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spike protein

Chao-Zhi Tang, Jun-Tang Yang, Qing-Hui Liu, Ya-Ru Wang, Wen-Sheng Wang
Depression represents a condition characterized by cognitive deficits and neural dysfunction and has recently been correlated with microRNAs (miRs) and their respective target genes. The present study was conducted with the goal of investigating the expression of miR-192-5p and its target gene fibulin (Fbln)-2 in an attempt to evaluate their roles in the occurrence and progression of cognitive impairment and neural function in mice with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression through regulation of the TGF-β1 signal transduction pathway...
August 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kunse Lee, Hae Li Ko, Eun-Young Lee, Hyo-Jung Park, Young Seok Kim, Yeon-Sook Kim, Nam-Hyuk Cho, Man-Seong Park, Sang-Myeong Lee, Jihye Kim, Hun Kim, Baik Lin Seong, Jae-Hwan Nam
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that causes severe respiratory disease in humans with a high rate of fatality. The binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DDP4) is the critical step in MERS-CoV infection of a host cell. No vaccines or clinically applicable treatments are currently available for MERS-CoV. Therefore, rapid diagnosis is important for improving patient outcomes through prompt treatment and protecting against viral outbreaks...
August 17, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
Buddini Iroshika Karawdeniya, Y M Nuwan D Y Bandara, Jonathan W Nichols, Robert B Chevalier, Jason R Dwyer
Polysaccharides have key biological functions and can be harnessed for therapeutic roles, such as the anticoagulant heparin. Their complexity-e.g., >100 monosaccharides with variety in linkage and branching structure-significantly complicates analysis compared to other biopolymers such as DNA and proteins. More, and improved, analysis tools have been called for, and here we demonstrate that solid-state silicon nitride nanopore sensors and tuned sensing conditions can be used to reliably detect native polysaccharides and enzymatic digestion products, differentiate between different polysaccharides in straightforward assays, provide new experimental insights into nanopore electrokinetics, and uncover polysaccharide properties...
August 16, 2018: Nature Communications
The Trung Tran, Ravi Chand Bollineni, Christian Jeffrey Koehler, Bernd Thiede
Absolute targeted proteomics typically employs known amounts of synthetic stable isotopically labeled peptides which are mixed with the analyte and analysed by LC-MS to determine the concentration of proteins. In order to obtain more data, we evaluated the use of two different stable isotopes of the same peptide as spike-in for absolute quantification. For this purpose, peptide labeling by reductive amination was applied, which is a mild reaction for dimethylation of amine groups with very high yield. Three different forms can be generated with e...
August 16, 2018: Analyst
Michael Letko, Kerri Miazgowicz, Rebekah McMinn, Stephanie N Seifert, Isabel Sola, Luis Enjuanes, Aaron Carmody, Neeltje van Doremalen, Vincent Munster
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) likely originated in bats and passed to humans through dromedary camels; however, the genetic mechanisms underlying cross-species adaptation remain poorly understood. Variation in the host receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), can block the interaction with the MERS-CoV spike protein and form a species barrier to infection. To better understand the species adaptability of MERS-CoV, we identified a suboptimal species-derived variant of DPP4 to study viral adaption...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Tatyana Vagner, Cristiana Spinelli, Valentina R Minciacchi, Leonora Balaj, Mandana Zandian, Andrew Conley, Andries Zijlstra, Michael R Freeman, Francesca Demichelis, Subhajyoti De, Edwin M Posadas, Hisashi Tanaka, Dolores Di Vizio
Cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed structures of highly variable size. EVs contain a myriad of substances (proteins, lipid, RNA, DNA) that provide a reservoir of circulating molecules, thus offering a good source of biomarkers. We demonstrate here that large EVs (L-EV) (large oncosomes) isolated from prostate cancer (PCa) cells and patient plasma are an EV population that is enriched in chromosomal DNA, including large fragments up to 2 million base pair long. While L-EVs and small EVs (S-EV) (exosomes) isolated from the same cells contained similar amounts of protein, the DNA was more abundant in L-EV, despite S-EVs being more numerous...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Hui-Ling Hsu, Chuan-Chang Chuang, Chung-Chih Liang, Der-Jiang Chiao, Hsueh-Ling Wu, Yu-Ping Wu, Feng-Ping Lin, Rong-Hwa Shyu
BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis is a contributing agent to the epidemic disease, plague, which killed an estimated 200 million people during historical times. In this study, a rapid, cheap, sensitive, and specific technique, the lateral flow assay (F1 strips), has been successfully developed to detect this pathogen, by using paired monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Y. pestis capsule like fraction 1 (F1) protein. Compared with the polyclonal antibody (PAb) based F1 strips, the Mab-based F1 strips have a remarkable increased detection limitation (10 to 100 folds)...
August 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Franklin L Nobrega, Marnix Vlot, Patrick A de Jonge, Lisa L Dreesens, Hubertus J E Beaumont, Rob Lavigne, Bas E Dutilh, Stan J J Brouns
Phages differ substantially in the bacterial hosts that they infect. Their host range is determined by the specific structures that they use to target bacterial cells. Tailed phages use a broad range of receptor-binding proteins, such as tail fibres, tail spikes and the central tail spike, to target their cognate bacterial cell surface receptors. Recent technical advances and new structure-function insights have begun to unravel the molecular mechanisms and temporal dynamics that govern these interactions. Here, we review the current understanding of the targeting machinery and mechanisms of tailed phages...
August 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
V Stalin Raj, Nisreen M A Okba, Javier Gutierrez-Alvarez, Dubravka Drabek, Brenda van Dieren, W Widagdo, Mart M Lamers, Ivy Widjaja, Raul Fernandez-Delgado, Isabel Sola, Albert Bensaid, Marion P Koopmans, Joaquim Segalés, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Berend Jan Bosch, Luis Enjuanes, Bart L Haagmans
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to cause outbreaks in humans as a result of spillover events from dromedaries. In contrast to humans, MERS-CoV-exposed dromedaries develop only very mild infections and exceptionally potent virus-neutralizing antibody responses. These strong antibody responses may be caused by affinity maturation as a result of repeated exposure to the virus or by the fact that dromedaries-apart from conventional antibodies-have relatively unique, heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAbs)...
August 2018: Science Advances
Stephanie N Kennedy, Brittany Wilhite, J Margaret Castellini, Lorrie D Rea, Tom Kuhn, Andrea Ferrante, Todd O'Hara
Immunoglobulins (Ig) are proteins that preserve immune homeostasis and are quantified to infer changes to the acquired humoral immune response in mammals. Measuring Ig in non-model wildlife for immune surveillance often requires ingenuity, and rigorous standardization of methodologies to provide reliable results especially when lacking species-specific reagents. We modified and optimized existing ELISA methodology utilizing the binding properties of Staphylococcus-derived Protein A (PrtA) to immunoglobulin G (IgG)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Bei Qin, Kuan Yang
A sensitive electrochemical aptasensor was developed for the determination of thrombin. It is based on signal amplification by using graphene oxide (GO) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and placed on a microelectrode. The graphene oxide decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNP-GO) was synthesized by chemical reduction and then modified with a thrombin-binding aptamer 1 (TBA1; a 29-mer) carrying a 3'-terminal thiol group. It was immobilized on the AgNP-GO by self-assembled monolayer technique to form the signaling probe (TBA1-AgNP-GO)...
August 9, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Ting Zheng, Peng-Fei Qi, Yong-Li Cao, Ya-Nan Han, Hong-Liang Ma, Zhen-Ru Guo, Yan Wang, Yuan-Yuan Qiao, Shi-Yu Hua, Hai-Yue Yu, Jiang-Ping Wang, Jing Zhu, Cai-Yi Zhou, Ya-Zhou Zhang, Qing Chen, Li Kong, Ji-Rui Wang, Qian-Tao Jiang, Ze-Hong Yan, Xiu-Jin Lan, Gao-Qiong Fan, Yu-Ming Wei, You-Liang Zheng
Basis for the effects of nitrogen (N) on wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) and on the establishment of processing quality are far from clear. The response of GSPs and processing quality parameters to four N levels of four common wheat cultivars were investigated at two sites over two growing seasons. Except gluten index (GI), processing quality parameters as well as GSPs quantities were remarkably improved by increasing N level. N level explained 4.2~59.2% and 10.4~80.0% variability in GSPs fractions and processing quality parameters, respectively...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ju Kim, Ye Lin Yang, Sun-Hee Jang, Yong-Suk Jang
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primarily known for their innate immune defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested their modulatory activity in immune induction. Given that most subunit vaccines require an adjuvant to achieve effective immune induction through the activation of innate immunity, AMPs are plausible candidate molecules for stimulating not only innate immune but also adaptive immune responses. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the ability of human β-defensin (HBD) 2 to promote antiviral immunity in vitro and in vivo using a receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein (S RBD) as a model antigen (Ag)...
August 8, 2018: Virology Journal
Han Zhang, Jian Ma, Jiajun Liu, Yang Mu, Huaping Tang, Yaxi Liu, Guangdeng Chen, Qiantao Jiang, Guoyue Chen, Yuming Wei, Youliang Zheng, Xiujin Lan
OsWTG1 (LOC_Os08g42540.1) functions as an important factor determining grain size and shape in rice. Our understanding on its ortholog in wheat, TaWTG1, is limited. Here, we identified and mapped TaWTG1 in wheat, characterized its gene and protein structures, predicted transcription factor binding sites of its promoter, and the expression patterns was also analysed bases on real-time quantitative PCR and public available microarray data. The WTG1 orthologs in barley (HvWTG1), rice (OsWTG1), Aegilops tauschii (AtWTG1), Triticum urartu (TuWTG1), Triticum turgidum (TtWTG1) and Brachypodium distachyon (BdWTG1) were also identified for comparative analyses...
August 4, 2018: Gene
Diana C Rotaru, Geeske M van Woerden, Ilse Wallaard, Ype Elgersma
E3 ubiquitin ligase (UBE3A) levels in the brain need to be tightly regulated, as loss of functional UBE3A protein is responsible for the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome (AS), whereas increased activity of UBE3A is associated with non-syndromic autism. Given the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, we aimed to identify the functional changes resulting from loss of UBE3A in infralimbic and prelimbic mPFC areas in a mouse model of AS. Whole-cell recordings from layer 5 mPFC pyramidal neurons obtained in brain slices from adult mice of both sexes, revealed that loss of UBE3A results in a strong decrease of spontaneous inhibitory transmission and increase of spontaneous excitatory transmission potentially leading to a marked excitation/inhibition imbalance...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Marzhan Sypabekova, Pawan Jolly, Pedro Estrela, Damira Kanayeva
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. There is a great need for the development of diagnostic tests, which are reliable, sensitive, stable, and low cost to enable early diagnosis of TB in communities with scarce resources. This study reports the optimization and evaluation of a synthetic receptor, an aptamer, for the detection of the secreted protein MPT64, which is a highly immunogenic polypeptide of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a causative agent of TB. The study investigates combinatorial effects of an aptamer linker and a co-adsorbent onto a gold electrode for optimal binding efficiency and reduced non-specific interactions for label-free detection of MPT64 using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...
July 26, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Pallab Kumar Ghosh, Tushar Kanti Maiti, Krishnendu Pramanik, Sudip Kumar Ghosh, Soumik Mitra, Tarun Kumar De
The biological agents have been utilized as an affordable alternative to conventional costly metal remediation technologies for last few years. The present investigation introduces arsenic (As) resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from the As-contaminated agricultural field of West Bengal, India that alleviates arsenic-induced toxicity and exhibited many plant growth promoting traits (PGP). The isolated strain designated as AS6 has identified as Bacillus aryabhattai based on phenotypic characteristics, physio-biochemical tests, MALDI-TOFMS bio-typing, FAME analysis and 16S rDNA sequence homology...
July 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Roberto Giacomelli, Piero Ruscitti, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology usually affecting young adults; spiking fever, arthritis and evanescent rash are commonly observed during the disease. Other frequently observed clinical features include sore throat, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and serositis. Furthermore, AOSD patients may experience different life-threating complications. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) has been reported up to 15% of AOSD patients and it is considered to be the most severe complication of the disease being characterised by high mortality rate...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Gloria J Partida, Anna Fasoli, Alex Fogli Iseppe, Genki Ogata, Jeffrey S Johnson, Vithya Thambiaiyah, Christopher L Passaglia, Andrew T Ishida
Repeated spike firing is useful both in transmitting information at synapses and in modulating spike timing, shape, and conduction velocity. These latter effects can result from voltage-induced changes in ion currents and may alter the signals carried by axons. Here, we test whether Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulates spike propagation in adult rat optic nerve. We find that small-, medium-, and large-diameter axons bind anti-Thr286-phosphorylated CaMKII (pT286) antibodies and that, in isolated optic nerves, electrical stimulation reduces pT286 levels; spike propagation is hastened by CaMKII autophosphorylation and slowed by CaMKII dephosphorylation; single and multiple spikes slow propagation of subsequently activated spikes; and more frequent stimulation produces greater slowing...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jinxin He, Jiesheng Tian, Junjie Xu, Kai Wang, Ji Li, Shirley J Gee, Bruce D Hammock, Qing X Li, Ting Xu
Variable domain of heavy chain antibody (nanobody, Nb) derived from camelids is an efficient reagent in monitoring environmental contaminants. Oriented conjugates of Nbs and bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) provide new tools for the high-throughput immunoassay techniques. An anti-tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) Nb genetically integrated with an extra cysteine residue at the C terminus was immobilized onto BMPs enclosed within the protein membrane, using a heterobifunctional reagent N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol) propionate, to form a solid BMP-Nb complex...
August 1, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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