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Damage Controll

Marijn Knip, Manon Ms Richard, Lisa Oskam, Hylco T D van Engelen, Thomas Aalders, Frank L W Takken
Intracellular NLR (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat)-type immune receptors are a fundamental aspect of plant immune systems. As infection occurs at foci, activation of immune responses is typically non-uniform and non-synchronized, hampering the systematic dissection of their cellular effects and determining their phasing. We investigated the Potato NLR Rx1 using the CESSNA (Controlled Expression of effectors for Synchronized and Systemic NLR Activation) platform. CESSNA mediated Potato Virus X coat protein (CP) expression allowed monitoring of Rx1-mediated immune responses in a quantitative, and reproducible manner...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Bogdan Beirowski
The Liver kinase B1 with its downstream target AMP activated protein kinase (LKB1-AMPK), and the key nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) form two signaling systems that coordinate metabolic and cellular activity with changes in the environment in order to preserve homeostasis. For example, nutritional fluctuations rapidly feed back on these signaling systems and thereby affect cell-specific functions. Recent studies have started to reveal important roles of these strategic metabolic regulators in Schwann cells for the trophic support and myelination of axons...
December 11, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Antonija Tadin, Lidia Gavic, Ivana Jurkovic, Neven Vidovic, Daniel Jerkovic, Davor Zeljezic
PURPOSE: This is a cross-sectional study to assess the incidence of micronuclei and other nuclear morphological changes in buccal epithelial cells of dental technicians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 45 dental technicians vs. 2 control groups: 50 dentists and 50 dental assistants. DNA damage was analyzed in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells by micronucleus assay. The differences in the frequency of detected types of cytogenetic damage between experimental groups were analyzed by applying 2-way ANOVA with Tukey's HSD post-hoc test...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Najmeh Ahangari, Saeid Kargozar, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Francesco Baino, Alireza Pasdar, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Gordon A A Ferns, Hae-Won Kim, Masoud Mozafari
Curcumin is the principal polyphenolic compound present in turmeric with broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. It has some important inherent properties with the potential to facilitate tissue healing, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antibacterial activities. Therefore, curcumin has been used for the treatment of various damaged tissues, especially wound injuries. There are different forms of curcumin, among which nano-formulations are of a great importance in regenerative medicine...
December 8, 2018: BioFactors
Verónica Martínez Cerdeño, Tiffany Hong, Sarwat Amina, Mirna Lechpammer, Jeanelle Ariza, Flora Tassone, Stephen C Noctor, Paul Hagerman, Randi Hagerman
BACKGROUND: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with premutation alleles of the FMR1 gene. Expansions of more than 200 CGG repeats give rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of cognitive impairment. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is characterized by cerebellar tremor and ataxia, and the presence of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in neurons and astrocytes. It has been previously suggested that fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is associated with an inflammatory state based on signs of oxidative stress-mediated damage and iron deposition...
December 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Carolina Cabral-Santos, Edson Alves de Lima Junior, Isabela Maia da Cruz Fernandes, Rafael Zambelli Pinto, José César Rosa-Neto, Nicolette Charllote Bishop, Fábio Santos Lira
PURPOSE: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that plays a critical role with potent anti-inflammatory properties when produced during exercise, limiting host immune response to pathogens and preventing tissue damage. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the response of IL-10 after acute exercise session in healthy adults. METHODS: Databases of Ovid Medline (1978-2016), CINAHL (1998-2016), EMBASE (2003-2016), SportDiscus (1990-2016), and Web of Science library (1990-2016) were carefully screened...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ying Zhang, Longhui Ma, Changhong Ren, Kaiyin Liu, Xin Tian, Di Wu, Yuchuan Ding, Junfa Li, Cesar V Borlongan, Xunming Ji
Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPC) is a promising neuroprotective strategy for ischemic stroke. Here, we employed a focal ischemic stroke mouse model to test the hypothesis that poststroke collateral circulation as a potent mechanism of action underlying the therapeutic effects of immediate RIPC. During reperfusion of cerebral ischemia, the mice were randomly assigned to receive RIPC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a positive control, or no treatment. At 24 hr, we found RIPC and G-CSF increased monocytes/macrophages in the dorsal brain surface and in the spleen, coupled with enhanced leptomeningeal collateral flow compared with nontreatment group...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Michela Isola, Jörgen Ekström, Raffaella Isola, Francesco Loy
Several beneficial effects on oral health are ascribed to melatonin. Due to its lipophilic nature, non-protein-bound circulating melatonin is usually thought to enter the saliva by passive diffusion through salivary acinar gland cells. Recently, however, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), melatonin was found in acinar secretory granules of human salivary glands. To test the hypothesis that granular located melatonin is actively discharged into the saliva by exocytosis, i.e. contrary to the general belief, the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoprenaline, which causes the degranulation of acinar parotid serous cells, was administered to anaesthetised rats...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Bret D Elderd
A plant's induction of secondary defenses helps to decrease herbivore damage by changing resource quality. While these chemical or physical defenses may directly decrease herbivory, they can also have indirect consequences. In a tritrophic system consisting of a plant, an insect herbivore, and an insect pathogen, plant based trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) can alter host-pathogen interactions and, thereby, indirectly affect disease transmission. In a series of field experiments, individual soybean plants (Glycine max) were sprayed with either a jasmonic acid (JA) solution to trigger induction of plant defenses or a similar control compound...
December 11, 2018: Ecology
Fatma Farrag Ali, Rehab Ahmed Rifaai
Omega-3 fatty acids are gaining attention as a therapeutic agent of many diseases. Their protective effect in a variety of diseases has been demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on omega-3 fatty acids related to acute cold-restraint stress (CRS) induced hepatic dysfunction in rats. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were used and classified into: control, omega-3 group, each rat was pretreated with omega-3 fatty acids; CRS group, rats were subjected to acute CRS for 6 hr; and CRS group pretreated with omega-3 fatty acids...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Fatma Gargouri, Cécile Gallea, Marie Mongin, Nadya Pyatigorskaya, Romain Valabregue, Claire Ewenczyk, Marie Sarazin, Lydia Yahia-Cherif, Marie Vidailhet, Stéphane Lehéricy
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) may result from damage in the cortex as well as in the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic inputs to the cortex. Cholinergic inputs to the cortex mainly originate from the basal forebrain and are clustered in several regions, called Ch1 to Ch4, that project to the hippocampus (Ch1-2), the olfactory bulb (Ch3), and the cortex and amygdala (Ch4). OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in basal forebrain and their role in cognitive deficits in PD...
December 10, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Nashwa Fathy Gamal El-Tahawy, Sara Mohamed Naguib Abdel Hafez, Maggie M Ramzy, Nagwa M Zenhom, Heba A Abdel-Hamid
Cerebellum seems to be a specific target for both the decrease of estrogen and hypertension in menopause. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypertension and menopause-induced changes in rat's cerebellar cortex and the possible mechanisms of these changes. Rats were divided into four groups: the sham-operated control (SC-group), the ovariectomized (OVX-group), the hypertensive (H-group), and the ovariectomized-hypertensive (OVX-H-group) group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxides and antioxidant catalase enzyme levels were assayed...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Osarume Omorogbe
OBJECTIVE: Chronic stress impairs memory by damaging brain cells via induction of oxidative stress. Hence, the use of agents with antioxidant activity is being investigated as potential drugs against chronic stress-induced memory decline. This study evaluated the effect of Jobelyn® (JB), a potent antioxidant food supplement on memory deficit induced by anoxic stress in mice and on brain levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress. METHOD: Male mice were distributed into 6 groups (n=6): group 1 (non-stress control) and group 2 (stress control) were a given saline, groups 3-5 received JB (5, 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg) while group 6 had donepezil-DP (1 mg/kg)...
December 10, 2018: Drug Research
Razieh Afshar Moghaddam, Farahnaz Jazaeri, Alireza Abdollahi, Razieh Mohammadjafari, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Azam Bakhtiarian
The main vascular feature in endotoxemia is impaired contractile responses to vasoactive agents. We study the aortic response to 5HT11 A, 5HT1B1D and 5HT2A receptors agonist and antagonist in chronic endotoxemic rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide for 5 days induced chronic endotoxemia. Control rats received intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg saline for 5 days. Rats divided into 3 groups. In first, DOI2 hydrochloride used as an agonist and sarpogrelate hydrochloride as an antagonist of 5HT2A receptor...
December 10, 2018: Drug Research
Qin Yu, Xiao-Qin Xiong, Lei Zhao, Ting-Ting Xu, Hao Bi, Rong Fu, Qian-Hua Wang
Biodistribution and toxicity assessment are critical for safe clinical use of newly developed medicines. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are effective carriers for targeted drug delivery. This study aimed to examine the toxicity and biodistribution of SPION coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) (SPION-PEI) designed for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery both in vitro and in vivo. SPION-PEI/siRNA complexes were prepared at different weight ratios. Cytotoxic effects of SPION-PEI/siRNA on HSC-T6 cell viability were determined by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)...
December 2018: Current medical science
Li Zhang, Yan-Lei Zheng, Rong-Hua Hu, Li Zhu, Chen-Chen Hu, Fei Cheng, Shi Li, Jian-Guo Li
The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of annexin A1 (ANXA1) mimetic peptide AC2-26 on sepsis-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo and in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. In the in vivo study, a rat septic model was established by the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The rats were divided into control group, sepsis group and AC2-26 group. The rats in the AC2-26 group were intraperitoneally injected with AC2-26 (1 mg/kg) 2 h before CLP, and those in the control group and sepsis group were injected with the same volume of normal saline...
December 2018: Current medical science
Lou Reinisch, C Gaelyn Garrett
We use scatter-limited phototherapy techniques to calculate the time-dependent temperature profiles of incisions made with a commercial carbon dioxide laser being used to make a 1-mm incision under computer control using the Digital Acublade™ and with incisions made with the same laser under manual control. The goal is to understand the differences in the amount of lateral thermal damage that is likely from the computer-controlled incisions versus the manually controlled incisions. The temperature profiles are calculated from the absorption and scatter of light in a homogeneous material...
December 7, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Xiaopeng Guo, Miaomiao Zhang, Ruiyuan Liu, Yue Gao, Yang Yang, Wenjian Li, Dong Lu
In this study, we examined the dynamics of phenotypic and transcriptional profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae following semi-lethal X-ray irradiation. Post-irradiation, reproductive death was revealed as the predominant form of death in S. cerevisiae and almost all the irradiated cells were physically present and intact. In addition, cell cycle arrest reached its peak and cell division was at its valley at 2 h. Cell cycle arrest, cell division potential, DNA damage, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) showed significant recovery at 4 h (P > 0...
December 10, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Julia Spaniol, Francesco Di Muro, Elisa Ciaramelli
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is known to play a key role in reward processing and decision making. However, its relative contribution to affect-rich ("hot") and affect-poor ("cold") decisions is not fully understood. Damage to vmPFC is associated with impaired performance on laboratory tasks of decision making under ambiguity and risk. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that vmPFC is critical for adaptive risk taking under "hot" conditions specifically...
December 7, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Ruifang Zhou, Haishan Long, Bei Zhang, Zhizhao Lao, Quanyu Zheng, Tiancheng Wang, Yongxin Zhang, Qingguang Wu, Xiaoping Lai, Geng Li, Lizhu Lin
Salvianolic acid B (SB) is an antioxidant derived from Salvia militarize, and is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. SB is a potent antioxidant that has been well documented as a scavenger of oxygen free radicals, and has been used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis‑associated disorders. To explore its potential therapeutic effects in treating radiation damage, in this study, mice were treated with SB at different doses of 5, 12.5 and 20 mg/kg, subsequent to receiving γ‑irradiation...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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