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Placental malaria

Tebit E Kwenti
Malaria and HIV, two of the world's most deadly diseases, are widespread, but their distribution overlaps greatly in sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, malaria and HIV coinfection (MHC) is common in the region. In this paper, pertinent publications on the prevalence, impact, and treatment strategies of MHC obtained by searching major electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were reviewed, and it was found that the prevalence of MHC in SSA was 0.7%-47.5% overall...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
Okezie Caleb Okamgba, Martin O Ifeanyichukwu, Ayodele O Ilesanmi, Lawrence N Chigbu
Background: Activation of immune cells by malaria infection induces the secretion of cytokines and the synthesis of other inflammatory mediators. This study compared the cytokine levels and leukocyte count between malaria-infected peripheral and placental blood of pregnant women before delivery and postpartum. The cytokines assessed include interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Materials and methods: The subjects comprised 144 malaria-infected pregnant women and 60 malaria-infected women at post-partum stage (for placental blood collection)...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
Arnaud Chêne, Stéphane Gangnard, Célia Dechavanne, Sebastien Dechavanne, Anand Srivastava, Marilou Tétard, Sophia Hundt, Odile Leroy, Nicolas Havelange, Nicola K Viebig, Benoît Gamain
Over 50 million women are exposed to the risk of malaria during pregnancy every year. Malaria during pregnancy is a leading global cause of maternal morbidity and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum -infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin-4-sulfate (CSA) has been linked to the severe disease outcome of placental malaria. Accumulated evidence strongly supports VAR2CSA as the leading placental malaria vaccine candidate. Recombinant proteins encompassing the VAR2CSA high affinity CSA binding site have been generated, and their activity as immunogens that elicit functional (inhibitory) and cross-reactive antibodies against CSA-binding parasites assessed...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Marc-André Verner, Jonathan Chevrier, Gérard Ngueta, Stephen Rauch, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides (including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) to fight malaria vectors in endemic countries. There is limited information on children's exposure to DDT in sprayed areas, and tools to estimate early-life exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated in this context. OBJECTIVES: To document serum p,p'-DDT/E levels in 47 mothers and children participating in the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE), a study conducted in an area where IRS insecticides are used annually, and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of a published pharmacokinetic model for the estimation of children's p,p'-DDT/E levels...
July 20, 2018: Environment International
Ana María Vásquez, Lina Zuluaga, Alberto Tobón, Maritza Posada, Gabriel Vélez, Iveth J González, Ana Campillo, Xavier Ding
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women frequently show low-density Plasmodium infections that require more sensitive methods for accurate diagnosis and early treatment of malaria. This is particularly relevant in low-malaria transmission areas, where intermittent preventive treatment is not recommended. Molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are highly sensitive, but require sophisticated equipment and advanced training. Instead, loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) provides an opportunity for molecular detection of malaria infections in remote endemic areas, outside a reference laboratory...
July 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Yukie M Lloyd, Rui Fang, Naveen Bobbili, Koko Vanda, Elise Ngati, Maria J Sanchez-Quintero, Ali Salanti, John J Chen, Rose G F Leke, Diane W Taylor
Plasmodium falciparum infections are serious in pregnant women, because VAR2CSA allows parasitized erythrocytes to sequester in the placenta causing placental malaria. In endemic areas, women have substantial malarial immunity prior to pregnancy, including antibodies to merozoite antigens, but only produce antibodies to VAR2CSA during pregnancy. The current study sought to determine the importance of antibodies to VAR2CSA and merozoite antigens in pregnant women in Yaoundé, Cameroon, where malaria transmission is relatively low...
July 9, 2018: Infection and Immunity
(no author information available yet)
Background: We investigated whether adding community scheduled malaria screening and treatment (CSST) with artemether-lumefantrine by community health workers (CHW) to standard Intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) would improve maternal and infant health. Methods: In this two-arm cluster, randomised, controlled trial, village clusters in Burkina Faso, The Gambia, and Benin were randomised to receive CSST plus IPTp-SP or IPTp-SP alone...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Victor Markus, Kerem Teralı, Ozlem Dalmizrak, Nazmi Ozer
Deltamethrin (DEL), which is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been used successfully all over the world to treat mosquito nets for the control of malaria. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a variety of xenobiotics and are normally recognized as detoxification enzymes. Here, we used a colorimetric assay based on the human placental GSTP1-1 (hpGSTP1-1)-catalyzed reaction between GSH and the model substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) as well as molecular docking to investigate the mechanistic and structural aspects of hpGSTP1-1 inhibition by DEL...
July 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mary Lopez-Perez, Mads Delbo Larsen, Rafael Bayarri-Olmos, Paulina Ampomah, Liz Stevenson, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Sócrates Herrera, Lars Hviid
Clinical immunity to malaria is associated with the acquisition of IgG specific for members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of clonally variant antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs). The VAR2CSA subtype of PfEMP1 mediates IE binding in the placenta. VAR2CSA-specific IgG is normally acquired only after exposure to placental parasites. However, it was recently reported that men and children from Colombia often have high levels of functional VAR2CSA-specific IgG...
August 2018: Infection and Immunity
Baozhen Zhang, Lunbo Tan, Yan Yu, Baobei Wang, Zhilong Chen, Jinyu Han, Mengxia Li, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Balamurali K Ambati, Lintao Cai, Qing Yang, Nihar R Nayak, Jian Zhang, Xiujun Fan
Rationale: The availability of therapeutics to treat pregnancy complications is severely lacking, mainly due to the risk of harm to the fetus. In placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum- infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) on the surfaces of trophoblasts. Based on this principle, we have developed a method for targeted delivery of payloads to the placenta using a synthetic placental CSA-binding peptide (plCSA-BP) derived from VAR2CSA, a CSA-binding protein expressed on IEs...
2018: Theranostics
Alfredo Mayor, Carlota Dobaño, Augusto Nhabomba, Caterina Guinovart, Alfons Jiménez, Maria Nelia Manaca, Ruth Aguilar, Arnoldo Barbosa, Mauricio H Rodríguez, Pau Cisteró, Lazaro M Quimice, Clara Menéndez, John J Aponte, Jaume Ordi, Chetan E Chitnis, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Difficulties to disentangle the protective versus exposure role of anti-malarial antibodies hamper the identification of clinically-relevant immune targets. Here, factors affecting maternal IgG and IgMs against Plasmodium falciparum antigens, as well as their relationship with parasite infection and clinical outcomes, were assessed in mothers and their children. Antibody responses among 207 Mozambican pregnant women at delivery against MSP119 , EBA175, AMA1, DBLα and parasite lysate (3D7, R29 and E8B parasite lines), as well as the surface of infected erythrocytes, were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry...
May 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Carlota Dobaño, Tamara Berthoud, Maria Nelia Manaca, Augusto Nhabomba, Caterina Guinovart, Ruth Aguilar, Arnoldo Barbosa, Penny Groves, Mauricio H Rodríguez, Alfons Jimenez, Lazaro M Quimice, John J Aponte, Jaume Ordi, Denise L Doolan, Alfredo Mayor, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: Increased susceptibility to malaria during pregnancy is not completely understood. Cellular immune responses mediate both pathology and immunity but the effector responses involved in these processes have not been fully characterized. Maternal and fetal cytokine and chemokine responses to malaria at delivery, and their association with pregnancy and childhood outcomes, were investigated in 174 samples from a mother and child cohort from Mozambique. Peripheral and cord mononuclear cells were stimulated with Plasmodium falciparum lysate and secretion of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, IL-4, IL-5, IL-1β, TNF, TNF-β was quantified in culture supernatants by multiplex flow cytometry while cellular mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNF, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 was measured by quantitative PCR...
May 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
E Oiknine-Djian, Y Weisblum, A Panet, H N Wong, R K Haynes, D G Wolf
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of disease in immunocompromised individuals and the most common cause of congenital infection and neurosensorial disease. The expanding target populations for HCMV antiviral treatment along with the limitations of the currently available HCMV DNA polymerase inhibitors underscore the need for new antiviral agents with alternative modes of action. The antimalarial artemisinin derivative artesunate was shown to inhibit HCMV in vitro yet has demonstrated limited antiviral efficacy in vivo , prompting our search for more potent anti-HCMV artemisinin derivatives...
July 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Hermann Sorgho, M Athanase Somé, Maminata Traoré-Coulibaly, Susana Scott, Serge Henri Zango, Ousséni Sawadogo, Sibiri Claude Zongo, Innocent Valéa, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Background: Although consensus exists that malaria in pregnancy (MiP) increases the risk of malaria in infancy, and eventually nonmalarial fevers (NMFs), there is a lack of conclusive evidence of benefits of MiP preventive strategies in infants. Methods: In Burkina Faso, a birth cohort study was nested to a clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of a community-based scheduled screening and treatment of malaria in combination with intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (CSST/IPTp-SP) to prevent placental malaria...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Michael F Ofori, Helena Lamptey, Emmanuel K Dickson, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Lars Hviid
Plasmodium falciparum parasites causing placental malaria express the VAR2CSA type of the clonally variant antigen family erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). This enables evasion of preexisting immunity and results in placental accumulation of infected erythrocytes. We present data on seasonal variation in levels of VAR2CSA-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG specific for a placental malaria-unrelated PfEMP1 protein among Ghanaian women at their first antenatal visit. Our results indicate that placental malaria does not require recent exposure to infected mosquitoes, in contrast to malaria in general...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rada M Savic, Prasanna Jagannathan, Richard Kajubi, Liusheng Huang, Nan Zhang, Moses Were, Abel Kakuru, Mary K Muhindo, Norah Mwebaza, Erika Wallender, Tamara D Clark, Bishop Opira, Moses Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Philip J Rosenthal, Grant Dorsey, Francesca T Aweeka
Background: Dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine is highly efficacious as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy (IPTp). Determining associations between piperaquine exposure, malaria risk, and adverse birth outcomes informs optimal dosing strategies. Methods: HIV-uninfected pregnant women were enrolled in a placebo-controlled trial of IPTp at 12-20 weeks gestation and randomized to: sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine every 8 weeks (n=106), dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 8 weeks (n=94), or dihydroartemsinin-piperaquine every 4 weeks (n=100) during pregnancy...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Paulo Arnaldo, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Jerónimo S Langa, Crizolgo Salvador, Pieter Guetens, Driss Chiheb, Bernardete Xavier, Luc Kestens, Sónia M Enosse, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy leads to serious adverse effects on the mother and the child and accounts for 75,000-200,000 infant deaths every year. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) at each scheduled antenatal care (ANC) visit. This study aimed to assess IPTp-SP coverage in mothers delivering in health facilities and at the community. In addition, factors associated with low IPTp-SP uptake and malaria adverse outcomes in pregnancy were investigated...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Chloe R McDonald, Lindsay S Cahill, Joel L Gamble, Robyn Elphinstone, Lisa M Gazdzinski, Kathleen J Y Zhong, Adrienne C Philson, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Linda Kalilani-Phiri, Victor Mwapasa, Feiko O Ter Kuile, John G Sled, Andrea L Conroy, Kevin C Kain
Reducing adverse birth outcomes due to malaria in pregnancy (MIP) is a global health priority. However, there are few safe and effective interventions. l-Arginine is an essential amino acid in pregnancy and an immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO), but there are limited data on the impact of MIP on NO biogenesis. We hypothesized that hypoarginemia contributes to the pathophysiology of MIP and that l-arginine supplementation would improve birth outcomes. In a prospective study of pregnant Malawian women, we show that MIP was associated with lower concentrations of l-arginine and higher concentrations of endogenous inhibitors of NO biosynthesis, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine, which were associated with adverse birth outcomes...
March 7, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Renato Barboza, Flávia Afonso Lima, Aramys Silva Reis, Oscar Javier Murillo, Erika Paula Machado Peixoto, Carla Letícia Bandeira, Wesley Luzetti Fotoran, Luis Roberto Sardinha, Gerhard Wunderlich, Estela Bevilacqua, Maria Regina D'Império Lima, José Maria Alvarez, Fabio Trindade Maranhão Costa, Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Sabrina Epiphanio, Claudio Romero Farias Marinho
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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