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Hippocampal stroke

Hao Ma, Weiping Wang, Shaofeng Xu, Ling Wang, Xiaoliang Wang
Potassium 2-(1-hydroxypentyl)-benzoate (PHPB) is a novel drug candidate for acute ischemic stroke. PHPB has been also shown to be beneficial for some neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that PHPB improved depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) in rats. Male SD rats were subjected to the stress for five weeks. PHPB (30 and 100 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (FLX 10 mg/kg, as positive control) was administered orally from the third week in CUMS procedure...
October 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Lu Luo, Congqin Li, Xinxin Du, Qilin Shi, Qiao Huang, Xiangyu Xu, Qiang Wang
BDNF and proBDNF play an opposite role in hippocampal neurogenesis. What remains to be known is the effect of balance between BDNF and proBDNF in the ischemic hippocampus on pathogenesis of post-stroke depression (PSD) and the potential mechanisms of aerobic exercise (AE) on PSD. Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, Sham, Sedentary and AE groups. After PSD model was successful made, the blood lactate threshold corresponding speed (SLT ) were measured. The behavioral tests (open field, forced swimming and sucrose preference tests) were performed before and after 4 weeks of aerobic treadmill training...
November 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Jin-Lu Yu, Chao Li, Li-He Che, Ning Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral ischemia is considered to be the most common cause of stroke with high mortality. It occurs as a result of the damage of the hippocampal neurons with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 being emphasized to play a role in the biological functions of hippocampal neurons. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of specific knockdown of LFA-1 expression by lentivirus had on the apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons, simulated by rat models of acute cerebral ischemia after cerebral lymphatic blockage...
November 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Michael J Castle, Yuhsiang Cheng, Aravind Asokan, Mark H Tuszynski
Several neurological disorders may benefit from gene therapy. However, even when using the lead vector candidate for intrathecal administration, adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9), the strength and distribution of gene transfer to the brain are inconsistent. On the basis of preliminary observations that standard intrathecal AAV9 infusions predominantly drive reporter gene expression in brain regions where gravity might cause cerebrospinal fluid to settle, we tested the hypothesis that counteracting vector "settling" through animal positioning would enhance vector delivery to the brain...
November 2018: Science Advances
Kangyoon Lee, Young Min Lee, Je-Min Park, Byung-Dae Lee, Eunsoo Moon, Hee-Jeong Jeong, Soo Yeon Kim, Young-In Chung, Ji-Hoon Kim
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine whether regionally distributed medial temporal cortex thickness (or hippocampal volume) and frontal lobe volume are independently associated with the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with psychosis. METHODS: We identified 26 AD patients with psychosis (AD+P) and 48 AD patients without psychosis (AD-P) from the Memory Impairment Clinic at Pusan National University Hospital in South Korea. They were matched for age, gender, duration of AD, and Clinical Dementia Rating sum of box score...
November 14, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Philip M Lam, Marco I González
Epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by a predisposition to suffer epileptic seizures. Acquired epilepsy might be the result of brain insults like head trauma, stroke, brain infection, or status epilepticus (SE) when one of these triggering injuries starts a transformative process known as epileptogenesis. There is some data to suggest that, during epileptogenesis, seizures themselves damage the brain but there is no conclusive evidence to demonstrate that spontaneous recurrent seizures themselves injure the brain...
November 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ya-Jun Li, Lin Wang, Bei Zhang, Fei Gao, Chun-Mei Yang
OBJECTIVES: It has been proven that extracellular HMGB1 is involved in progression of neurologic disorders, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, meningitis and epilepsy. Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a direct inhibitor of HMGB1, and blocks HMGB1 release into the extracellular. We aim in this study to investigate the neuroprotective effects of GL in a rat model after lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: Adult male SD rats were divided into three groups: Sham group, SE-group and (SE + GL)-treated group...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Abbas Rattani, Jaims Lim, Akshitkumar M Mistry, Marc A Prablek, Steven G Roth, Lori C Jordan, Chevis N Shannon, Robert P Naftel
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a serious and often lifelong consequence of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS). Variable incidences and risk factors for long-term epilepsy in PAIS have been reported. To determine the incidence of epilepsy in PAIS survivors and report factors associated with the risk of developing epilepsy, a meta-analysis and systematic review of prior publications was performed. METHODS: We examined studies on perinatal or neonatal patients (≤28 days of life) with arterial ischemic strokes in which the development of epilepsy was reported...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Marharyta Semenikhina, Ruslan Bogovyk, Mykhailo Fedoriuk, Oksana Nikolaienko, Lina T AlKury, Alina Savotchenko, Oleg Krishtal, Elena Isaeva
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a unique structure that controls substances exchange between the systemic circulation and the brain. Disruption of its integrity contributes to the development and progression of a variety of brain disorders including stroke, epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases. It was shown that intracerebral thrombin level substantially increases following status epilepticus (SE). Inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), the major thrombin receptor in the brain, produces an anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects in an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
November 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Yujing Zhang, Peiyun Yu, Hong Liu, Hua Yao, Shanglong Yao, Shi-Ying Yuan, Jian-Cheng Zhang
Stroke survivors often experience social isolation, which can lead to post‑stroke depression (PSD) and post‑stroke anxiety (PSA) that can compromise neurogenesis and impede functional recovery following the stroke. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of post‑stroke social isolation‑mediated PSD and PSA on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. The effects of the natural antidepressant hyperforin on post‑stroke social isolation‑mediated PSD and PSA were also investigated...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Huiling Tian, Xiaoli Li, Qisheng Tang, Wen Zhang, Qingmeng Li, Xinyue Sun, Ruizhen Zhao, Chongyang Ma, Haipeng Liu, Yushan Gao, Fei Han
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is one of the most frequent complications of stroke. The Yi-nao-jie-yu prescription (YNJYP) is an herbal prescription widely used as a therapeutic agent against PSD in traditional Chinese medicine. Disruption of adult neurogenesis has attracted attention as a potential cause of cognitive pathophysiology in neurological and psychiatric disorders. The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in neurogenesis. This study investigated the effects of YNJYP on adult neurogenesis and explored its underlying molecular mechanism in a rat model of PSD that is established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and accompanied by chronic immobilization stress for 1 week...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Philipp Baumgartner, Mohamad El Amki, Oliver Bracko, Andreas R Luft, Susanne Wegener
Many stroke survivors experience persisting episodic memory disturbances. Since hippocampal and para-hippocampal areas are usually spared from the infarcted area, alterations of memory processing networks remote from the ischemic brain region might be responsible for the observed clinical symptoms. To pinpoint changes in activity of hippocampal connections and their role in post-stroke cognitive impairment, we induced ischemic stroke by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) in adult rats and analyzed the functional and structural consequences using activity-dependent manganese (Mn2+ ) enhanced MRI (MEMRI) along with behavioral and histopathological analysis...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalia V Gulyaeva
The hippocampus is not a homogeneous brain area, and the complex organization of this structure underlies its relevance and functional pleiotropism. The new data related to the involvement of the ventral hippocampus in the cognitive function, behavior, stress response and its association with brain pathology, in particular, depression, are analyzed with a focus on neuroplasticity, specializations of the intrinsic neuronal network, corticosteroid signaling through mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus...
October 24, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Yi Luo, Huijie Ma, Jing-Jing Zhou, Lingyong Li, Shao-Rui Chen, Jixiang Zhang, Lin Chen, Hui-Lin Pan
Background and Purpose- Glutamate NMDARs (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors) play a major role in the initiation of ischemic brain damage. However, NMDAR antagonists have no protective effects in stroke patients, possibly because they impair physiological functions of NMDARs. α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1) is strongly expressed in many brain regions. We determined the contribution of α2δ-1 to NMDAR hyperactivity and brain injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion. Methods- Mice were subjected to 90 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 24 hours of reperfusion...
October 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Jiahuan Hao, Yuxue Chen, Ensheng Yao, Xinghua Liu
Cerebral ischemic stroke is associated with a high rate of incidence, prevalence and mortality globally. Carotid artery stenosis, which is mainly caused by atherosclerosis plaque, results in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and predominantly increases the risk of ischemic stroke. In the present study, we used bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model by placing microcoils of 0.18 mm diameter encompassing both common carotid arteries respectively, to mimic the pathogenesis of carotid artery atherosclerosis and intensively explore the pathology...
November 15, 2018: Brain Research
Paloma González-Rodríguez, Irene F Ugidos, Diego Pérez-Rodríguez, Berta Anuncibay-Soto, María Santos-Galdiano, Enrique Font-Belmonte, José Manuel Gonzalo-Orden, Arsenio Fernández-López
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered as a putative therapeutic agent against stroke. Since BDNF role on oxidative stress is uncertain, we have studied this role in a rat brain slice ischemia model, which allows BDNF reaching the neural parenchyma. Hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and then returned to normoxic conditions (reperfusion-like, RL). OGD/RL increased a number of parameters mirroring oxidative stress in the hippocampus that were reduced by the BDNF presence...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Peng-Peng Jin, Feng Xia, Bin-Fang Ma, Zhen Li, Guo-Feng Zhang, Yan-Chun Deng, Zhi-Lan Tu, Xing-Xing Zhang, Shuang-Xing Hou
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been implicated in the development of central nervous system and brain diseases such as brain tumors, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear that the spatiotemporal distribution of NDRG2 in the human fetal brain. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of NDRG2 in different regions of human fetal brain at 16-28 gestational weeks (GWs) by using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Firstly, RT-PCR revealed that mRNA of NDRG2 was detected in the human brain regions of fetuses at 16-28 GWs such as medulla oblongata (MdO), mesencephalon (MeE), cerebellum (Cbl), frontal lobe (Fr), ventricular (VZ)/subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus (hip), and the expressions of NDRG2 mRNA in these human fetal brain regions were increased with gestational maturation...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Gui-Ying Yao, Qian Zhu, Jing Xia, Feng-Jiao Chen, Ming Huang, Jing Liu, Ting-Ting Zhou, Jian-Feng Wei, Gui-Yun Cui, Kui-Yang Zheng, Xiao-Yu Hou
Ischemic postconditioning provides robust neuroprotection, therefore, determining the molecular events may provide promising targets for stroke treatment. Here, we showed that the expression of functional mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel proteins (VDAC1, VDAC2, and VDAC3) reduced in rat vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subfield after global ischemia. Ischemic postconditioning restored VDACs to physiological levels. Stabilized VDACs contributed to the benefits of postconditioning. VDAC1 was required for maintaining neuronal Ca2+ buffering capacity...
October 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Dong Hyeon Kang, Beom Seok Kang, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Apocynin, also known as acetovanillone, is a natural organic compound structurally related to vanillin. Apocynin is known to be an inhibitor of NADPH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activity and is highly effective in suppressing the production of superoxide. The neuroprotective effects of apocynin have been investigated in numerous brain injury settings, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and epilepsy. Our lab has demonstrated that TBI or seizure-induced oxidative injury and neuronal death were reduced by apocynin treatment...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seong-Jin Yu, Chia-Wen Chiang, Yu-Wei Lee, B Linju Yen, Pei-Chi Tseng, Chun-Sen Hsu, Li-Wei Kuo, Yun Wang
Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) have distinct immunomodulatory and protective effects against kidney, liver, or heart injury. Limited studies have shown that WJ-MSCs attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated inflammation in hippocampal slices. The neuroprotective effect of intracerebral WJ-MSC transplantation against stroke has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of human WJ-MSC (hWJ-MSC) transplants in an animal model of stroke...
October 4, 2018: Cell Transplantation
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