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spike protein

Wilfried Condemine, Thibaut Eguether, Nathalie Couroussé, Catherine Etchebest, Agnes Gardet, Germain Trugnan, Serge Chwetzoff
The interactions between viruses and actin cytoskeleton have been widely studied. We showed that rotaviruses remodel microfilaments in intestinal cells and demonstrated that this was due to the VP4 spike protein. Microfilaments mainly occur in the apical domain of infected polarized enterocytes and favor the polarized apical exit of viral progeny. The present work aims at the identification of molecular determinants of actin-VP4 interactions. We used various deletion mutants of VP4 that were transfected into Cos-7 cells and analyzed interactions by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Ako Sasao, Michiyo Takaki, Hee-Jin Jeong, Kosei Yonemitsu, Yuki Ohtsu, Hiroshi Tsutsumi, Shota Furukawa, Hiroshi Morioka, Hiroshi Ueda, Yoko Nishitani
The misuse of psychotropic drugs intended for medical treatment represents a recent worldwide public health concern. Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluoroimmunosensor that can detect an antigen immediately without additional reagents or washing steps. Here, we describe creating Q-bodies for the detection of the antidepressant fluvoxamine (FLV) and determining optimal conditions to achieve the highest fluorescence intensity (FI). We prepared five Q-bodies with the fluorophore labeled at either the N- or C- terminus and with different linker lengths...
October 17, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
David M Brown, Alison M Hixon, Lauren M Oldfield, Yun Zhang, Mark Novotny, Wei Wang, Suman R Das, Reed S Shabman, Kenneth L Tyler, Richard H Scheuermann
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses. However, in the summers of 2014 and 2016, EV-D68 outbreaks coincided with a spike in polio-like acute flaccid myelitis/paralysis (AFM/AFP) cases. This raised concerns that EV-D68 could be the causative agent of AFM during these recent outbreaks. To assess the potential neurotropism of EV-D68, we utilized the neuroblastoma-derived neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y as a cell culture model to determine if differential infection is observed for different EV-D68 strains...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Xian Zhang, Zuohuan Wang, Yun Fang, Renjie Sun, Tong Cao, Narayan Paudyal, Weihuan Fang, Houhui Song
We developed and tested a prototype of an antibody microarray immunoassay for simultaneous quantitative detection of four typical mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and fumonisin B₁) in corn samples. The test kit consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane layered with immobilized monoclonal antibodies against mycotoxins. During the assay, the mycotoxin-protein conjugates were biotinylated. The signal detection was enhanced by a combination of the biotin-streptavidin system and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)...
October 15, 2018: Toxins
Aaydha C Vinayaka, Tien A Ngo, Krishna Kant, Pia Engelsmann, Vivek P Dave, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Anders Wolff, Dang D Bang
Foodborne salmonellosis remains a major economic burden worldwide and particularly for food industries. The diverse and complexity of food matrices pose great challenges for rapid and ultra-sensitive detection of Salmonella in food samples. In this study, combination of pathogen pre-concentration with rapid molecular identification is presented to overcome these challenges. This combination enabled effective real-time PCR detection of low levels of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium without culture enrichment...
September 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Shiyu Long, Huipeng Yao, Qi Wu, Guoling Li
By using DNA Star, CUSP of EMBOSS, Codon W and IBM SPSS Statistics, nucleotide composition and codon usage pattern of 115 genes are researched in 37 BAVs. It shows that the composition of all genes prefers to AU, compared to CG, and for most of genes, the order is A, U, G and C in the virus. The ENC-values of the genes are slightly high which shows the weak codon bias, in which the codon bias of VP9 gene is the highest. The codon usage pattern of 12 different genes is different and related to their composition, their function or their host...
October 11, 2018: Virus Research
Z Ozdemir, B Tras, K Uney
This study determined the distribution of drugs to different milk fractions according to their physicochemical properties. Hydrophilic drugs tend to concentrate in skim milk, whereas lipophilic drugs tend to concentrate in cream. The concentration of a drug in casein is related to its degree of binding to milk proteins. Thus, we aimed to determine whether withdrawal time in whole milk differs from that in cream, casein, and skim milk. Amoxicillin and tylosin were selected as prototype hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, respectively...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Isma Belouah, Mélisande Blein-Nicolas, Thierry Balliau, Yves Gibon, Michel Zivy, Sophie Colombié
In bottom-up proteomics, data are acquired on peptides resulting from proteolysis. In XIC-based quantification, the quality of the estimation of protein abundance depends on how peptide data are filtered and on which quantification method is used to express peptide intensity as protein abundance. So far, these two questions have been addressed independently. Here, we studied to what extent the relative performances of the quantification methods depend on the filters applied to peptide intensity data. To this end, we performed a spike-in experiment using Universal Protein Standard to evaluate the performances of five quantification methods in five datasets obtained after application of four peptide filters...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Naveen K Singh, Phurpa Dema Thungon, Pedro Estrela, Pranab Goswami
There has been a continuous strive to develop portable, stable, sensitive and low cost detection system for malaria to meet the demand of effective screening actions in developing countries where the disease is most endemic. Herein, we report an aptamer-based field effect transistor (aptaFET) biosensor, developed by using an extended gate field effect transistor with inter-digitated gold microelectrodes (IDµE) for the detection of the malaria biomarker Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase (PfGDH) in serum samples...
September 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Junmin Zhao, Zhiwen Zhai, Yanan Li, Shuaifeng Geng, Gaoyuan Song, Jiantao Guan, Meiling Jia, Fang Wang, Guoliang Sun, Nan Feng, Xingchen Kong, Liang Chen, Long Mao, Aili Li
The TCP family genes are plant-specific transcription factors and play important roles in plant development. TCPs have been evolutionarily and functionally studied in several plants. Although common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a major staple crop worldwide, no systematic analysis of TCPs in this important crop has been conducted. Here, we performed a genome-wide survey in wheat and found 66 TCP genes that belonged to 22 homoeologous groups. We then mapped these genes on wheat chromosomes and found that several TCP genes were duplicated in wheat including the ortholog of the maize TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jivan Khlghatyan, Clémentine Quintana, Martin Parent, Jean-Martin Beaulieu
Cortical D2 dopamine receptor (Drd2) have mostly been examined in the context of cognitive function regulation and neurotransmission modulation of medial prefrontal cortex by principal neurons and parvalbumin positive, fast-spiking, interneurons in schizophrenia. Early studies suggested the presence of D2 receptors in several cortical areas, albeit with major technical limitations. We used combinations of transgenic reporter systems, recombinase activated viral vectors, quantitative translatome analysis, and high sensitivity in situ hybridization to identify D2 receptor expressing cells and establish a map of their respective projections...
October 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Rainer Haag, Pallavi Kiran, Sumati Bhatia, Daniel Lauster, Stevan Aleksić, Carsten Fleck, Natalija Peric, Wolfgang Maison, Susanne Liese, Bettina G Keller, Andreas Herrmann
We describe the chemical synthesis and binding analysis of functionalizable rigid and flexible core trivalent sialosides bearing oligoethylene glycol (OEG) spacers interacting with spike proteins of influenza A virus (IAV) X31. Although the flexible tris-based trivalent sialosides achieved micromolar binding constants, a trivalent binder based on a rigid adamantane core dominated flexible tripodal compounds with micromolar binding and hemagglutination inhibition constants. Simulation studies indicated increased conformational penalties for long OEG spacers...
October 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Daniel C Payne, Holly M Biggs, Mohammad Mousa Al-Abdallat, Sultan Alqasrawi, Xiaoyan Lu, Glen R Abedi, Aktham Haddadin, Ibrahim Iblan, Tarek Alsanouri, Mohannad Al Nsour, Sami Sheikh Ali, Brian Rha, Suvang U Trivedi, Mohammed Ata Ur Rasheed, Azaibi Tamin, Mart M Lamers, Bart L Haagmans, Dean D Erdman, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber
Background: An outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Jordan in 2015 involved a variant virus that acquired distinctive deletions in the accessory open reading frames. We conducted a molecular and seroepidemiologic investigation to describe the deletion variant's transmission patterns and epidemiology. Methods: We reviewed epidemiologic and medical chart data and analyzed viral genome sequences from respiratory specimens of MERS-CoV cases...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Natasha N Tirko, Katherine W Eyring, Ioana Carcea, Mariela Mitre, Moses V Chao, Robert C Froemke, Richard W Tsien
Oxytocin is an important neuromodulator in the mammalian brain that increases information salience and circuit plasticity, but its signaling mechanisms and circuit effect are not fully understood. Here we report robust oxytocinergic modulation of intrinsic properties and circuit operations in hippocampal area CA2, a region of emerging importance for hippocampal function and social behavior. Upon oxytocin receptor activation, CA2 pyramidal cells depolarize and fire bursts of action potentials, a consequence of phospholipase C signaling to modify two separate voltage-dependent ionic processes...
September 26, 2018: Neuron
Jingqian Huo, Zhenfeng Li, Debin Wan, Dongyang Li, Meng Qi, Bogdan Barnych, Natalia Vasylieva, Jinlin Zhang, Bruce D Hammock
3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), 1(Figure 1) is a human urinary metabolite of many pyrethroid insecticides and can be used as a biomarker to monitor human exposure to these pesticides. A rapid and sensitive direct competitive fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (dc-FEIA) for detecting of 3-PBA based on a nanobody (Nb)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion protein was developed. The anti-3-PBA Nb-AP fusion protein was expressed and purificated. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the linear range of the dc-FEIA were 0...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Rafael Luján, Carolina Aguado, Francisco Ciruela, Xavier Morató Arus, Alejandro Martín-Belmonte, Rocío Alfaro-Ruiz, Jesús Martínez-Gómez, Luis de la Ossa, Masahiko Watanabe, John P Adelman, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Yugo Fukazawa
The small-conductance, Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channel subtype SK2 regulates the spike rate and firing frequency, as well as Ca2+ transients in Purkinje cells (PCs). To understand the molecular basis by which SK2 channels mediate these functions, we analyzed the exact location and densities of SK2 channels along the neuronal surface of the mouse cerebellar PCs using SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling (SDS-FRL) of high sensitivity combined with quantitative analyses. Immunogold particles for SK2 were observed on post- and pre-synaptic compartments showing both scattered and clustered distribution patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Dmitry Malioutov, Tianchi Chen, Edoardo Airoldi, Jacob D Jaffe, Bogdan Budnik, Nikolai Slavov
Many proteoforms - arising from alternative splicing, post-translational modifications (PTM), or paralogous genes - have distinct biological functions, such as histone PTM proteoforms. However, their quantification by existing bottom-up mass-spectrometry (MS) methods is undermined by peptide-specific biases. To avoid these biases, we developed and implemented a first-principles model (HIquant ) for quantifying proteoform stoichiometries. We characterized when MS data allow inferring proteoform stoichiometries by HIquant and derived an algorithm for optimal inference...
October 3, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
M Vasfi Marandi, M Malekan, M M Ranjbar, N Dadashpour Davachi, S Alamian
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically important viral disease of chickens. The S1 subunit from Spike (S) protein plays the major role in protective immunity and is involved in the host-virus interactions, as well as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) serotyping. Aim of the present study was multi-aspect analysis of the molecular and immunological features of 5' part belonging to the S1 glycoprotein sequence of Iranian 793/B IBV strain isolates. This might ideally help in characterization, prevention, and vaccine development...
September 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Andreas Hillarp, Karin Strandberg, Fariba Baghaei, Inger Fagerberg Blixter, Kerstin M Gustafsson, Tomas L Lindahl
Edoxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. The effects on common coagulation assays are clinically valuable information and in certain clinical situations a quick assessment of the anticoagulant is wanted. Our aim was to investigate the effect of edoxaban on routine coagulation methods and evaluate anti-Xa assays, commonly used for other direct factor Xa inhibitors, for estimation of the drug concentration. Edoxaban was spiked to plasma samples from healthy subjects in the concentration range 0-742 µg/L and analyzed using different reagents for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT)...
October 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Ying Zhu, Jennifer Podolak, Rui Zhao, Anil K Shukla, Ronald J Moore, George V Thomas, Ryan T Kelly
Proteome profiling of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can provide crucial insight into disease progression and the role of CTCs in tumor metastasis. We describe an integrated workflow to measure global protein expression in 1-5 spiked CTCs enriched from whole blood by immunodensity gradient centrifugation. Enriched CTCs were purified and collected by laser capture microdissection, prepared using a recently developed nanodroplet-based processing platform (nanoPOTS), and finally analyzed by ultrasensitive nanoLC-MS/MS...
October 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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