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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325966/seasonal-dynamics-in-a-cavity-nesting-bee-wasp-community-shifts-in-composition-functional-diversity-and-host-parasitoid-network-structure
#1
Sergio Osorio-Canadas, Xavier Arnan, Emili Bassols, Narcís Vicens, Jordi Bosch
Ecological communities are composed of species that interact with each other forming complex interaction networks. Although interaction networks have been usually treated as static entities, interactions show high levels of temporal variation, mainly due to temporal species turnover. Changes in taxonomic composition are likely to bring about changes in functional trait composition. Because functional traits influence the likelihood that two species interact, temporal changes in functional composition and structure may ultimately affect interaction network structure...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323841/avian-preference-for-close-proximity-to-human-habitation-and-its-ecological-consequences
#2
Anders Pape Møller, Mario Díaz
Human proximity often have negative consequences for wildlife. However, animals may also benefit from human proximity in terms of availability of resources and protection against predators and parasites. We recorded the distance between all birds detected during the breeding season along 18 5-km transects and the nearest inhabited house in three areas of 50 km2 in Spain, France, and Denmark. More than three quarters of birds were located closer than 100 m to the nearest house, while the null expectation was less than a third...
October 2018: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323836/noise-shapes-the-distribution-pattern-of-an-acoustic-predator
#3
Arkadiusz Fröhlich, Michał Ciach
Noise, an obvious effect of urbanization, has a negative impact on animal vocalizations and the hunting efficiency of acoustic predators. However, the influence of noise pollution on the spatial distribution of populations remains understudied. The aim was to assess the factors shaping the distribution pattern of an acoustic predator (long-eared owl Asio otus ) in an urban-farmland matrix. We hypothesized that the probability of an acoustic predator occurring decreases with growing nocturnal noise emission...
October 2018: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321695/the-origin-of-the-world-s-smallest-flightless-bird-the-inaccessible-island-rail-atlantisia-rogersi-aves-rallidae
#4
Martin Stervander, Peter G Ryan, Martim Melo, Bengt Hansson
Rails (Aves: Rallidae) are renowned for their extreme dispersal capability, which has given rise to numerous island lineages. Many insular species lost the ability to fly as a response to release from predator pressure-a feature causing rapid extinction when humans subsequently introduced mammals. The world's smallest extant flightless bird, the Inaccessible Island Rail Atlantisia rogersi, is endemic to Inaccessible Island, Tristan da Cunha archipelago, in the central South Atlantic Ocean. It is placed in a monotypic genus, but its taxonomic affinity, as well as geographic origin, are disputed...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317388/spatio-temporal-variation-in-nesting-success-of-colonial-waterbirds-under-the-impact-of-a-non-native-invasive-predator
#5
Marcin Brzeziński, Piotr Chibowski, Joanna Gornia, Grzegorz Górecki, Andrzej Zalewski
Colonial breeding in birds provides protection from predators and may be particularly important when birds have to cope with an invasive predator. The probability of nest predation in a colony can vary depending on several factors, such as the nest's location in the colony and the level of aggregation of nests. We studied the nesting success of colonial great crested grebes and monitored the occurrence of the non-native invasive American mink in the colony. From among 92 grebe nests, 54.3% were successful. The daily survival rate (DSR) of grebe nests was positively affected by the increasing distance between the nest and lake shoreline, and negatively affected by the increasing distance between the nest and the five nearest grebe nests...
October 13, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30313160/taxonomy-and-natural-history-of-strumigenys-thaxteri-wheeler-and-strumigenys-reticeps-kempf-hymenoptera-formicidae
#6
John E Lattke, Thiago S R da Silva, Thibaut Delsinne
We report finding Strumigenys thaxteri Wheeler in the Amazonian foothills of southeastern Ecuador, over 2000 km to the west of previously known records for the species in Trinidad and Guyana. Field observations suggest it is a sit and wait ambush predator that captures insects that alight on the vegetation upon which they position themselves. Once prey is subdued they descend with it to ground level, where they presumably nest. Their massive mandibles, robust claws, dense body cover of long silky hairs, and sting may all contribute to detecting, trapping, and subduing larger sized, flying prey...
June 20, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312506/modelling-habituation-of-introduced-predators-to-unrewarding-bird-odors-for-conservation-of-ground-nesting-shorebirds
#7
M Cecilia Latham, Dean P Anderson, Grant Norbury, Catherine J Price, Peter B Banks, A David M Latham
Foraging mammalian predators face a myriad of odors from potential prey. To be efficient they must focus on rewarding odor while ignoring consistently unrewarding ones. This may be exploited as a non-lethal conservation tool if predators can be deceived into ignoring odors of vulnerable secondary prey. To explore critical design components and assess the potential gains to prey survival of this technique, we created an individual-based model that simulated the hunting behavior of three introduced mammalian predators on one of their secondary prey (a migratory shorebird) in the South Island of New Zealand...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307634/foraging-strategies-underlying-bird-egg-predation-by-macaques-a-study-using-artificial-nests
#8
Olivier Kaisin, Eva Gazagne, Tommaso Savini, Marie-Claude Huynen, Fany Brotcorne
Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is the prevalent cause of nest failure in the tropics, birds select nest sites within specific microhabitats and use different nest types to increase nesting success. Identifying the nests targeted by the northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina), an omnivorous cercopithecine species, and known nest predator, will shine light on nest foraging strategies in primates...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298785/does-nest-predation-influence-colony-movements-of-saunders-s-gulls-saundersilarus-saundersi-in-a-reclaimed-land-area
#9
Hyun-Ju Yoon, Eun-Jin Joo, Dong-Soo Ha, Hyung-Kyu Nam, Jongmin Yoon
Some seabirds commonly use artificially reclaimed lands, which are frequently located next to mainland environments, for breeding. Nest predation risk caused by birds or mammals from the mainland has negative influence on fitness-related costs and distribution of seabirds. Here, we sought to link potential factors, specifically those related to nest predation and nest environment, with breeding performance and colony movements of the Saunders's gull (Saundersilarus saundersi), a vulnerable species, on a large reclaimed area (1350 ha) in Incheon in Republic of Korea...
October 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296281/deceptive-nest-defence-in-ground-nesting-birds-and-the-risk-of-intermediate-strategies
#10
Paul A Smith, Darryl B Edwards
Nest predation is an important determinant of reproductive success and ground-nesting birds exhibit a variety of nest defence strategies to mitigate the risk. Many small-bodied, ground nesting birds rely on deceptive behaviours such as injury-feigning to reduce nest predation: we call this behaviour active deception. However, active deception may entail risks to adults, and passive deceptive behaviour, where individuals effectively sneak away from the nest by flushing at long distances, may be an alternative means of avoiding nest predation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271969/searching-for-nests-of-the-invasive-asian-hornet-vespa-velutina-using-radio-telemetry
#11
Peter J Kennedy, Scott M Ford, Juliette Poidatz, Denis Thiéry, Juliet L Osborne
Asian hornets ( Vespa velutina ) are voracious predators of bees, and are the latest emerging threat to managed and wild pollinator populations in Europe. To prevent establishment or reduce the rate of spread of V. velutina , early detection and destruction of nests is considered the only option. Detection is difficult as their nests are well hidden and flying hornets are difficult to follow over long distances. We address this challenge by tracking individual V. velutina workers flying back to their nests using radio telemetry for the first time, finding five previously undiscovered nests, up to 1...
2018: Communications biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271547/multitasking-and-the-evolution-of-optimal-clutch-size-in-fluctuating-environments
#12
Ming Liu, Dustin R Rubenstein, Siew-Ann Cheong, Sheng-Feng Shen
Adaptive studies of avian clutch size variation across environmental gradients have resulted in what has become known as the fecundity gradient paradox, the observation that clutch size typically decreases with increasing breeding season length along latitudinal gradients, but increases with increasing breeding season length along elevational gradients. These puzzling findings challenge the common belief that organisms should reduce their clutch size in favor of additional nesting attempts as the length of the breeding season increases, an approach typically described as a bet-hedging strategy...
September 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256668/invasion-success-and-management-strategies-for-social-vespula-wasps
#13
Philip J Lester, Jacqueline R Beggs
Three species of Vespula have become invasive in Australia, Hawai'i, New Zealand, and North and South America and continue to spread. These social wasp species can achieve high nest densities, and their behavioral plasticity has led to substantial impacts on recipient communities. Ecologically, they affect all trophic levels, restructuring communities and altering resource flows. Economically, their main negative effect is associated with pollination and the apicultural industry. Climate change is likely to exacerbate their impacts in many regions...
September 26, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235621/bird-population-changes-reconstructed-from-isotopic-signals-of-peat-developed-in-a-nutrient-enriched-tundra
#14
Michał Gąsiorowski, Elwira Sienkiewicz
Five peat sequences were studied to identify the time the little auk Alle alle colonies originated in the Hornsund area (Spitsbergen). Elemental and stable isotope analysis of nitrogen and carbon was applied as markers for bird activity. The peat sequences were dated with 210 Pb and radiocarbon methods. The results showed that peat development related to seabird activity is significantly older (at least 300 years old) in localities closer to the fjord's mouth (west) than those located deeper in the fjord (east), which are ~100 years old...
January 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231070/wild-great-and-blue-tits-do-not-avoid-chemical-cues-of-predators-when-selecting-cavities-for-roosting
#15
Luisa Amo, Gustavo Tomás, Irene Saavedra, Marcel E Visser
Small birds use cavities for roosting to decrease the thermoregulatory costs during the winter nights. The ability of birds to detect and escape from an approaching predator is impaired during roosting and thus the selection of such cavities should take into account the risk that a predator will find the cavity. Previous evidence suggested that birds in captivity are able to detect predator scent and avoid roosting in nest-boxes containing such predator chemical cues. Here, we tested whether birds also show this avoidance response under natural conditions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30225806/searching-images-and-the-meaning-of-alarm-calls
#16
Alan B Bond
The snake alarm call of Japanese tits prompts nesting adults to search for and mob the reptile until it is driven away. From playback experiments, Suzuki (2018) has inferred that the call provides an associative cue, evoking a searching image of the salient visual features of the predator-a novel approach to exploring visual attention and vocal communication in the wild.
September 17, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30214133/organization-enhances-collective-vigilance-in-the-hovering-guards-of-tetragonisca-angustula-bees
#17
Kyle Shackleton, Denise A Alves, Francis L W Ratnieks
One benefit of group living is vigilance against predators. Previous studies have investigated the group size effect, where individual vigilance decreases as group size increases without reducing the overall ability of the group to detect predators. However, there has been comparatively little research on whether the positioning of individuals can improve the collective vigilance of the group. We studied the coordination of vigilance and its effect on predator detection in the eusocial bee Tetragonisca angustula ...
September 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192387/evolution-of-parental-activity-at-the-nest-is-shaped-by-the-risk-of-nest-predation-and-ambient-temperature-across-bird-species
#18
Beata Matysioková, Vladimír Remeš
Incubation is an important component of parental care in birds, and species differ widely in their incubation rhythm. In this comparative study, we focused on factors responsible for those differences. As hypothesized by A. Skutch, increased parental activity at the nest increases the probability of nest depredation. High risk of nest predation should therefore lead to the evolution of lower frequency of parental activity at the nest. We thus expected to find a negative relationship between frequency of nest visits and the risk of nest depredation...
September 7, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187943/infant-nest-and-stash-sites-of-variegated-lemurs-varecia-rubra-the-extended-phenotype
#19
Natalie Vasey, Monica Mogilewsky, George E Schatz
Very few primate species give birth to litters and build nests in which to care for them. Those that do are small-bodied, nocturnal, and solitary. Variegated lemurs are exceptional in that they bear litters in arboreal nests, yet are relatively large-bodied, day-active, and gregarious. Furthermore, they raise their young cooperatively and practice absentee parenting; non-clinging young are transported orally and periodically stashed in arboreal spots that are supportive, sheltered, and usually concealed. Following birth, infant nest and stash trees were mapped, measured, and taxonomically identified in a population of red variegated lemurs in Masoala National Park...
September 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151173/activity-rhythm-and-action-range-of-workers-of-the-invasive-hornet-predator-of-honeybees-vespa-velutina-measured-by-radio-frequency-identification-tags
#20
Juliette Poidatz, Karine Monceau, Olivier Bonnard, Denis Thiéry
In social insects, the activity rhythm of foragers and their action range determinate the activity of the colony. In vespids, which are mostly predators, the foraging range of workers determines their maximum predation pressure round the nest. One of these species, Vespa velutina , a recently invasive species introduced into Europe, exerts a strong predation on honeybees at the hive. Therefore, the definition of its activity rhythm and spatial range of predation is of primary importance. Using radio frequency identification tags (RFID), two experiments were carried out to (a) determine their return ability (called homing) in releasing 318 individuals at different distance from their colony and (b) monitor their foraging activity rhythm and the duration of their flights based on 71 individuals followed 24 hr/24 during 2 months...
August 2018: Ecology and Evolution
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