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Imaging epilepsy

Jong Hwa Shin, Eun Yeon Joo, Dae-Won Seo, Young-Min Shon, Seung Bong Hong, Seung-Chyul Hong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long-term postoperative outcomes and predictive factors associated with poor surgical outcomes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled patients with MTLE who underwent resective surgery at single university-affiliated hospital. Surgical outcomes were determined using a modified Engel classification at the 2nd and 5th years after surgery and the last time of follow-up. RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up after surgery was 7...
2018: PloS One
Wen-Han Hu, Li-Na Liu, Bao-Tian Zhao, Xiu Wang, Chao Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Shao, Kai Zhang, Yan-Shan Ma, Lin Ai, Jun-Ju Li, Jian-Guo Zhang
Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 FDG) are valuable tools for evaluating hippocampal sclerosis (HS); however, bias may arise during visual analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare MRI and PET post-processing techniques, automated quantitative hippocampal volume (Q-volume), and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) signal (Q-FLAIR) and glucose metabolism (Q-PET) analyses in patients with HS. Methods: We collected MRI and 18 FDG-PET images from 54 patients with HS and 22 healthy controls and independently performed conventional visual analyses (CVA) of PET (CVA-PET) and MRI (CVA-MRI) images...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
R Kotikalapudi, P Martin, J Marquetand, T Lindig, B Bender, N K Focke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Voxel-based morphometry is widely used for detecting gray matter abnormalities in epilepsy. However, its performance with changing parameters, smoothing and statistical threshold, is debatable. More important, the potential yield of combining multiple MR imaging contrasts (multispectral voxel-based morphometry) is still unclear. Our aim was to objectify smoothing and statistical cutoffs and systematically compare the performance of multispectral voxel-based morphometry with existing T1 voxel-based morphometry in patients with focal epilepsy and previously negative MRI...
October 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Li-Hao Li, Cong-Cong Ma, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ya-Jun Lian
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and electrographic characteristics of seizures in LGI1-antibody encephalitis. METHODS: The methods utilized in this study were prospective analysis of the clinical manifestations, types of seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG), adjuvant examination, treatment and prognosis of 19 cases of LGI1-antibody encephalitis diagnosed from January 2017 to February 2018 in First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, and reviewed related literatures...
October 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Laurie H Seaver, Steven DeRoos, Nicholas J Andersen, Brad Betz, Jeremy Prokop, Nick Lannen, Renee Jordan, Surender Rajasekaran
BACKGROUND: Infantile epileptic encephalopathy is a heterogeneous condition that has been associated with variants in more than 200 genes. The variability in findings and prognosis creates challenges to making the correct diagnosis and initiating the appropriate therapy. Biallelic variants in NARS2, a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene, were recently associated with neurodegenerative disorders that include epilepsy. METHODS: We describe two infant brothers who presented with focal status epilepticus that progressed to lethal epileptic encephalopathy...
August 4, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Adriana Czerwik, Marta Płonek, Przemyslaw Podgórski, Marcin Wrzosek
BACKGROUND: In humans, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), is a type of focal epilepsy occurring mainly in the mesial TLE (mTLE), commonly associated with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). OBJECTIVES: According to recent studies, TLE might also occur in dogs and could be associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA)/HS. To date, hippocampal lesions have not been correlated with electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in epileptic dogs. ANIMALS: An EEG examination, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and volumetric assessment of the hippocampus were performed in 16 nonepileptic and 41 epileptic dogs...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Siti Nurbaya Yaakub, Gareth J Barker, Sarah J Carr, Eugenio Abela, Michalis Koutroumanidis, Robert D C Elwes, Mark P Richardson
We investigated gray and white matter morphology in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE+HS) and first-degree asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we sought to replicate previously reported findings of structural surface abnormalities of the anterior temporal lobe in asymptomatic relatives of patients with mTLE+HS in an independent cohort. We performed whole-brain MRI in 19 patients with mTLE+HS, 14 first-degree asymptomatic relatives of mTLE+HS patients, and 32 healthy control participants...
October 15, 2018: Epilepsia
Riikka Immonen, Neil G Harris, David Wright, Leigh Johnston, Eppu Manninen, Gregory Smith, Afshin Paydar, Craig Branch, Olli Grohn
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a major neurodegenerative disease accounting for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy cases. A long latent phase offers a potential window for prophylactic treatment strategies to prevent epilepsy onset, provided that the patients at risk can be identified. Some promising imaging biomarker candidates for posttraumatic epileptogenesis have been identified, but more are required to provide the specificity and sensitivity for accurate prediction. Experimental models and preclinical longitudinal, multimodal imaging studies allow follow-up of complex cascade of events initiated by traumatic brain injury, as well as monitoring of treatment effects...
October 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
S Goldman, E El Darazi, C Mathey, R Muteganya
First clinical indications of positron emission tomography (PET) were in the fields of neurology and cardiology, but oncology is the domain in which PET got its recognition as an essential diagnostic tool. Its fast diffusion as an imaging method for diagnosis and follow-up of cancer has been facilitated by the existence of a single tracer for all kinds of oncological PET explorations. Nowadays, this tracer, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is so largely distributed that non oncological PET indications have emerged...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Arda Kucukguven, Mert Calis, Haluk Topaloglu, Figen Ozgur
Accompanying neurologic disorders directly affect psychosocial development of cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CLP) patients and make it difficult for their family to look after them properly. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and the incidence of additional neurologic malformations in children with CLP and to evaluate their effects on cleft care. All patients who applied to our Cleft and Craniofacial Center between July 2014 and July 2017 were included in the study. Demographic and perioperative data such as gender, cleft type, syndromic status of the patient, associated neurologic anomalies, timing and duration of operation, hospitalization period, and follow-up period in the intensive care unit are all recorded...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Elana F Pinchefsky, Andrea Accogli, Michael I Shevell, Christine Saint-Martin, Myriam Srour
AIM: Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with congenital cerebellar malformations (CCMs) remain poorly defined. We aimed to assess whether specific neuroimaging features in CCM patients correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHOD: Hospital records and neuroimaging of 67 children with CCMs were systematically reviewed. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between specific imaging features and neurodevelopmental outcomes. RESULTS: CCM categories were distributed as follows: 28 percent isolated vermis hypoplasia (n=19), 28 percent global cerebellar hypoplasia (n=19), 15 percent Dandy-Walker malformation (n=10), 13 percent pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH, n=9), 9 percent molar tooth malformation (n=6), 3 percent rhombencephalosynapsis (n=2), and 3 percent unilateral cerebellar malformation (n=2)...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Vincent Magloire, Marion S Mercier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Ivan Pavlov
Seizures are complex pathological network events characterized by excessive and hypersynchronized activity of neurons, including a highly diverse population of GABAergic interneurons. Although the primary function of inhibitory interneurons under normal conditions is to restrain excitation in the brain, this system appears to fail intermittently, allowing runaway excitation. Recent developments in optogenetics, combined with genetic tools and advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques, allow us for the first time to assess the causal roles of identified cell-types in network dynamics...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Kai-Liang Wang, Wei Hu, Ting-Hong Liu, Xiao-Bin Zhao, Chun-Lei Han, Xiao-Tong Xia, Jian-Guo Zhang, Feng Wang, Fan-Gang Meng
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the networks' mechanism of metabolic covariance networks in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), through examining the brain value of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG-PET). METHODS: 18 F-FDG-PET images from 16 patients with mTLE were analyzed using local and global metabolic covariance network (MCN) approaches, including whole metabolic pattern analysis (WMPA), hippocampus-based (h-) MCN, whole brain (w-) MCN, and edge-based connectivity analysis (EBCA)...
October 8, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Jacopo Lanzone, Lorenzo Ricci, Giovanni Assenza, Martina Ulivi, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Mario Tombini
OBJECTIVE: Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is an underestimated condition in emergency clinical setting, where most of transient amnesic episodes tend to be classified as transient global amnesia (TGA). We designed this study to evaluate the actual frequency of TEA in a real-life scenario and to highlight the features that can help clinicians distinguishing it from TGA. METHODS: We retrospectively collected clinical data of 83 patients who accessed our emergency ward for an abrupt onset of amnesic disorder, initially interpreted as TGA...
October 5, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ailiang Miao, Yingxin Wang, Jing Xiang, Qianqian Liu, Qiqi Chen, Wenchao Qiu, Hongxing Liu, Lu Tang, Yuan Gao, Caiyun Wu, Yuanwen Yu, Jintao Sun, Wenwen Jiang, Qi Shi, Tingting Zhang, Zheng Hu, Xiaoshan Wang
Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome, is usually treated with valproic acid (VPA) and lamotrigine (LTG) in China. This study aimed to investigate the ictal source locations and functional connectivity (FC) networks between the cortices and thalamus that are related to treatment response. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 25 patients with CAE were recorded at 300 Hz and analyzed in 1-30 Hz frequency bands. Neuromagnetic sources were volumetrically scanned with accumulated source imaging...
October 5, 2018: Brain Topography
Jashobanta Sahu, Pradeep Pankajakshan Nair, Vaibhav Wadwekar, Rajeshwari Aghoram
PURPOSE: In our personal experience, headache is a frequent complaint in Persons with epilepsy (PWE) receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), carbamazepine (CBZ) in particular. There is hardly any systematic study on AEDs-associated headache. We assessed the association of new-onset interictal headache in PWE with CBZ compared with other AEDs and factors associated with it. METHODS: Two thousand PWE on AEDs were screened, and 165 persons having new-onset interictal headache were identified...
October 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Eiju Watanabe
Surgery is considered a therapeutic option for drug-resistant epilepsies. As a first step, the epileptic focus is carefully examined using extra- and intra-cranial EEG and various neurodiagnostic imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging, intra-ictal single photon emission computed tomography, magnetoencephalography, and functional near-infrared spectoroscopy. Only when the epileptogenic focus can not be identified, callosotomy is considered as a palliative surgical method. It is indicated especially in cases with drop attacks, which severely exacerbate the patient's quality of life...
October 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Lara Camilleri
A 69-year-old man developed reduced consciousness of sudden onset. Examination and parameters were normal, except for a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of six. Brain imaging and blood tests were also normal, except for high plasma ammonia. His past medical history included epilepsy, hypertension and colitis. He was taking multiple antiepileptic medications, including sodium valproate, with no recent dose alterations. Medical intervention led to the sodium valproate being stopped and naloxone being administered...
October 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Guilian Sun, Fang Yao, Zhuoling Tian, Tianjiao Ma, Zhiliang Yang
BACKGROUND: Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCLs) are lysosomal storage disorders characterized by seizures, motor impairment, and loss of vision. Ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN) gene mutations are the cause, but NCL cases arising from CLN6 mutations have not been described in China to date. The CLN6 protein, which plays a role in lysosomal function, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein with seven transmembrane (TM) domains. It has a cytosolic-facing amino terminal domain and a luminal-facing carboxyl terminal domain, with six loops between the TM domains...
October 1, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Joham Choque-Velasquez, Juha Hernesniemi
Background: A wide opening of the Sylvian fissure (SF) regarding the treatment of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm allows us to ensure early proximal control by the proximal start of Sylvian dissection and enough comfort for the microsurgical manipulation and aneurysm clipping. However, major mechanical manipulation of arteries associated with blood oozing into the surgical field may increase the incidence of postoperative vasospasm. The risk of Sylvian venous injury is bigger, and the damage of the superior temporal gyrus increases the risk of postoperative epilepsy as well...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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