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spike protein

Zigang Tang, Qing Han, Li Xie, Lanling Chu, Yu Wang, Ying Sun, Xuejun Kang
A novel polystyrene/pyridine composite nanofiber was synthesized and utilized as the sorbent material for solid phase extraction of bisphenol A and five common phthalate esters in milk. The method of extraction integrated extraction and pre-concentration of target analytes into a single step. Bisphenol A and five common phthalate esters were selected as target compounds for the development and evaluation of the method. The effects of operating parameters for nanofiber-based solid phase extraction, such as selection and amount of sorbent, the volume fraction of perchlorate (precipitate protein), desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, effect of salt addition were optimized...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Steve Kitchen, Ian Jennings, Mike Makris, Dianne Patricia Kitchen, Timothy A L Woods, Isobel D Walker
INTRODUCTION: Variability in FVIII measurement is a recognized problem. There are limited data for samples containing recombinant Factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc). Many studies use samples for which factor concentrate has been spiked into FVIII deficient plasma in vitro. This approach requires validation. AIM/METHODS: Four samples were distributed in a UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Blood Coagulation (NEQAS BC) survey. One contained Advate (full-length recombinant FVIII) (rFVIII) added to FVIII deficient plasma, one was from a severe haemophilia A patient after infusion of Advate, one was prepared by addition of rFVIIIFc (marketed as Elocta/Eloctate) to FVIII deficient plasma and the fourth was collected from a severe haemophilia A patient following rFVIIIFc (Eloctate) infusion...
December 17, 2018: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Xuanmao Jiao, Zhiping Li, Min Wang, Sanjay Katiyar, Gabriele Di Sante, Mehdi Farshchian, Andrew P South, Cinzia Cocola, Daniele Colombo, Rolland Reinbold, Ileana Zucchi, Kongming Wu, Ira Tabas, Benjamin T Spike, Richard G Pestell
DACH1 abundance is reduced in human malignancies, including breast cancer. Herein DACH1 was detected among multipotent fetal mammary stem cells in the embryo, among mixed lineage precursors, and in adult basal cells and (ERα+ ) luminal progenitors. Dach1 gene deletion at 6 weeks in transgenic mice reduced ductal branching, reduced the proportion of mammary basal cells (Lin- CD24med CD29high ) and reduced abundance of basal cytokeratin 5, whereas DACH1 overexpression induced ductal branching, increased Gata3 and Notch1, and expanded mammosphere formation in LA-7 breast cells...
December 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Soonje Lee, Changwoo Lee, Changsu Woo, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The ventral subiculum (vSub), a representative output structure of the hippocampus, serves as a main limbic region in mediating the brain's response to stress. There are three subtypes of subicular pyramidal neurons based on their firing patterns: regular-spiking (RS), weak-bursting (WB) and strong-bursting (SB) neurons, located differently along proximal-distal axis. Here, we found that chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) in mice increased the population of SB neurons but decreased RS neurons in the proximal vSub...
December 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bi-Yun Fang, Jie An, Bo Liu, Yuan-Di Zhao
In this work, a label-free Ag nanocluster (AgNC)-based fluorescent probe is proposed to detect tumor marker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In the experiments, DNA sequences containing segments complemented to different parts of PSA aptamer were used to synthesize DNA-Ag nanoclusters (DNA-AgNC). Some of the obtained specific DNA-AgNC exhibited significant fluorescence increase after hybridization with PSA aptamer. Based on this, a simple DNA-AgNC/aptamer hybridization probe was fabricated for PSA detection using fluorescence quenching, because competitively specific binding between PSA and its aptamer inhibited the fluorescence enhancement effect of PSA aptamer on DNA-AgNC...
December 7, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Megha L Nalawade, Rahul S Patil, Laxman N Bavkar, Sheetalnath B Rooge, Vivek S Haldavnekar, Akalpita U Arvindekar
AIMS: Prediabetes manifests several years earlier, before it progresses to diabetes. It is essential to track the earliest metabolic changes occurring in the prediabetic state and to understand the precise mechanism of how diabetes is initiated. MAIN METHODS: Alpha glucosidase was isolated from rat intestine and assayed using maltose as substrate. In vitro glycation of the enzyme was studied using varying fructose content through measurement of fructosamine, general and specific fluorescence...
December 13, 2018: Life Sciences
José Esteban Muñoz-Medina, Miguel Antonio Garcia-Knight, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Irma Eloísa Monroy-Muñoz, Ricardo Grande, Joakim Esbjörnsson, Clara Esperanza Santacruz-Tinoco, César Raúl González-Bonilla
The epidemic potential of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently made evident by its introduction and rapid expansion in the Caribbean and the Americas. We sought to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of the epidemic in Mexico, the country with the highest number of confirmed CHIKV cases in the Americas, and to characterise viral evolution at the population and intra-host level. Analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of 2,739 diagnosed cases in Mexico from December 2014 to December 2015 showed a rapid nationwide expansion of the epidemic with focalisation in the South West of the country...
2018: PloS One
Meenakshi Agarwal, Ashish Pathak, Rajesh Singh Rathore, Om Prakash, Rakesh Singh, Rajneesh Jaswal, John Seaman, Ashvini Chauhan
Two Burkholderia spp. (strains SRS-25 and SRS-46) were isolated from high concentrations of uranium (U) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS contains soil gradients that remain co-contaminated by heavy metals from previous nuclear weapons production activities. Uranium (U) is one of the dominant contaminants within the SRS impacted soils, which can be microbially transformed into less toxic forms. We established microcosms containing strains SRS-25 and SRS-46 spiked with U and evaluated the microbially-mediated depletion with concomitant genomic and proteomic analysis...
December 12, 2018: Cells
Birgit M Wollmann, Hilde A Lunde, Lene K Støten, Niclas Lunder, Espen Molden
BACKGROUND: Drugs may potentially adsorb to blood collection tubes containing gel separators in the pre-analytical phase of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). The aim of this study was to compare measured concentrations of 28 psychoactive drugs and 13 metabolites in spiked serum samples stored on standard (plain) tubes vs. barrier gel tubes during a 2-6 days period at room temperature. METHODS: Drug-free ("blank") serum samples spiked with mixes of antidepressants, antipsychotics or mood stabilizers (valproic acid and lamotrigine), including relevant metabolites, were transferred to tubes with and without gel, i...
December 11, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Bettina Böttcher, Michael Nassal
Hepatitis B virus is a major human pathogen that consists of a viral genome surrounded by an icosahedrally ordered core protein and a polymorphic, lipidic envelope that is densely packed with surface proteins. A point mutation in the core protein in which a phenylalanine at position 97 is exchanged for a smaller leucine leads to premature envelopment of the capsid before the genome maturation is fully completed. We have used electron cryo-microscopy and image processing to investigate how the point mutation affects the structure of the capsid at 2...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Daniel Klotz, Marie Schreiner, Valeria Falcone, Daniel Jonas, Mirjam Kunze, Andrea Weber, Hans Fuchs, Roland Hentschel
Background: Human milk (HM) for preterm infants will often be pasteurized for cytomegalovirus (CMV) inactivation and reduction of its bacterial count. High-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment compared to standard Holder pasteurization (HoP) reduces the impact of heat treatment on bioactive HM proteins while effectively inactivating CMV. No data are available for the efficacy of bacterial count reduction using HTST treatments that are available for clinical use. Objective: To test the antiviral and antibacterial efficacy of HTST treatment protocols in HM using a modified HTST treatment device compared to standard HoP...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Manh Ha Nguyen, Tien Duc Pham, Thi Lien Nguyen, Hai Anh Vu, Thi Thao Ta, Minh Binh Tu, Thi Hong Yen Nguyen, Dinh Binh Chu
A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as an elemental specific detector was used for the speciation analysis of arsenic compounds in urine and serum samples from Vietnam. Five arsenic species including arsenite (AsIII ), arsenate (AsV ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB) were studied. A gradient elution of ammonium carbonate ((NH4 )2 CO3 ), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2 EDTA), and methanol at pH 9...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Bende Zou, William S Cao, Zhiwei Guan, Kui Xiao, Conrado Pascual, Julian Xie, Jingxi Zhang, James Xie, Frank Kayser, Craig W Lindsley, C David Weaver, Jidong Fang, Xinmin Simon Xie
Study Objectives: A major challenge in treating insomnia is to find effective medicines with fewer side effects. Activation of G-protein-gated inward rectifying K+ channels (GIRKs) by GABAB agonists baclofen or γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and consolidates sleep. However, baclofen has poor brain penetration, GHB possesses abuse liability, and in rodents both drugs cause spike-wave discharges (SWDs), an absence seizure activity. We tested the hypothesis that direct GIRK activation promotes sleep without inducing SWD using ML297, a potent and selective GIRK activator...
December 11, 2018: Sleep
Susanna K P Lau, Rachel Y Y Fan, Hayes K H Luk, Longchao Zhu, Joshua Fung, Kenneth S M Li, Emily Y M Wong, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Jasper F W Chan, Raven K H Kok, Kwok-Hung Chan, Ulrich Wernery, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo
Previous findings of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-related viruses in bats, and the ability of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4 spike protein to utilize MERS-CoV receptor, human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 hDPP4, suggest a bat ancestral origin of MERS-CoV. We developed 12 primary bat cell lines from seven bat species, including Tylonycteris pachypus, Pipistrellus abramus and Rhinolophus sinicus (hosts of Tylonycteris-BatCoV HKU4, Pipistrellus-BatCoV HKU5, and SARS-related-CoV respectively), and tested their susceptibilities to MERS-CoVs, SARS-CoV, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)...
December 10, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Christoph Hald, Corinna Dawid, Ralf Tressel, Thomas Hofmann
By means of activity-guided fractionation using taste dilution analysis (TDA), LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS/MS quantitation, dose-over-threshold considerations, and sensory spiking experiments, kaempferol 3-O-(2'''-O-sinapoyl-β-sophoroside), exhibiting a bitter taste above the low threshold concentration of 3.4 µmol/L, was found for the first time as the key molecule contributing to the undesired bitter taste of rapeseed (canola) protein isolates. This finding opens new avenues for a biorefinery approach targeting an off-taste removal...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Hui-Ju Han, Jian-Wei Liu, Hao Yu, Xue-Jie Yu
Since emerging in 2012, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a global public health threat with a high fatality rate and worldwide distribution. There are no approved vaccines or therapies for MERS until now. Passive immunotherapy with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an effective prophylactic and therapeutic reagent against emerging viruses. In this article, we review current advances in neutralizing mAbs against MERS-CoV. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of MERS-CoV is a major target, and mouse, camel, or human-derived neutralizing mAbs targeting RBD have been developed...
November 30, 2018: Viruses
Jean T Negou, Juan Hu, Xiangpeng Li, Christopher J Easley
In this work, we expand upon our recently developed droplet-based sample chopping concepts by introducing a multiplexed fluidic micro-chopper device (μChopper). Six aqueous input channels were integrated with a single oil input, and each of these seven channels was controlled by a pneumatic valve for automated sampling through software control. This improved design, while maintaining high precision in valve-based droplet generation at bandwidths of 0.03 to 0.05 Hz, enabled a variety of analytical modes to be employed on-chip compared to previous devices limited to sample/reference alternations...
July 28, 2018: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
Uzma Faridi
Middle East respiratory syndrome is the acute respiratory syndrome caused by betacoronavirus MERS-CoV. The first case of this disease was reported from Saudi Arabia in 2012. This virus is lethal and is a close relative of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which is responsible for more than 3000 deaths in 2002-2003. According to Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. The number of new cases is 457 in 2015. Riyadh has the highest number of reports in comparison to the other cities. According to this report, males are more susceptible than female, especially after the age of 40...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Melissa Yarbrough, Tamara Hodge, Daniele Menard, Richard Jerome, Jeff Ryczek, David Moore, Phoebe Baldus, Nick Warne, Satoshi Ohtake
Polysorbates are frequently utilized in biotherapeutic formulations. Interest in assessing their stability, in particular the impact of their degradation products, on the stability of therapeutic proteins has been steadily growing in the past decade. The work presented summarizes a case study of a monoclonal antibody formulation that demonstrated a simultaneous loss of polysorbate and an increase in methionine oxidation. Spiking studies were conducted to determine both the cause and a potential mitigation for the mAb oxidation and PS80 loss...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ercan Babür, Burak Tan, Sumeyra Delibaş, Marwa Yousef, Nurcan Dursun, Cem Süer
It is well-known that some kinases which are involved in the induction of synaptic plasticity probably modulate tau phosphorylation. However, how depression of potentiated synaptic strength contributes to tau phosphorylation is unclear because of the lack of experiments in which depotentiation of LTP was induced. Field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and population spike (PS) were recorded from the dentate gyrus in response to the perforant pathway stimulation. To induce LTP, high-frequency stimulation (HFS) was used, while, for depotentiation of LTP, low-frequency stimulation (LFS) consisting of 900 pulses at 1 Hz was applied 5 min after tetanization...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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