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Imaging epilepsy

Yuto Suzuki, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the function and networks of the auditory cortices in the posterior lateral superior temporal area (PLST) using a combination of electrical cortical stimulation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS: Seven patients with intractable focal epilepsy in which the PLST auditory cortices were identified during the electrical cortical stimulation were enrolled in this study (left side: four patients, right side: three patients)...
August 1, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yanfeng Yang, Haixiang Wang, Wenjing Zhou, Tianyi Qian, Wei Sun, Guoguang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Seizures arising from the precuneus are rare, and few studies have aimed at characterizing the clinical presentation of such seizures within the anatomic context of the frontoparietal circuits. We aimed to characterize the electrophysiological properties and clinical features of seizures arising from the precuneus based on data from stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG). METHODS: The present retrospective study included 10 patients with medically intractable epilepsy, all of whom were diagnosed with precuneal epilepsy via stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) at Yuquan Hospital and Xuan Wu Hospital between 2014 and 2016...
August 13, 2018: BMC Neurology
Rob Powell, Robert Elwes, Khalid Hamandi, Nandini Mullatti
The cingulate gyrus is located above the corpus callosum and forms part of the limbic system. Cingulate gyrus epilepsy poses a diagnostic challenge, given its diverse and variable seizure semiology. We present two patients with seizures arising in the cingulate gyrus that highlight the electroclinical and imaging features of this rare form of epilepsy. Cingulate seizures can give a wide range of clinical manifestations, which relate to the underlying neuroanatomy and subdivisions of the cingulate cortex. Here, we review the semiology of cingulate epilepsy and how this relates to the location of seizure onset and patterns of propagation...
August 12, 2018: Practical Neurology
Uğur Berber, Mehmet Akif Özdemir, Ekrem Unal, Serpil Taheri, Serkan Yildiz, Keziban Korkmaz Bayramov, Yunus Güler, Hüseyin Per
Intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency is a serious disease that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and mental retardation. Our goal in this study is to determine the frequency of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism in patients who have undergone intracranial hemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB). To study VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism, blood was drawn from patients (n = 51, age 8:0 ± 6:5 years) followed at the Pediatric Neurology and Hematology section, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, between 1990 and 2016, diagnosed with VKDB as idiopathic or from patients diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhage due to secondary vitamin K deficiency and also from volunteers (n = 51, age 11 ± 4...
August 13, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Brent Munsell, Sonal Bhatia, William A Vandergrift, Chris Rorden, Carrie McDonald, Jonathan Edwards, Ruben Kuzniecky, Leonardo Bonilha
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether deep learning applied to whole-brain presurgical structural connectomes could be used to predict postoperative seizure outcome more accurately than inference from clinical variables in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: Fifty patients with unilateral TLE were classified either as having persistent disabling seizures (SZ) or becoming seizure-free (SZF) at least 1 year after epilepsy surgery. Their presurgical structural connectomes were reconstructed from whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging...
August 10, 2018: Epilepsia
Jay S Hanas, James R Hocker, Govindan Ramajayam, Vasudevan Prabhakaran, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Anna Oommen, Josephine J Manoj, Michael P Anderson, Douglas A Drevets, Hélène Carabin
Neurocysticercosis is associated with epilepsy in pig-raising communities with poor sanitation. Current internationally recognized diagnostic guidelines for neurocysticercosis rely on brain imaging, a technology that is frequently not available or not accessible in areas endemic for neurocysticercosis. Minimally invasive and low-cost aids for diagnosing neurocysticercosis epilepsy could improve treatment of neurocysticercosis. The goal of this study was to test the extent to which patients with neurocysticercosis epilepsy, epilepsy of unknown etiology, idiopathic headaches and among different types of neurocysticercosis lesions could be distinguished from each other based on serum mass profiling...
August 7, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jennifer A Ogren, Raghav Tripathi, Paul M Macey, Rajesh Kumar, John M Stern, Dawn S Eliashiv, Luke A Allen, Beate Diehl, Jerome Engel, M R Sandhya Rani, Samden D Lhatoo, Ronald M Harper
Objective: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are accompanied by cardiovascular and respiratory sequelae that threaten survival. The frequency of these seizures is a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), a leading cause of untimely death in epilepsy. The circumstances accompanying such fatal events suggest a cardiovascular or respiratory failure induced by unknown neural processes rather than an inherent cardiac or lung deficiency. Certain cortical regions, especially the insular, cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices, are key structures that integrate sensory input and influence diencephalic and brainstem regions regulating blood pressure, cardiac rhythm, and respiration; output from those cortical regions compromised by epilepsy-associated injury may lead to cardiorespiratory dysregulation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Bahar Khorram, Mehran Yazdi
Image segmentation is considered as one of the most fundamental tasks in image processing applications. Segmentation of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images is also an important pre-processing step, since many neural disorders are associated with brain's volume changes. As a result, brain image segmentation can be considered as an essential measure toward automated diagnosis or interpretation of regions of interest, which can help surgical planning, analyzing changes of brain's volume in different tissue types, and identifying neural disorders...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Byung-Chul Son, Young-Min Shon, Seong Hoon Kim, Jiyeon Kim, Hak-Cheol Ko, Jin-Gyu Choi
Background and Purpose: Implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) or the centromedian nucleus (CM), for the treatment of refractory epilepsy, is technically demanding. To enhance the accuracy of electrode placement within the ANT and CM, we analyzed our experience with electrode revision surgery in ANT and CM DBS and investigated the cause of misplacement and verifying methods for accurate placement. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of 23 patients who underwent DBS for refractory epilepsy during the period from 2013 to 2016 was performed...
June 2018: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Sangjoon Chong, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Seung-Ki Kim
Lesional mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) concerns a lesion other than mesial hippocampal sclerosis present in the mesial temporal lobe and causing seizures. The lesions are usually composed of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) or are tumorous. These are good candidates for surgical treatment. Sometimes, it is difficult to distinguish between tumors and FCD and to determine the extent of required removal. 11 C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) is helpful in differentiating lesions before surgery in lesional mTLE...
June 2018: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Jason Coryell, William D Gaillard, Renée A Shellhaas, Zachary M Grinspan, Elaine C Wirrell, Kelly G Knupp, Courtney J Wusthoff, Cynthia Keator, Joseph E Sullivan, Tobias Loddenkemper, Anup Patel, Catherine J Chu, Shavonne Massey, Edward J Novotny, Russel P Saneto, Anne T Berg
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the adherence to neuroimaging guidelines and the diagnostically relevant yield of neuroimaging in newly presenting early life epilepsy (ELE). METHODS: There were 775 children with a new diagnosis of epilepsy (<3 years old at onset) who were recruited through the ELE study at 17 US pediatric epilepsy centers (2012-2015) and managed prospectively for 1 year. The data were analyzed to assess the proportion of children who underwent neuroimaging, the type of neuroimaging, and abnormalities...
August 8, 2018: Pediatrics
Yuji Hamamoto, Daisuke Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Yu, Rikako Asada, Shunta Mizoguchi, Takayuki Kuwabara, Masae Wada, Aki Fujiwara-Igarashi, Michio Fujita
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on high resolution three-dimensional data of magnetic resonance imaging has been developed as a statistical morphometric imaging analysis method to locate brain abnormalities in humans. Recently, VBM has been used for human patients with psychological or neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Traditional volumetry using region of interest (ROI) is performed manually and the observer needs detailed knowledge of the neuroanatomy having to trace objects of interest on many slices which can cause artificial errors...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Brian L Anderson, Michael Sather, Jennifer Baccon, Krishnamoorthy Thamburaj
Intracranial lipomas represent approximately 1% of intracranial lesions generally felt to represent the abnormal persistence of the meninx primitiva and are commonly accompanied by various developmental brain abnormalities. We report a case of midline intracranial lipoma and evolving frontal lobe fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) abnormality concerning for glial neoplasm in a patient with intractable epilepsy. Our case shows evolving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features over two decades raising suspicion for low-grade neoplasm which was ultimately found to represent cortical dysplasia...
June 1, 2018: Curēus
Cynthia X He, Erica D Arroyo, Daniel A Cantu, Anubhuti Goel, Carlos Portera-Cailliau
The first three postnatal weeks in rodents are a time when sensory experience drives the maturation of brain circuits, an important process that is not yet well understood. Alterations in this critical period of experience-dependent circuit assembly and plasticity contribute to several neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Therefore, techniques for recording network activity and tracing neuronal connectivity over this time period are necessary for delineating circuit refinement in typical development and how it deviates in disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sara Lariviere, Reinder Vos de Wael, Casey Paquola, Seok-Jun Hong, Bratislav Misic, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Leonardo Bonilha, Boris Bernhardt
Rapid advances in neuroimaging and network science have produced powerful tools and measures to appreciate human brain organization at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It is now possible to obtain increasingly meaningful representations of whole-brain structural and functional brain networks and to formally assess macroscale principles of network topology. In addition to its utility in characterizing healthy brain organization, individual variability, and lifespan-related changes, there is high promise of network neuroscience for the conceptualization, and ultimately, management of brain disorders...
August 5, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Yuki Amano, Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Hideo Enoki
PURPOSE: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a leading cause of epilepsy, with seizures affecting almost 80-90% of children. We used the concordance between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) findings to detect epileptic focus in a patient with TSC. METHODS: A 9-year-old boy with TSC exhibited daily choking spells. As we could not detect the seizure onset area with conventional scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and long-term video monitoring, we performed dEEG and captured his regular seizures...
August 1, 2018: Brain & Development
Ahmad Marashly, Michelle M Loman, Sean M Lew
Stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) is being increasingly used to treat refractory focal epilepsy, especially mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. However, emerging evidence suggests it can be used for extratemporal lobe epilepsy as well. The authors report the case of a 17-year-old male who presented with refractory nocturnal seizures characterized by bilateral arms stiffening or rhythmic jerking lasting several seconds. Semiology suggested an epileptogenic zone close to one of the supplementary sensory motor areas...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Yin Jiang, Chun-Lei Han, Huan-Guang Liu, Xiu Wang, Xin Zhang, Fan-Gang Meng, Jian-Guo Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Although abnormal hippocampal structure and impaired spatial memory have been revealed in a pilocarpine rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the brain functional network changes are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of brain functional connectivity related to the hippocampus and the associated memory impairment in a pilocarpine model of TLE. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging signals were recorded in pilocarpine-treated rats and controls by using a 7...
August 2, 2018: Epilepsia
Kwan Seob Park, Jun Geun Shin, Muhammad Mohsin Qureshi, Euiheon Chung, Tae Joong Eom
The hippocampus is associated with memory and navigation, and the rodent hippocampus provides a useful model system for studying neurophysiology such as neural plasticity. Vascular changes at this site are closely related to brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and epilepsy. Vascular imaging around the hippocampus in mice may help to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying these diseases. Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is an emerging technology that can provide label-free blood flow information...
August 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Usman G Khan, Matthias H Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
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