to numerous island lineages. Many insular species lost the ability to fly as a response to release from predator pressure-a feature causing rapid extinction when humans subsequently introduced mammals. The world's smallest extant flightless bird, the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi, is endemic to Inaccessible Island, Tristan da Cunha archipelago, in the central South Atlantic Ocean. It is placed in a monotypic genus, but its taxonomic affinity, as well as geographic origin, are disputed...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Marcin Brzeziński, Piotr Chibowski, Joanna Gornia, Grzegorz Górecki, Andrzej Zalewski
Colonial breeding in birds provides protection from predators and may be particularly important when birds have to cope with an invasive predator. The probability of nest predation in a colony can vary depending on several factors, such as the nest's location in the colony and the level of aggregation of nests. We studied the nesting success of colonial great crested grebes and monitored the occurrence of the non-native invasive American mink in the colony. From among 92 grebe nests, 54.3% were successful. The daily survival rate (DSR) of grebe nests was positively affected by the increasing distance between the nest and lake shoreline, and negatively affected by the increasing distance between the nest and the five nearest grebe nests...
December 2018: Oecologia
John E Lattke, Thiago S R da Silva, Thibaut Delsinne
We report finding Strumigenys thaxteri Wheeler in the Amazonian foothills of southeastern Ecuador, over 2000 km to the west of previously known records for the species in Trinidad and Guyana. Field observations suggest it is a sit and wait ambush predator that captures insects that alight on the vegetation upon which they position themselves. Once prey is subdued they descend with it to ground level, where they presumably nest. Their massive mandibles, robust claws, dense body cover of long silky hairs, and sting may all contribute to detecting, trapping, and subduing larger sized, flying prey...
June 20, 2018: Zootaxa
M Cecilia Latham, Dean P Anderson, Grant Norbury, Catherine J Price, Peter B Banks, A David M Latham
Foraging mammalian predators face a myriad of odors from potential prey. To be efficient they must focus on rewarding odor while ignoring consistently unrewarding ones. This may be exploited as a non-lethal conservation tool if predators can be deceived into ignoring odors of vulnerable secondary prey. To explore critical design components and assess the potential gains to prey survival of this technique, we created an individual-based model that simulated the hunting behavior of three introduced mammalian predators on one of their secondary prey (a migratory shorebird) in the South Island of New Zealand...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Olivier Kaisin, Eva Gazagne, Tommaso Savini, Marie-Claude Huynen, Fany Brotcorne
Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is the prevalent cause of nest failure in the tropics, birds select nest sites within specific microhabitats and use different nest types to increase nesting success. Identifying the nests targeted by the northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina), an omnivorous cercopithecine species, and known nest predator, will shine light on nest foraging strategies in primates...
November 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Hyun-Ju Yoon, Eun-Jin Joo, Dong-Soo Ha, Hyung-Kyu Nam, Jongmin Yoon
Some seabirds commonly use artificially reclaimed lands, which are frequently located next to mainland environments, for breeding. Nest predation risk caused by birds or mammals from the mainland has negative influence on fitness-related costs and distribution of seabirds. Here, we sought to link potential factors, specifically those related to nest predation and nest environment, with breeding performance and colony movements of the Saunders's gull (Saundersilarus saundersi), a vulnerable species, on a large reclaimed area (1350 ha) in Incheon in Republic of Korea...
October 2018: Zoological Science
Paul A Smith, Darryl B Edwards
Nest predation is an important determinant of reproductive success and ground-nesting birds exhibit a variety of nest defence strategies to mitigate the risk. Many small-bodied, ground nesting birds rely on deceptive behaviours such as injury-feigning to reduce nest predation: we call this behaviour active deception. However, active deception may entail risks to adults, and passive deceptive behaviour, where individuals effectively sneak away from the nest by flushing at long distances, may be an alternative means of avoiding nest predation...
2018: PloS One
Peter J Kennedy, Scott M Ford, Juliette Poidatz, Denis Thiéry, Juliet L Osborne
Asian hornets ( Vespa velutina ) are voracious predators of bees, and are the latest emerging threat to managed and wild pollinator populations in Europe. To prevent establishment or reduce the rate of spread of V. velutina , early detection and destruction of nests is considered the only option. Detection is difficult as their nests are well hidden and flying hornets are difficult to follow over long distances. We address this challenge by tracking individual V. velutina workers flying back to their nests using radio telemetry for the first time, finding five previously undiscovered nests, up to 1...
2018: Communications biology
Ming Liu, Dustin R Rubenstein, Siew-Ann Cheong, Sheng-Feng Shen
Adaptive studies of avian clutch size variation across environmental gradients have resulted in what has become known as the fecundity gradient paradox, the observation that clutch size typically decreases with increasing breeding season length along latitudinal gradients, but increases with increasing breeding season length along elevational gradients. These puzzling findings challenge the common belief that organisms should reduce their clutch size in favor of additional nesting attempts as the length of the breeding season increases, an approach typically described as a bet-hedging strategy...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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