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Ryan R Kelly, Lindsay T McDonald, Vincent D Pellegrini, James J Cray, Amanda C Larue
BACKGROUND AIMS: Previous studies identified a circulating human osteoblastic population that expressed osteocalcin (OCN), increased following fracture and pubertal growth, and formed mineralized colonies in vitro and bone in vivo. A subpopulation expressed CD34, a hematopoietic/endothelial marker. These findings led to our hypothesis that hematopoietic-derived CD34+ OCN+ cells exist in the circulation of mice and are modulated after fracture. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to identify CD34+ OCN+ cells in male B6...
October 16, 2018: Cytotherapy
Lindsay M Lueptow, Lakshmi A Devi, Amanda K Fakira
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a superfamily of receptors responsible for initiation of a myriad of intracellular signaling cascades. Currently, GPCRs represent approximately 34% of marketed pharmaceuticals, a large portion of which have no known endogenous ligand. These orphan GPCRs represent a large pool of novel targets for drug development. Very recently, the neuropeptide PEN, derived from the proteolytic processing of the precursor proSAAS, has been identified as a selective, high-affinity endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor, GPR83...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Martin P Paulus, Lindsay M Squeglia, Kara Bagot, Joanna Jacobus, Rayus Kuplicki, Florence J Breslin, Jerzy Bodurka, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Wesley K Thompson, Hauke Bartsch, Susan F Tapert
The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i...
October 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Lindsay T Michalovicz, Alicia R Locker, Kimberly A Kelly, Julie V Miller, Zachary Barnes, Mary Ann Fletcher, Diane B Miller, Nancy G Klimas, Mariana Morris, Stephen M Lasley, James P O'Callaghan
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder experienced by as many as a third of the veterans of the 1991 Gulf War; the constellation of "sickness behavior" symptoms observed in ill veterans is suggestive of a neuroimmune involvement. Various chemical exposures and conditions in theater have been implicated in the etiology of the illness. Previously, we found that GW-related organophosphates (OPs), such as the sarin surrogate, DFP, and chlorpyrifos, cause neuroinflammation. The combination of these exposures with exogenous corticosterone (CORT), mimicking high physiological stress, exacerbates the observed neuroinflammation...
October 16, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Liam G Heaney, John Busby, Peter Bradding, Rekha Chaudhuri, Adel H Mansur, Robert Niven, Ian D Pavord, John T Lindsay, Richard W Costello
Rationale Poor adherence is common in difficult-to-control asthma. Distinguishing patients with difficult-to-control asthma who respond to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) from refractory asthma is an important clinical challenge. Objectives Suppression of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) with directly observed ICS therapy over 7 days can identify non-adherence to ICS treatment in difficult-to-control asthma. We examined the feasibility and utility of FeNO suppression testing in routine clinical care within UK severe asthma centres using remote monitoring technologies...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Adrian J Lindsay, Barak F Caracheo, Jamie J S Grewal, Daniel Leibovitz, Jeremy K Seamans
Specialized brain structures encode spatial locations and movements, yet there is growing evidence that this information is also represented in the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Disambiguating such information from the encoding of other types of task-relevant information has proven challenging. To determine the extent to which movement and location information is relevant to mPFC neurons, tetrodes were used to record neuronal activity while limb positions, poses (i.e., recurring constellations of limb positions), velocity, and spatial locations were simultaneously recorded with two cameras every 200 ms as rats freely roamed in an experimental enclosure...
March 2018: ENeuro
Meredith N Will, Kristn Currans, Jennifer Smith, Stephanie Weber, Amie Duncan, Jenny Burton, Kimberly Kroeger-Geoppinger, Valerie Miller, Megan Stone, Lindsay Mays, Ashley Luebrecht, Anna Heeman, Craig Erickson, Julia Anixt
This paper reviews evidenced-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across the disciplines of psychology, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, and developmental pediatrics. BACKGROUND: rates of ASD diagnoses have been steadily rising over the past 2 decades. There are a wide range of therapies and interventions, of varying levels of evidence, across disciplines that are now available to treat children with ASD. The field has moved toward a greater emphasis on the identification and utilization of evidenced-based treatments...
October 15, 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
James M Kidd, Lindsay M Avery, Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau, Joseph L Kuti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Alan D Rogol, Lindsay Parks Pieper
This report illustrates the links between history, sport, endocrinology, and genetics to show the ways in which historical context is key to understanding the current conversations and controversies about who may compete in the female category in elite sport. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) introduced hyperandrogenemia regulations for women's competitions in 2011, followed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the 2012 Olympics. The policies concern female athletes who naturally produce higher-than-average levels of testosterone and want to compete in the women's category...
October 18, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Monika E Freiser, Anish Ghodadra, Lindsay Hart, Christopher Griffith, Noel Jabbour
Importance: Three-dimensional (3-D) printing of temporal bones is becoming more prevalent. However, there has been no measure of the safety of drilling these models to date. It is unknown whether the heat and sheer from the drill may create harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Objective: To determine the level of exposure to airborne contaminants when conducting high-speed drilling on 3-D-printed models and to explore whether there is a need for exposure control measures...
September 1, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
David A Drummond, Lindsay B Carey
With the emerging incorporation of spiritual care into the allied health stream, there is a need for a clear and validated process of spiritual review that can be understood across multidisciplinary teams. The aim and purpose of this paper was to critically review the literature regarding spiritual screening, history-taking and assessment, and explore the merits of developing a brief instrument focussed on assessing and improving the spiritual well-being of consumers within residential aged care. Following an exploratory review of the literature, the results indicate that effective processes are noted regarding the triage and identification of the needs and spiritual assessment of consumers; however, many of these tools are overly religious in content, unwieldy in size, or not specifically aimed at identifying the immediate crisis confronting the consumer...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Lindsay O Neto, Elizabeth S Gromisch, Jessica Sloan, Tuula Tyry, Frederick W Foley
PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, chronic disease that can have debilitating effects on daily activities and well-being, compromising health-related quality of life. One underlying determinant of quality of life (QOL) is perceived illness intrusiveness, which examines the disruptiveness of the condition and/or its related treatment on engagement in interest and activities, in turn affecting psychological functioning. There is evidence that persons with MS (PwMS) have higher level of illness intrusiveness compared to those with other chronic conditions; however, limited research exists on differences by sex...
October 17, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Iacopo Franconi, Olga Theou, Lindsay Wallace, Andrea Malagoli, Cristina Mussini, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Standard care for HIV clinical practice has started focusing on age-related problems, but despite this recent change physicians involved in HIV care do not often screen HIV patients for frailty. Our aim was to construct three indexes from an HIV clinical database (i.e. Frailty Index, (FI), HIV Index, (HIVI), and Protective Index (PI)) and to assess levels of frailty, HIV severity and demographic and protective lifestyle factors among HIV patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 1612 patients who attended an Italian HIV clinic between September 2016 and December2017 (mean±SD age: 53...
2018: PloS One
Brigitte N Durieux, Cailin J Gramling, Viktoria Manukyan, Margaret J Eppstein, Donna M Rizzo, Lindsay M Ross, Aidan G Ryan, Michelle A Niland, Laurence A Clarfeld, Stewart C Alexander, Robert Gramling
BACKGROUND: Systematic measurement of conversational features in the natural clinical setting is essential to better understand, disseminate, and incentivize high quality serious illness communication. Advances in machine-learning (ML) classification of human speech offer exceptional opportunity to complement human coding (HC) methods for measurement in large scale studies. OBJECTIVES: To test the reliability, efficiency, and sensitivity of a tandem ML-HC method for identifying one feature of clinical importance in serious illness conversations: Connectional Silence...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Martina Wallace, Courtney R Green, Lindsay S Roberts, Yujung Michelle Lee, Justin L McCarville, Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Noah Meurs, Jivani M Gengatharan, Justin D Hover, Susan A Phillips, Theodore P Ciaraldi, David A Guertin, Pedro Cabrales, Janelle S Ayres, Daniel K Nomura, Rohit Loomba, Christian M Metallo
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) predominantly generates straight-chain fatty acids using acetyl-CoA as the initiating substrate. However, monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) are also present in mammals but are thought to be primarily diet derived. Here we demonstrate that mmBCFAs are de novo synthesized via mitochondrial BCAA catabolism, exported to the cytosol by adipose-specific expression of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT), and elongated by FASN. Brown fat exhibits the highest BCAA catabolic and mmBCFA synthesis fluxes, whereas these lipids are largely absent from liver and brain...
November 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Susanne Katharina Schwechheimer, Judith Becker, Lindsay Peyriga, Jean-Charles Portais, Christoph Wittmann
BACKGROUND: The fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important industrial producer of the vitamin riboflavin. Using this microbe, riboflavin is manufactured in a two-stage process based on a rich medium with vegetable oil, yeast extract and different precursors: an initial growth and a subsequent riboflavin production phase. So far, our knowledge on the intracellular metabolic fluxes of the fungus in this complex process is limited, but appears highly relevant to better understand and rationally engineer the underlying metabolism...
October 16, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Chester B Good, N Randall Kolb, Lindsay Nakaishi, Mark Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jennifer C Fuller, Shekhar K Gadkaree, Patricia A Levesque, Robin W Lindsay
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) as a measure of nasal airflow and functional septorhinoplasty (FSRP) outcomes. METHODS: Patients with nasal obstruction were administered Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) questionnaire and PNIF testing between January 2015 and 2018. Surgical patients repeated these tests at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Patient demographics and operative techniques were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 610 patients were evaluated for nasal obstruction with mean (standard deviation [SD]) NOSE score of 61...
October 16, 2018: Laryngoscope
Helen Tilbrook, Laura Clark, Liz Cook, Martin Bland, Hannah Buckley, Ian Chetter, Jo Dumville, Chris Fenner, Rachael Forsythe, Rhian Gabe, Keith Harding, Alison Layton, Ellie Lindsay, Catriona McDaid, Christine Moffatt, Debbie Rolfe, Illary Sbizzera, Gerard Stansby, David Torgerson, Peter Vowden, Laurie Williams, Robert Hinchliffe
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers (VLUs) are the most common cause of leg ulceration, affecting 1 in 100 adults. VLUs may take many months to heal (25% fail to heal). Estimated prevalence is between 1% and 3% of the elderly population. Compression is the mainstay of treatment and few additional therapies exist to improve healing. Two previous trials have indicated that low-dose aspirin, as an adjunct to standard care, may improve healing time, but these trials were insufficiently robust. Aspirin is an inexpensive, widely used medication but its safety and efficacy in the treatment of VLUs remains to be established...
October 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Eshini Panditharatna, Lindsay B Kilburn, Mariam S Aboian, Madhuri Kambhampati, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Suresh N Magge, Nalin Gupta, John S Myseros, Eugene I Hwang, Cassie Kline, John R Crawford, Katherine E Warren, Soonmee Cha, Winnie S Liang, Michael E Berens, Roger J Packer, Adam C Resnick, Michael Prados, Sabine Mueller, Javad Nazarian
Purpose: Pediatric diffuse midline glioma (DMG) are highly malignant tumors with poor clinical outcomes. Over 70% of patients with DMG harbor the histone 3 p.K27M (H3K27M) mutation, which correlates with a poorer clinical outcome, and is also used as a criterion for enrollment in clinical trials. Because complete surgical resection of DMG is not an option, biopsy at presentation is feasible, but rebiopsy at time of progression is rare. While imaging and clinical-based disease monitoring is the standard of care, molecular-based longitudinal characterization of these tumors is almost nonexistent...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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