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Hippocampal stroke

Zareen Amtul, Carmen Frías, Jasmine Randhawa, David J Hill, Edith J Arany
The hippocampus, a brain region vital for memory and learning, is sensitive to the damage caused by ischemic/hypoxic stroke and is one of the main regions affected by Alzheimer's disease. The pathological changes that might occur in the hippocampus and its connections, because of cerebral injury in a distant brain region, such as the striatum, have not been examined. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the combined effects of endothelin-1-induced ischemia (ET1) in the striatum and β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity on hippocampal pathogenesis, dictated by the anatomical and functional intra- and inter-regional hippocampal connections to the striatum...
July 28, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Kang Ma, Rongwei Li, Hengli Zhao, Jie Qu, Ning Mu, Xin Liu, Shi Wang, Chuanyan Yang, Hua Feng, Liang Tan, Fei Li
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a well-known hemorrhagic stroke with high rates of morbidity and mortality where patients frequently experience cognitive dysfunction. This study explores a potential treatment for cognitive dysfunction following SAH with the demonstration that multi-target drug cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin (CEGI) can relieve cognitive dysfunction by decreasing hippocampal neuron apoptosis following SAH in rats. Experimentally, 110 male SD rats were separated at random into Sham (20), SAH + Vehicle (30), SAH + 4 ml/kg CEGI (30), and SAH + 1 ml/kg CEGI groups (30) and an endovascular perforation model was created to induce SAH...
July 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Lisa Rancan, Sergio D Paredes, Cruz García, Pablo González, Cruz Rodríguez-Bobada, Mario Calvo-Soto, Bryan Hyacinthe, Elena Vara, Jesús A F Tresguerres
Aging is associated with an increase in stroke risk. Melatonin, a potent free radical scavenger and broad spectrum antioxidant, has been shown to counteract inflammation and apoptosis in brain injury. However, little is known on the possible protective effects of melatonin in aged individuals affected by brain ischemia. Also, using melatonin before or after an ischemic stroke may result in significantly different molecular outcomes. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of pre-ischemia vs...
July 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Silun Wang, Yonggang Li, Ramesh Paudyal, Byron D Ford, Xiaodong Zhang
Stroke is a devastating neurovascular disorder that results in damage to neurons and white matter tracts. It has been previously demonstrated that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) protects neurons from ischemic injury following stroke. Here, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was utilized to characterize the effects of NRG-1 treatment on cererbral infarction and integrity of white matter after ischemic insult using a permanent middle celebral artery occlusion (pMCAo) rat model. In the present study, sixteen Sprague-Dawley rats underwent pMCAo surgery and received either a single intra-arterial bolus (20 μg/kg) dose of NRG-1 or saline immediately prior to pMCAo...
July 20, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Limor Raz, Kiran Bhaskar, John Weaver, Sandro Marini, Quanguang Zhang, Jeffery F Thompson, Candice Espinoza, Sulaiman Iqbal, Nicole M Maphis, Lea Weston, Laurel O Sillerud, Arvind Caprihan, John C Pesko, Erik B Erhardt, Gary A Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Hypertension-induced microvascular brain injury is a major vascular contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia. We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia promotes the hyperphosphorylation of tau and cell death in an accelerated spontaneously hypertensive stroke prone rat model of vascular cognitive impairment. METHODS: Hypertensive male rats (n = 13) were fed a high salt, low protein Japanese permissive diet and were compared to Wistar Kyoto control rats (n = 5)...
July 25, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Rizwana Shahid, Saima Nazish, Azra Zafar, Danah Aljafaari, Majed Alabdali, Noman Ishaque, Bayan A Alzahrani, Fahad A Alkhamis
OBJECTIVE: To identify the types of seizures and describe the clinical features, EEG and radiological findings among patients with epilepsy. METHODS: In this retrospective epidemiological study, we analyzed the medical records of the patients with the diagnosis of epilepsy during the study period (January 1st 2016- December 2016) RESULTS: The study included 184 patients, 91 (49.5%) were males and 93 (50.5%) females. Age ranged between 12 and 85 years (mean 35.4+/-19...
July 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Maria Kovalska, Barbara Tothova, Libusa Kovalska, Zuzana Tatarkova, Dagmar Kalenska, Anna Tomascova, Marian Adamkov, Jan Lehotsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that results in massive hippocampal and neocortical neuronal loss leading to dementia and eventual death. The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is not fully explored, although a number of risk factors have been recognized, including high plasma concentration of homocysteine (Hcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) is considered a strong, independent risk factor for stroke and dementia. However, the molecular background underlying these mechanisms linked with hHcy and ischemic stroke is not fully understood...
July 12, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen Williams, Philip Benjamin, Andrew J Lawrence, Robin G Morris, Andrew D Mackinnon, Thomas R Barrick, Hugh S Markus
Sporadic cerebral small vessel disease is an important cause of vascular dementia, a syndrome of cognitive impairment together with vascular brain damage. At post-mortem pure vascular dementia is rare, with evidence of co-existing Alzheimer's disease pathology in 95% of cases. This work used MRI to characterize structural abnormalities during the preclinical phase of vascular dementia in symptomatic small vessel disease. 121 subjects were recruited into the St George's Cognition and Neuroimaging in Stroke study and followed up longitudinally for five years...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Naresh Mullaguri, Anusha Battineni, Aarti Narayan, Raviteja Guddeti
Cocaine is one of the most commonly abused recreational drugs, second only to marijuana. It blocks the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine, that leads to persistent post-synaptic stimulation responsible for its excitatory effects. Cocaine-related strokes, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, have been well described in the literature and cerebral vasospasm is hypothesized as one of the major mechanisms responsible for the presentation. Although cases of posterior circulation infarction were previously reported, we herein report a rare presentation of a cocaine-induced bilateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery and hippocampal infarction in a middle-aged female...
May 4, 2018: Curēus
Masataka Nakajima, Satoshi Suda, Kota Sowa, Yuki Sakamoto, Chikako Nito, Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Junya Aoki, Masayuki Ueda, Shoji Yokobori, Marina Yamada, Hiroyuki Yokota, Takashi Okada, Kazumi Kimura
Perampanel (PER), a noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor antagonist, clinically used for seizure control, has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, few studies have investigated the therapeutic effects of PER in brain injury including stroke. Our aim was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of PER using a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 90-min MCAO followed by intraperitoneal PER administration at a dose of 1...
July 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Kalimullah Jan, Siau Chuin
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a syndrome characterized by reversible impairment of short-term memory. TGA itself is a benign disease, however, it is reasonable to investigate and exclude sinister causes of global amnesia; such as stroke or a seizure activity. A case of TGA is presented here with special emphasis on the typical TGA lesion that was detected on the patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of Brain. In patients with TGA, the typical MRI Brain finding is a tiny focus of diffusion restriction in the mesiotemporal lobe...
June 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Xinwei Wu, Xuemei Li, Yi Liu, Nannan Yuan, Chengwen Li, Zhimin Kang, Xinlei Zhang, Yuning Xia, Yimeng Hao, Yongxing Tan
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) is a serious complication during the treatment of stroke patients with very few effective clinical treatment. Hydrogen (H2) can protect mitochondria function and have favorable therapeutic effects on cerebral IRI. Mitophagy plays an important role in eliminating damaged or dysfunctional mitochondria and maintaining mitochondria homeostasis. However, whether the protection of H2 on cerebral IRI is via regulating mitophagy is still unknown. In this study, OGD/R damaged hippocampal neurons were used to mimic cerebral IRI in vivo and we detected the effect of H2, Rap(autophagy activator) and 3-MA(autophagy inhibitor) on OGD/R neurons...
June 26, 2018: Brain Research
Gina Sizemore, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Charles Rosen, James W Simpkins, Sanjay Bhatia, Dandan Sun
The brain is an integrated network of multiple variables that when compromised create a diseased state. The neuropathology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) demonstrate both similarity and complexity that reflects this integrated variability; TLE with its live human tissue resection provides opportunity for translational science to demonstrate scale equivalent experimentation between the macroscopic world of clinical disease and the microscopic world of basic science...
2018: OBM neurobiology
Bodong Wang, Hao Guo, Xia Li, Liang Yue, Haixiao Liu, Lei Zhao, Hao Bai, Xunyuan Liu, Xun Wu, Yan Qu
Ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improving the tolerance of neurons to ischemia and reperfusion injury could be a feasible strategy against ischemia. Adiponectin (APN) is a major adipokine that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and plays an important role in the protection of the cerebral nervous system. We aimed to investigate the effects of APN on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury in hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. APN displayed neuroprotective effects against OGD, evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase release and apoptotic rate...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Kristin F Phillips, Laxmikant S Deshpande, Robert J DeLorenzo
Status Epilepticus (SE) is a major neurological emergency and is considered a leading cause of Acquired Epilepsy (AE). We have shown that SE produces neuronal injury and prolonged alterations in hippocampal calcium levels ([Ca2+ ]i ) that may underlie the development of AE. Interventions preventing the SE-induced Ca2+ plateau could therefore prove to be beneficial in lowering the development of AE after SE. Hypothermia is used clinically to prevent neurological complications associated with Traumatic Brain Injury, cardiac arrest, and stroke...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Sayed Masoud Hosseini, Hamid Gholami Pourbadie, Nima Naderi, Mohammad Sayyah, Mohammad Ismail Zibaii
INTRODUCTION: The vulnerability of hippocampal formation to ischemic insult has been documented in both humans and animal models. Ischemic injury induction through photothrombosis is an invasive and reproducible model of ischemic stroke which provides the ability to induce ischemia selectively in any desired area. In this study, we describe a method to induce selective unilateral hippocampal ischemia in rat through modified photothrombotic model. METHODS: Male wistar rats (n = 66) were subjected to stereotaxic surgery to insert a guide cannula just above the ascending part of hippocampal fissure...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Can Zhang, Nicole R Brandon, Kerryann Koper, Pei Tang, Yan Xu, Huanyu Dou
Although a direct link has long been suspected between systemic immune responses and neuronal injuries after stroke, it is unclear which immune cells play an important role. A question remains as to whether the blood brain barrier (BBB) is transiently disrupted after circulatory arrest to allow peripheral immune cells to enter brain parenchyma. Here, we developed a clinically relevant cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in mice to investigate the BBB integrity using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Gyeong Bok Jung, Sung Wook Kang, Gi-Ja Lee, Dohyun Kim
Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the most common neurodegenerative conditions characterized by cerebral infarction, death of the brain tissue, and loss of brain function. Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury is the tissue damage caused when blood supply begins to the tissue after a period of ischemia or poor oxygen supply. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the biochemical changes in the brain hippocampal area, CA1, resulting from ischemia reperfusion and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor treatment in rats using Raman spectroscopy...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
Jeremy D Coplan, Anna V Rozenboym, Sasha L Fulton, Venkatesh Panthangi, Jean Tang, Lakshmi Thiramangalakdi, Tarique D Perera, Yang Liu, Haroon Kamran, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Leonard A Rosenblum, John G Kral, Louis Salciccioli, Jason Lazar
Background: Early life stress (ELS) in macaques in the form of insecure maternal attachment putatively induces epigenetic adaptations resulting in a "thrifty phenotype" throughout the life cycle. For instance, ELS induces persistent increases in insulin resistance, hippocampal and corpus callosum atrophy and reduced "behavioral plasticity", which, taken together, engenders an increased risk for mood and anxiety disorders in humans but also a putative sparing of calories...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
Matthew A Kanzler, Adam M Van Dyke, Yan He, James A Hewett, Sandra J Hewett
Objective: Studies have addressed the potential involvement of L-12/15-lipoxygenases (LOs), a polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolizing enzyme, in experimental models of acute stroke and chronic neurodegeneration; however, none to our knowledge has explored its role in epilepsy development. Thus, this study characterizes the cell-specific expression of L-12/15 -LO in the brain and examines its contribution to epileptogenesis. Methods: L-12/15-LO messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression and activity were characterized via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
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