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Imaging epilepsy

Hafiz Khuram Raza, Hao Chen, Thitsavanh Chansysouphanthong, Zuohui Zhang, Fang Hua, Xinchun Ye, Wei Zhang, Liguo Dong, Shenyang Zhang, Xiaopeng Wang, Guiyun Cui
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and imaging features of gray matter heterotopia (GMH) and improve the clinicians' understanding of the disease. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with GMH diagnosed at The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from November 2014 to November 2016. Their clinical and imaging features are also summarized. RESULTS: The proportion of male and female patients was 2:1. The age of onset was 2~45 years and the average age was 19...
December 10, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Roberto H Caraballo, Santiago Chacón, Lorena Fasulo, Claudio Bedoya
Absence status epilepticus (ASE) is a prolonged generalized absence seizure that usually lasts for hours and can even last for days. The main symptom is the altered content of consciousness while the patient may be alert and partly responsive. We describe the electroclinical features, treatment, and evolution of three paediatric patients with de novo ASE with an excellent response to valproic acid (VPA). Three paediatric patients presented with non-convulsive status epilepticus and an acute confusional state with impaired consciousness and EEG abnormalities compatible with typical ASE, associated with generalized spike-and-wave paroxysms at 2...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Michalis Koutroumanidis, Elisa Bruno
The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure is influenced by certain risk factors. To understand their effect in people with early diagnosed new epilepsy, we assessed the risk of recurrence of focal to bilateral tonic-clonic or generalized tonic-clonic seizures and the associated factors in a clinically well-characterized cohort of adults with a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure. We prospectively studied 150 consecutive adults with a first unprovoked tonic-clonic seizure and full clinical, EEG, and brain imaging assessment within the first four weeks...
December 10, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Ji Zhou, Xiaopeng Lu, Yao Zhang, Taoyun Ji, Yiwen Jin, Min Xu, Xinhua Bao, Yuehua Zhang, Hui Xiong, Xingzhi Chang, Yuwu Jiang, Ye Wu
BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported clinical features of relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination principally in Caucasians children. It is not clear whether Chinese children share the same phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the clinical characteristics in Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination. METHODS: A follow-up study on 23 Children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination from two Chinese tertiary hospitals was performed...
December 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Silke Klamer, Thomas Ethofer, Franziska Torner, Ashish Kaul Sahib, Adham Elshahabi, Justus Marquetand, Pascal Martin, Holger Lerche, Michael Erb, Niels K Focke
Objective: Genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs) are characterized by generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWDs) in electroencephalography (EEG) recordings without underlying structural brain lesions. The origin of the epileptic activity remains unclear, although several studies have reported involvement of thalamus and default mode network (DMN). The aim of the current study was to investigate the networks involved in the generation and temporal evolution of GSWDs to elucidate the origin and propagation of the underlying generalized epileptic activity...
December 2018: Epilepsia Open
Jose Eduardo Peixoto-Santos, Luciana Estefani Drumond de Carvalho, Ludmyla Kandratavicius, Paula Rejane Beserra Diniz, Renata Caldo Scandiuzzi, Roland Coras, Ingmar Blümcke, Joao Alberto Assirati, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Caio Cesar Marconato Simoes Matias, Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Antonio Carlos Dos Santos, Tonicarlo R Velasco, Marcio Flavio D Moraes, Joao Pereira Leite
In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often reveals hippocampal atrophy, while neuropathological assessment indicates the different types of hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Different HS types are not discriminated in MRI so far. We aimed to define the volume of each hippocampal subfield on MRI manually and to compare automatic and manual segmentations for the discrimination of HS types. The T2-weighted images from 14 formalin-fixed age-matched control hippocampi were obtained with 4...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Roberta Morace, Sara Casciato, Pier Paolo Quarato, Addolorata Mascia, Alfredo D'Aniello, Liliana G Grammaldo, Marco De Risi, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Vincenzo Esposito
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report long-term seizure outcome in patients who underwent frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) surgery. METHOD: This retrospective study included 44 consecutive subjects who underwent resective surgery for intractable FLE at IRCCS NEUROMED (period 2001-2014), followed up for at least 2 years (mean: 8.7 years). All patients underwent noninvasive presurgical evaluation and/or invasive electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring when nonconcordant data were obtained or epileptogenic zone was hypothesized to be close to the eloquent cortex...
December 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yanli Wang, Yanling Wang, Ran Sun, Xingrao Wu, Xu Chu, Shuhu Zhou, Xibin Hu, Lingyun Gao, Qingxia Kong
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and often refractory brain disease that is closely correlated with inflammation. Alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) is recognized as a surrogate marker for epilepsy, characterized by high uptake in the epileptic focus. There are many advantages of using the magnetic targeting drug delivery system of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to treat many diseases, including epilepsy. We hypothesized that AMT and an IL-1β monoclonal antibody (anti-IL-1β mAb) chelated to SPIONs would utilize the unique advantages of SPIONs and AMT to deliver the anti-IL-1β mAb across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as a targeted therapy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Aaron Dadas, Jolewis Washington, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Damir Janigro
Biomarkers can be broadly defined as qualitative or quantitative measurements that convey information on the physiopathological state of a subject at a certain time point or disease state. Biomarkers can indicate health, pathology, or response to treatment, including unwanted side effects. When used as outcomes in clinical trials, biomarkers act as surrogates or substitutes for clinically meaningful endpoints. Biomarkers of disease can be diagnostic (the identification of the nature and cause of a condition) or prognostic (predicting the likelihood of a person's survival or outcome of a disease)...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
John P Andrews, Abhijeet Gummadavelli, Pue Farooque, Jennifer Bonito, Christopher Arencibia, Hal Blumenfeld, Dennis D Spencer
Importance: Seizures recur in as many as half of patients who undergo surgery for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Understanding why TLE is resistant to surgery in some patients may reveal insights into epileptogenic networks and direct new therapies to improve outcomes. Objective: To characterize features of surgically refractory TLE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Medical records from a comprehensive epilepsy center were retrospectively reviewed for 131 patients who received a standard anteromedial temporal resection by a single surgeon from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2015...
December 3, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The psychological and psychiatric literature has seldom appreciated the clinical fact that fears of ghosts and kindred supernatural worries may be a cause of intense discomfort, poor sleep, and socio-occupational impairment. In the present article, this claim is illustrated by the clinical features of six patients who developed intense anxiety when they had to sleep alone at night. The fears were first noticed in childhood and persisted into adolescence and adulthood. At these times, they were overwhelmed by images of ghosts and haunted houses often experiencing a vivid impression that an immaterial being not perceivable by the ordinary senses was hovering around...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jitender Chaturvedi, Malla Bhaskara Rao, A Arivazhagan, Sanjib Sinha, Anita Mahadevan, M Ravindranadh Chowdary, K Raghavendra, A S Shreedhara, Nupur Pruthi, Jitender Saini, Rose Dawn Bharath, Jamuna Rajeswaran, P Satishchandra
Aim: Surgery for drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) often requires multiple non-invasive as well as invasive pre-surgical evaluations and innovative surgical strategies. There is limited data regarding surgical management of people with FCD as the underlying substrate for DRE among the low and middle-income countries (LAMIC) including India. Methodology: The presurgical evaluation, surgical strategy and outcome of 52 people who underwent resective surgery for DRE with FCD between January 2008 and December 2016 were analyzed...
November 2018: Neurology India
R Peyron, C Fauchon
In spite of systematic investigations, the existence of a specific cortex that could encode for the intensities of somatosensory stimuli, including within nociceptive ranges, is still a matter of debate. The present consensus is that pain is expressed in a distributed network made of thalamus, SII, insula, ACC, and, less consistently, SI. Here we argument that there must be an entrance to this network. The common denominator to every functional imaging study is that the subjects can distinguish between noxious and non-noxious stimuli, or between two different intensities of noxious stimuli...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Delphine Taussig, Mathilde Chipaux, Martine Fohlen, Nathalie Dorison, Olivier Bekaert, Sarah Ferrand-Sorbets, Georg Dorfmüller
Designed from the 60s to the 80s for adults, and despite the development of many new techniques, invasive explorations still have indications in children with focal drug-resistant epilepsy. The main types are stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) and subdural explorations (SDE). They provide precise information on the localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ), its relationships with eloquent cortex, and the feasibility of performing a tailored surgical resection. Thermocoagulations, which are a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, can be performed using SEEG electrodes...
November 16, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Koji Sakai, Kei Yamada
In the recent 5 years (2014-2018), there has been growing interest in the use of machine learning (ML) techniques to explore image diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic lesion changes within the area of neuroradiology. However, to date, the majority of research trend and current status have not been clearly illuminated in the neuroradiology field. More than 1000 papers have been published during the past 5 years on subject classification and prediction focused on multiple brain disorders. We provide a survey of 209 papers in this field with a focus on top ten active areas of research; i...
November 29, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Andrea Spyrantis, Adriano Cattani, Tirza Woebbecke, Jürgen Konczalla, Adam Strzelczyk, Felix Rosenow, Marlies Wagner, Volker Seifert, Manfred Kudernatsch, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: Precise robotic or stereotactic implantation of stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) electrodes relies on the exact referencing of the planning images in order to match the patient's anatomy to the stereotactic device or robot. We compared the accuracy of sEEG electrode implantation with stereotactic frame versus laser scanning of the face based on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets for referencing. METHODS: The accuracy was determined by calculating the Euclidian distance between the planned trajectory and the postoperative position of the sEEG electrode, defining the entry point error (EPE) and the target point error (TPE)...
November 26, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVERadiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC), which has been developed for drug-resistant epilepsy patients, involves less brain tissue loss due to surgery, fewer surgical adverse effects, and generally good seizure control. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of RFTC performed at limited hippocampal locations.METHODSDaily seizure diaries were prospectively maintained for at least 6 months by 9 patients (ages 30-59 years) with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) before treatment with RFTC...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
(no author information available yet)
ObjectiveDisconnection of the cerebral hemispheres by corpus callosotomy (CC) is an established means to palliate refractory generalized epilepsy. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is gaining acceptance as a minimally invasive approach to treating epilepsy, but this method has not been evaluated in clinical series using established methodologies to assess connectivity. The goal in this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of MRI-guided LITT for CC and to assess disconnection by using electrophysiology- and imaging-based methods...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Natalia Yakunina, Sam Soo Kim, Eui-Cheol Nam
OBJECTIVE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulation method used for treatment of epilepsy and depression. Transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) has been gaining popularity as a noninvasive alternative to VNS. Previous tVNS neuroimaging studies revealed brain (de)activation patterns that involved multiple areas implicated in tinnitus generation and perception. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to explore the effects of tVNS on brain activity in patients with tinnitus...
2018: PloS One
Claudine Sculier, Nicolas Gaspard
PURPOSE: To summarize the clinical features, suggested work-up, treatment and prognosis of new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE), a condition recently defined as the occurrence of refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in a patient without active epilepsy, and without a clear acute or active structural, toxic or metabolic cause; and of the related syndrome of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), also recently defined as a subgroup of NORSE preceded by a febrile illness between 2 weeks and 24 h prior to the onset of RSE...
September 29, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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