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Denise F Blake, Melissa Crowe, Daniel Lindsay, Annie Brouff, Simon J Mitchell, Neal W Pollock
INTRODUCTION: High concentration normobaric oxygen (O₂) is a priority in treating divers with suspected decompression illness. The effect of different O₂ mask configurations on tissue oxygenation when breathing with a demand valve was evaluated. METHODS: Sixteen divers had tissue oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) measured at six limb sites. Participants breathed O₂ from a demand valve using: an intraoral mask (IOM®) with and without a nose clip (NC), a pocket face mask and an oronasal mask...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Soomi Lee, Lauren Hale, Anne-Marie Chang, Nicole G Nahmod, Lindsay Master, Lawrence M Berger, Orfeu M Buxton
Study Objectives: Having a regular, age-appropriate bedtime and sufficient sleep from early childhood may be important for healthy weight in adolescence. This study aimed to (1) identify heterogeneous groups of children by bedtime and sleep routines and (2) test longitudinal associations of childhood bedtime and sleep routine groups with adolescent body mass index (BMI). Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national birth cohort from 20 US cities (N = 2196)...
December 4, 2018: Sleep
Farid Rajabli, Briseida E Feliciano, Katrina Celis, Kara L Hamilton-Nelson, Patrice L Whitehead, Larry D Adams, Parker L Bussies, Clara P Manrique, Alejandra Rodriguez, Vanessa Rodriguez, Takiyah Starks, Grace E Byfield, Carolina B Sierra Lopez, Jacob L McCauley, Heriberto Acosta, Angel Chinea, Brian W Kunkle, Christiane Reitz, Lindsay A Farrer, Gerard D Schellenberg, Badri N Vardarajan, Jeffery M Vance, Michael L Cuccaro, Eden R Martin, Jonathan L Haines, Goldie S Byrd, Gary W Beecham, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
The ApoE ε4 allele is the most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. The risk conferred by ε4, however, differs across populations, with populations of African ancestry showing lower ε4 risk compared to those of European or Asian ancestry. The cause of this heterogeneity in risk effect is currently unknown; it may be due to environmental or cultural factors correlated with ancestry, or it may be due to genetic variation local to the ApoE region that differs among populations. Exploring these hypotheses may lead to novel, population-specific therapeutics and risk predictions...
December 2018: PLoS Genetics
Helen E Groves, Hong Guo-Parke, Lindsay Broadbent, Michael D Shields, Ultan F Power
BACKGROUND: Innate immune responses of airway epithelium are important defences against respiratory pathogens and allergens. Newborn infants are at greater risk of severe respiratory infections compared to older infants, while premature infants are at greater risk than full term infants. However, very little is known regarding human neonatal airway epithelium immune responses and whether age-related morphological and/or innate immune changes contribute to the development of airway disease...
2018: PloS One
D Stephen Lindsay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Psychological Science
Jiajun Liu, Keith S Kaye, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Twisha S Patel, Lindsay A Petty, Gwendolyn M Pais, Marc H Scheetz
Inappropriate antibiotic use is associated with increased antimicrobial resistance and adverse events that can lead to further downstream patient harm. Preventative strategies must be employed to improve antibiotic use while reducing avoidable harm. We use the term "antibiotic never events" to globally recognize and define the most inappropriate antibiotic use.
December 5, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Leigh Nicholson, Romanthi Madawala, Laura Lindsay, Christopher R Murphy
During early pregnancy, the uterine luminal epithelial cells (UECs) and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) undergo morphological changes to enable blastocyst implantation. The present study investigates, for the first time, the cytoskeletal-associated proteins and α-actinin superfamily members, α-parvin and β-parvin, during early pregnancy in the rat uterus. These two PARVA proteins are involved in cell adhesion, morphological changes and regulation of other cytoskeletal proteins, through binding with proteins such as actin and integrin-linked kinase...
December 5, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Lindsay S Hall, Charlotte S Lennon, Andrew M Hall, Stanislaw J Urbaniak, Mark A Vickers, Robert N Barker
Platelet destruction in immune thrombocytopenia is caused by autoreactive antibody and T cell responses, most commonly directed against platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. Loss of self-tolerance in the disease is also associated with deficient activity of regulatory T cells. Having previously mapped seven major epitopes on platelet glycoprotein IIIa that are recognised by helper T cells from patients with immune thrombocytopenia, the aim was to test whether peptide therapy with any of these sequences, alone or in combination, could inhibit responses to the antigen in humanized mice expressing HLA-DR15...
December 4, 2018: Haematologica
Enedino Hernández-Torres, Vanessa Wiggermann, Lindsay Machan, A Dessa Sadovnick, David K B Li, Anthony Traboulsee, Simon Hametner, Alexander Rauscher
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance relaxometry studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) have suggested that iron accumulates within deep gray matter (DGM) structures early in the disease course. However, the commonly utilized mean R2* and magnetic susceptibility measures reflect regional iron concentration but not a structure's total iron content. Thus, tissue atrophy could impact mean R2* and magnetic susceptibility estimates. PURPOSE: To demonstrate that both average iron concentration and total iron content need to be reported in order to distinguish between atrophy-related and definite magnetic susceptibility changes...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Dayanne Vigo Miranda, Meliza Lindsay Rojas, Sandra Pagador, Leslie Lescano, Jesús Sanchez-Gonzalez, Guillermo Linares
An agroindustrial by-product (cactus pear peel) and whole grains flour (brown rice and amaranth) were used to present a gluten-free snack proposal. The effect of 5% (F1), 7% (F2), and 10% (F3) substitution of brown-rice flour for yellow cactus pear peel powder ( Opuntia ficus-indica ) on the snack physical, sensorial, and nutritional properties was evaluated. In addition, 20% of amaranth flour (Amaranthus caudatus) was used for all formulations. As the percentage of substitution increased, the a⁎ value increased, while the L⁎ decreased...
2018: International Journal of Food Science
Brian C Searle, Lindsay K Pino, Jarrett D Egertson, Ying S Ting, Robert T Lawrence, Brendan X MacLean, Judit Villén, Michael J MacCoss
Data independent acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry is a powerful technique that is improving the reproducibility and throughput of proteomics studies. Here, we introduce an experimental workflow that uses this technique to construct chromatogram libraries that capture fragment ion chromatographic peak shape and retention time for every detectable peptide in a proteomics experiment. These coordinates calibrate protein databases or spectrum libraries to a specific mass spectrometer and chromatography setup, facilitating DIA-only pipelines and the reuse of global resource libraries...
December 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Lindsay E Kuo, Sareh Parangi, Nancy L Cho
BACKGROUND: Although the presence of women and minorities is increasing in academic surgery, inclusion at the highest levels appears to continue to lag in many aspects of leadership and participation. Participation in medical societies is an opportunity in career development but may also propagate disparities. We investigated the presence of women and minorities within one subspecialty society, the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons, to better understand the presence of these groups in the leadership of this society...
November 30, 2018: Surgery
Angela L Hewlett, Heather Hohenberger, Caitlin N Murphy, Lindsay Helget, Heidi Hausmann, Elizabeth Lyden, Paul D Fey, Rodney Hicks
BACKGROUND: Acrylic nails harbor more bacteria than natural nails, and wear is not recommended for health care workers (HCWs). Little is known about the new and popular gel nail products. This study sought to evaluate the bacterial burden of gel nails, standard nail polish, and natural nails on the hands of HCWs. METHODS: The study was conducted at 3 health centers. Nails on the dominant hand of 88 HCWs were painted with gel polish and standard polish. Cultures were obtained on days 1, 7, and 14 of wear and before and after hand hygiene with alcohol hand gel...
December 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Lisa Lindsay, Herbert L DuPont, Christine L Moe, Martin Alberer, Christoph Hatz, Amy E Kirby, Henry M Wu, Thomas Verstraeten, Robert Steffen
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is the leading cause of illness among returning travelers seeking medical care. Multiple types of enteric pathogens can cause travel-acquired AGE and, while bacterial pathogens have a predominant role, the importance of viruses, such as norovirus, is increasingly recognized. There is a lack of information on travel-acquired norovirus incidence among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals irrespective of healthcare-seeking behavior. Our aim is to estimate the incidence of travel-acquired AGE due to norovirus and to characterize the burden of disease among international travelers from the United States and Europe...
December 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Declan T Barry, Mark Beitel, Christopher J Cutter, David A Fiellin, Robert D Kerns, Brent A Moore, Lindsay Oberleitner, Lynn M Madden, Christopher Liong, Joel Ginn, Richard S Schottenfeld
AIMS: The primary study aim was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for opioid use disorder and chronic pain. The secondary aim was to examine its preliminary efficacy. METHODS: In a 12-week pilot randomized clinical trial, 40 methadone-maintained patients were assigned to receive weekly manualized CBT (n = 21) or Methadone Drug Counseling (MDC) to approximate usual drug counseling (n = 19). RESULTS: Twenty of 21 patients assigned to CBT and 18 of 19 assigned to MDC completed the pilot study...
November 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Melissa N Galea Holmes, John A Weinman, Lindsay M Bearne
Intermittent claudication (IC) is debilitating leg pain affecting older people with peripheral arterial disease, which is improved by regular walking. This study evaluated associations between psychosocial variables and 6-Minute Walk Distance (6MWD) to identify factors that motivate walking. 142 Individuals with IC (116 males, mean 66.9y [SD=10.2]) completed cross-sectional assessments of sociodemographics, walking treatment beliefs and intention (Theory of Planned Behaviour [TPB]), illness perceptions (Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire), and 6MWD...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Lindsay M Morton, Luisel Ricks-Santi, Catharine M L West, Barry S Rosenstein
Radiogenomics is the study of genomic factors that are associated with response to radiation therapy. In recent years, progress has been made toward identifying genetic risk factors linked with late radiation-induced adverse effects. These advances have been underpinned by the establishment of an international Radiogenomics Consortium with collaborative studies that expand cohort sizes to increase statistical power and efforts to improve methodologic approaches for radiogenomic research. Published studies have predominantly reported the results of research involving patients treated with photons using external beam radiation therapy...
2018: International Journal of Particle Therapy
Jaber Hanhan, Roderick King, T Kyle Harrison, Alex Kou, Steven K Howard, Lindsay K Borg, Cynthia Shum, Ankeet D Udani, Edward R Mariano
Objective: Maximising safe handoff procedures ensures patient safety. Anaesthesiology practices have primarily focused on developing better communication tools. However, these tools tend to ignore the physical layout of the anaesthesia workspace itself. Standardising the anaesthesia workspace has the potential to improve patient safety. The design process should incorporate end user feedback and objective data. Methods: This pilot project aims to design a standardised anaesthesia workspace using eye-tracking technology at a single university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital...
December 2018: Turkish Journal of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation
Geetha Gopalan, Lindsay A Bornheimer, Mary C Acri, Andrew Winters, Kyle H O'Brien, Anil Chacko, Mary M McKay
Disproportionately high rates of caregiver stress and depression are found among poverty-impacted communities, with high levels of caregiver stress and depression putting youth at heightened risk for the onset and perpetuation of disruptive behavior disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a behavioral parent training program called the 4Rs and 2Ss for Strengthening Families Program (4R2S) on caregiver stress and depressive symptoms among 320 youth aged seven to 11 and their families assigned to either the 4R2S or services as usual (SAU) condition...
September 2018: Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Lauren K Dobbs, Alanna R Kaplan, Roland Bock, Khanhky Phamluong, J Hoon Shin, Miriam E Bocarsly, Lindsay Eberhart, Dorit Ron, Veronica A Alvarez
Vulnerability for cocaine abuse in humans is associated with low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the striatum. The mechanisms driving this vulnerability are poorly understood. In this study, we found that downregulating D2R expression selectively in striatal indirect-pathway neurons triggers a multitude of changes in D1 receptors (D1R)-expressing direct-pathway neurons, which comprise the other main subpopulation of striatal projection neurons. These changes include a leftward shift in the dose-response to D1-like agonist that indicates a behavioral D1R hypersensitivity, a shift from PKA to ERK intracellular signaling cascades upon D1R activation, and a reduction in the density of bridging collaterals from D1R-expressing neurons to pallidal areas...
December 1, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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