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Hippocampal stroke

Paloma González-Rodríguez, Irene F Ugidos, Diego Pérez-Rodríguez, Berta Anuncibay-Soto, María Santos-Galdiano, Enrique Font-Belmonte, José Manuel Gonzalo-Orden, Arsenio Fernández-López
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered as a putative therapeutic agent against stroke. Since BDNF role on oxidative stress is uncertain, we have studied this role in a rat brain slice ischemia model, which allows BDNF reaching the neural parenchyma. Hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices were subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and then returned to normoxic conditions (reperfusion-like, RL). OGD/RL increased a number of parameters mirroring oxidative stress in the hippocampus that were reduced by the BDNF presence...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Peng-Peng Jin, Feng Xia, Bin-Fang Ma, Zhen Li, Guo-Feng Zhang, Yan-Chun Deng, Zhi-Lan Tu, Xing-Xing Zhang, Shuang-Xing Hou
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been implicated in the development of central nervous system and brain diseases such as brain tumors, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear that the spatiotemporal distribution of NDRG2 in the human fetal brain. In this study, we examined the expression pattern of NDRG2 in different regions of human fetal brain at 16-28 gestational weeks (GWs) by using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Firstly, RT-PCR revealed that mRNA of NDRG2 was detected in the human brain regions of fetuses at 16-28 GWs such as medulla oblongata (MdO), mesencephalon (MeE), cerebellum (Cbl), frontal lobe (Fr), ventricular (VZ)/subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampus (hip), and the expressions of NDRG2 mRNA in these human fetal brain regions were increased with gestational maturation...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Gui-Ying Yao, Qian Zhu, Jing Xia, Feng-Jiao Chen, Ming Huang, Jing Liu, Ting-Ting Zhou, Jian-Feng Wei, Gui-Yun Cui, Kui-Yang Zheng, Xiao-Yu Hou
Ischemic postconditioning provides robust neuroprotection, therefore, determining the molecular events may provide promising targets for stroke treatment. Here, we showed that the expression of functional mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel proteins (VDAC1, VDAC2, and VDAC3) reduced in rat vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subfield after global ischemia. Ischemic postconditioning restored VDACs to physiological levels. Stabilized VDACs contributed to the benefits of postconditioning. VDAC1 was required for maintaining neuronal Ca2+ buffering capacity...
October 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Song Hee Lee, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Dong Hyeon Kang, Beom Seok Kang, Hong Ki Song, Hui Chul Choi, Sang Won Suh
Apocynin, also known as acetovanillone, is a natural organic compound structurally related to vanillin. Apocynin is known to be an inhibitor of NADPH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase activity and is highly effective in suppressing the production of superoxide. The neuroprotective effects of apocynin have been investigated in numerous brain injury settings, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and epilepsy. Our lab has demonstrated that TBI or seizure-induced oxidative injury and neuronal death were reduced by apocynin treatment...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seong-Jin Yu, Chia-Wen Chiang, Yu-Wei Lee, B Linju Yen, Pei-Chi Tseng, Chun-Sen Hsu, Li-Wei Kuo, Yun Wang
Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) have distinct immunomodulatory and protective effects against kidney, liver, or heart injury. Limited studies have shown that WJ-MSCs attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated inflammation in hippocampal slices. The neuroprotective effect of intracerebral WJ-MSC transplantation against stroke has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of human WJ-MSC (hWJ-MSC) transplants in an animal model of stroke...
October 4, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Uchechukwu Chimeh, Mary Ann Zimmerman, Nailya Gilyazova, P Andy Li
Cerebral hypoxia as often occurs in cases of stroke, hemorrhage, or other traumatic brain injuries, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a main driver of disabilities in the elderly. Using a chemical mimetic of hypoxia, cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ), we tested the ability of a novel small molecule, 4-chloro-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)-5-(3-(piperazin-1-yl)phenoxy)thiophene-2-sulfonamide (B355252), to alleviate CoCl2 -induced damage in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability was observed during CoCl2 treatment along with increases in mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Ravi Mundugaru, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Padmaja Udaykumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Guruprasad Kp, D J Vidyadhara
Ischemic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability, where lack of disease modifying treatment strategies make us rely on symptomatic relief. Treatment principles from traditional systems of medicine may fill this gap and its validation in modern medicine perspective is important to bring them to mainstream. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of Ayurvedic medicinal herb Pluchea lanceolata in treating ischemic hippocampal injury. Focal hippocampal ischemia was modeled in Wistar rats through stereotaxic intrahippocampal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Bai Hui Chen, Joon Ha Park, Yun Lyul Lee, Il Jun Kang, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Choong-Hyun Lee, Bing Chun Yan, Young-Myeong Kim, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Ji Hyeon Ahn
Vascular dementia affects cognition by damaging axons and myelin. Melatonin is pharmacologically associated with various neurological disorders. In this study, effects of melatonin on cognitive impairment and related mechanisms were investigated in an animal model of ischemic vascular dementia (IVD). Melatonin was intraperitoneally administered to adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI) for 25 days beginning 5 days after tGCI. Cognitive impairment was examined using a passive avoidance test and the Barnes maze test...
September 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nicolas G Bazan
The functional significance of the selective enrichment of the omega-3 essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22C and 6 double bonds) in cellular membrane phospholipids of the nervous system is being clarified by defining its specific roles on membrane protein function and by the uncovering of the bioactive mediators, docosanoids and elovanoids (ELVs). Here, we describe the preferential uptake and DHA metabolism in photoreceptors and brain as well as the significance of the Adiponectin receptor 1 in DHA retention and photoreceptor cell (PRC) survival...
October 1, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Ning-Ning Liu, Zhi-Ling Dong, Li-Li Han
Ischemic stroke (IS) is an acute cerebral event characterized by a high incidence rate, high disability rate as well as a high mortality. More recently, accumulative literature has provided evidence highlighting the role played by microRNAs (miRs) in the development of neurons. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective role of miR-410 in IS. Microarray-based gene expression profiling of AMI was conducted in order to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and the corresponding miRs regulating these genes...
September 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Asrin Babahajian, Arash Sarveazad, Fereshteh Golab, Gelareh Vahabzadeh, Akram Alizadeh, Homa Rasoolijazi, Naser Amini, Maedeh Entezari, Mansoureh Soleimani, Majid Katebi
INTRODUCTION: One of the serious complications of stroke is memory impairment, which is considered as one of the complications of reperfusion of tissue. The present study was designed to compare the effect of administration of Trolox, carnosic acid and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) immediately after reperfusion of the stroke tissue on the memory and hippocampal histology. METHOD: Ischemia reperfusion model (IRI) was created by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery for 15 minutes and the first dose was administered immediately after reperfusion...
September 17, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, Alireza Sarkaki, Masome Rashno, Yaghoob Farbood
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of neurological deterioration and mortality worldwide. Neuroprotective strategies are being investigated to minimize cognitive deficits after ischemic events. Here we investigated the neuroprotective potential of vanillic acid (VA) in an animal model of transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion (BCCAO/R). Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided in 4 groups and submitted to either cerebral hypoperfusion-reperfusion or a sham surgery after two-weeks of pretreatment with VA and/or normal saline...
October 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Azim Hedayatpour, Maryam Shiasi, Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Farid Abolhassani, Parisa Ebrahimnia, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Gholamreza Hassanzaeh, Morteza Karimian, Bashir Nazparvar, Narges Marefati, Masoomeh Dehghan Tarzjani
Stroke is the second leading reason for death worldwide and is one of the fundamental causes of long-term disabilities. The aim of this investigation was to assess the impact of combined administration progesterone (PROG) and melatonin (MEL) on stroke complications. Male Wistar rats (9-10 weeks) weighing 250-300 g were used as a part of this examination. They were randomly separated into eight groups (nine rats for every group). Common carotid arteries on the two sides clamped (BCCAO model) with non-traumatic clips for 20 min...
October 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Qing-Zhang Tuo, Zhen-Yu Liuyang, Peng Lei, Xiong Yan, Yang-Ping Shentu, Jia-Wei Liang, Huan Zhou, Lei Pei, Yan Xiong, Tong-Yao Hou, Xin-Wen Zhou, Qun Wang, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xiao-Chuan Wang, Rong Liu
CDK5 activation promotes ischemic neuronal death in stroke, with the recognized activation mechanism being calpain-dependent p35 cleavage to p25. Here we reported that CDK5-Tyr15 phosphorylation by zinc induced CDK5 activation in brain ischemic injury. CDK5 activation and CDK5-Tyr15 phosphorylation were observed in the hippocampus of the rats that had been subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, both of which were reversed by pretreatment with zinc chelator; while p35 cleavage and calpain activation in ischemia were not reversed...
August 29, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jenna Bloemer, Priyanka D Pinky, Manoj Govindarajulu, Hao Hong, Robert Judd, Rajesh H Amin, Timothy Moore, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Miranda N Reed, Vishnu Suppiramaniam
Adiponectin, the most abundant plasma adipokine, plays an important role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin also possesses insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and vasodilatory properties which may influence central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Although initially not thought to cross the blood-brain barrier, adiponectin enters the brain through peripheral circulation. In the brain, adiponectin signaling through its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, directly influences important brain functions such as energy homeostasis, hippocampal neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity...
2018: Neural Plasticity
Kurt R Stover, Stellar Lim, Terri-Lin Zhou, Paul M Stafford, Jonathan Chow, Haoyuan Li, Nila Sivanenthiran, Sivakami Mylvaganam, Chiping Wu, Donald F Weaver, James Eubanks, Liang Zhang
The incidence of seizures increases with old age. Stroke, dementia and brain tumors are recognized risk factors for new-onset seizures in the aging populations and the incidence of these conditions also increased with age. Whether aging is associated with higher seizure susceptibility in the absence of the above pathologies remains unclear. We used classic kindling to explore this issue as the kindling model is highly reproducible and allows close monitoring of electrographic and motor seizure activities in individual animals...
December 2017: IBRO Reports
Rebecca Ward, John Paul Valenzuela, Weiguo Li, Guangkuo Dong, Susan C Fagan, Adviye Ergul
Diabetes increases the risk and severity of cognitive impairment, especially after ischemic stroke. Pathological remodeling of the cerebrovasculature has been postulated to contribute to poor neuronal repair and worsened cognitive deficits in diabetes. However, little is known about the effect of diabetes on the vascularization of hippocampus, a domain critical to memory and learning. Therefore we had two aims for this study: 1) to determine the impact of diabetes on hippocampal neurovascular remodeling and the resulting cognitive impairment after stroke using two models with varying disease severity, and 2) to compare the effects of ischemia on hippocampal neurovascular injury in diabetic males and females...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luciana Pietranera, Edo Ronald de Kloet, Alejandro Federico De Nicola
Worldwide, raised blood pressure is estimated to affect 35-40% of the adult population and is a main conditioning factor for cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Animal models of hypertension have provided great advances concerning the pathophysiology of human hypertension, as already shown for the deoxycorticosterone-salt treated rat, the Dahl-salt sensitive rat, the Zucker obese rat and the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). SHR has been widely used to study abnormalities of the brain in chronic hypertension...
August 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Xian-Jun Wang, Mei-Hong Wang, Xiao-Ting Fu, Ya-Jun Hou, Wang Chen, Da-Chen Tian, Su-Yun Bai, Xiao-Yan Fu
Designing and/or searching for novel antioxidants against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced oxidative damage represents an effective strategy for the treatment of human ischemic stroke. Selenium is an essential trace element, which is beneficial in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of cerebral ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms for its therapeutic effects, however, are not well documented. Selenocysteine (SeC) is a selenium-containing amino acid with neuroprotective potential. Studies have shown that SeC can reduce irradiation-induced DNA apoptosis by reducing DNA damage...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xiao-Qiao Zhang, Li Li, Jiang-Tao Huo, Min Cheng, Lin-Hong Li
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive treatment that can enhance the recovery of neurological function after stroke. Whether it can similarly promote the recovery of cognitive function after vascular dementia remains unknown. In this study, a rat model for vascular dementia was established by the two-vessel occlusion method. Two days after injury, 30 pulses of rTMS were administered to each cerebral hemisphere at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and a magnetic field intensity of 1.33 T...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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