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Damage Controll

Shujuan Xiong, Zhe Wang, Juan Liu, Xiangping Deng, Runde Xiong, Xuan Cao, Zhizhong Xie, Xiaoyong Lei, Yanming Chen, Guotao Tang
This work has presented a novel strategy for designing pH-sensitive TOS-H-DOX prodrug-loaded TPGS nanomicelles for co-delivery TOS and DOX to enhance tumor therapy and reduce the toxic side effects. DOX was covalently conjugated to the vitamin E succinate through hydrazone bond to produce an pH-sensitive prodrug TOS-H-DOX (amido bond as a control, TOS-A-DOX), which was responsive to the acidic environment in tumor cells, and the prodrugs were subsequently encapsulated in the core of TPGS nanomicelles via hydrophobic effects with a significant drug loading capacity...
October 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Elis Aguiar Morra, Paula Lopes Rodrigues, Itamar Couto Guedes de Jesus, Patrícia Ribeiro Do Val Lima, Renata Andrade Ávila, Tadeu Ériton Caliman Zanardo, Breno Valentim Nogueira, Donald M Bers, Silvia Guatimosim, Ivanita Stefanon, Rogério Faustino Ribeiro Júnior
We previously demonstrated that the loss of female hormones induces cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction in the female heart. Here, we show the impact of endurance training for twelve weeks, a nonpharmacological therapy against cardiovascular disease caused by ovariectomy and its contribution to cardiac contractility, mitochondrial quality control, bioenergetics and oxidative damage. We found that ovariectomy induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction by decreasing SERCA2 and increasing phospholamban protein expression...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
R P Abdalla, B M S Kida, J P S Pinheiro, L F Oliveira, C B F Martinez, R G Moreira
Exposure to aluminum (Al) and aluminum + manganese (Mn) can trigger an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modify the activity of oxidative defense enzymes. This study investigated whether exposure to Al and Al + Mn at acid pH for 24 and 96 h causes oxidative stress evidenced by antioxidants and oxidative damage in the gills and liver of sexually mature Astyanax altiparanae males. The fish were subsequently immersed in metal-free water for 24 and 96 h to see whether they recovered from the effects of these metals...
October 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Gangduo Wang, Huaxian Ma, Jianling Wang, M Firoze Khan
Trichloroethene (TCE), a common environmental toxicant and widely used industrial solvent, has been implicated in the development of various autoimmune diseases (ADs). Although oxidative stress has been involved in TCE-mediated autoimmunity, the molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. These studies were, therefore, aimed to further explore the contribution of oxidative stress to TCE-mediated autoimmune response by specifically assessing the role of oxidative DNA damage, its repair enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and apoptosis...
October 10, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Peter E Burby, Zackary W Simmons, Lyle A Simmons
Bacteria coordinate DNA replication and cell division, ensuring a complete set of genetic material is passed onto the next generation. When bacteria encounter DNA damage, a cell cycle checkpoint is activated by expressing a cell division inhibitor. The prevailing model is that activation of the DNA damage response and protease mediated degradation of the inhibitor is sufficient to regulate the checkpoint process. Our recent genome-wide screens identified the gene ddcA as critical for surviving exposure to DNA damage...
October 13, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Mabrouk Attia Abd Eldaim, Ehab Tousson, Ibrahim El Tantawy El Sayed, Walaa Mohamed Awd
This study was designed to evaluate protective effect of Saussurea lappa root aqueous extract against Ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid)-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Control group received distilled water. Second group was given S. lappa extract at a dose 50 mg/kg bw. Third group was given Ethephon at a dose 200 mg/kg bw. Fourth, fifth, and sixth groups were given S. lappa extract before, with or after Ethephon administration, respectively. Ethephon intoxication significantly decreased serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and prolactin...
October 13, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Xi Guo, Jiajia Zhu, Ningnannan Zhang, Linjie Zhang, Yuan Qi, Huanhuan Cai, Xue Zhang, Jie Sun, Qiuhui Wang, Li Yang, Fu-Dong Shi, Chunshui Yu
Neurovascular coupling reflects the close relationship between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF), providing a new mechanistic insight into health and disease. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and shows cognitive decline-related brain gray matter abnormalities besides the damage of optic nerve and spinal cord. We aimed to investigate neurovascular coupling alteration and its clinical significance in NMO by using regional homogeneity (ReHo) to measure neuronal activity and CBF to measure vascular response...
October 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
K Kurzinski, C K Zigler, K S Torok
BACKGROUND: Localized scleroderma (LS) is an autoimmune condition of the skin and underlying tissue. Active or recurring disease can lead to cumulative tissue damage, especially in paediatric-onset disease. OBJECTIVES: To highlight the rate of relapse of LS activity in a cohort of paediatric patients and to evaluate for potential clinical and laboratory predictors of disease relapse. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were gathered prospectively...
October 13, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Liang Zhu
Despite more than 80 years of animal experiments and clinical practice, efficacy of hypothermia in improving treatment outcomes in patients suffering from cell and tissue damage caused by ischemia is still ongoing. This review will first describe the history of utilizing cooling in medical treatment, followed by chemical and biochemical mechanisms of cooling that can lead to neuroprotection often observed in animal studies and some clinical studies. The next sections will be focused on current cooling approaches/devices, as well as cooling parameters recommended by researchers and clinicians...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Aarifa Nazmeen, Smarajit Maiti
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) is highly used in rodent models of tumerogenesis/carcinogenesis. Xenografting human-cancer tissues/cells with estradiol (E2) treatment is also used to generate rodent-models of gynaecological cancers. The altered metabolic-redox environment leading to establishment of pre-tumorigenesis condition and their mechanism are less studied. Here, female Wister rats were treated with these drugs at their pre-tumerogenic dosage (one group ENU single intra-peritoneal dose of 90 mg/kg b.w. and another group were implanted with human breast tumor (stage-IIIB) and fed with 2...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
R Sobhy, M Samir, G Abdelmohsen, H Ibrahim, M Y Abd El Rahman, N Abdelrahman, N Behairy, O Imam, H Hamza
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, so early diagnosis and treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality resulting from subsequent valvular damage. The aim of this study was to detect subtle myocardial dysfunction among children with RHD with preserved left ventricular systolic function. This is a cross-sectional case-control study that was conducted on 30 children with RHD (who had valvular affection of any degree and were not in activity) compared to 23 healthy children...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Li Zhang, Yun Liu, Boshi Wang, Guiqin Xu, Zhaojuan Yang, Ming Tang, Aihui Ma, Tiantian Jing, Xiaoli Xu, Xiaoren Zhang, Yongzhong Liu
Inflammasome activation is essential for host defence against invading pathogens, but is also involved in various forms of inflammatory diseases. The processes that control inflammasome activity are thus important for averting excessive immune responses and tissue damage. Here we show that the deubiquitinase POH1 negatively regulates the immune response triggered by inflammasome activation. POH1 deficiency in macrophages enhances mature IL-1β production without significant alterations in inflammasome priming and ASC-caspase-1 activation...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Kathryn E Miller, Ryan D Coleman, Leah Eisenberg, Joan Henriksen, John D Lantos, Elliott Mark Weiss
An infant with complex congenital heart disease suffers a prolonged cardiac arrest with minutes of anoxia. He is left with severe brain damage and profound neurologic impairment. He no longer responds to caregivers. Much of the time, he cries and grimaces as if in pain. He has required increasing sedation to control these symptoms. His parents live hours from the hospital and seldom visit. When their infant's situation is explained to them over the telephone, they request that doctors "do everything to keep him alive...
October 12, 2018: Pediatrics
Wei Zheng, Bofeng Duan, Qian Zhang, Linna Ouyang, Wei Peng, Fuyong Qian, Yibin Wang, Shiting Huang
OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the drug resistance of breast cancers. Vitamin D deficiency promotes tumor resistance. This study examined the effect of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression on the tamoxifen resistance of CSCs. METHODS: MCF-7 cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2 D3 and their levels of VDR expression, viability, and apoptosis were detected. CD133+ MCF-7 stem cells were identified and transfected with a VDR-overexpression plasmid...
October 12, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Paola Fortis, Roberta Ronchi, Valeria Velardo, Elena Calzolari, Elisabetta Banco, Lorella Algeri, Maria Simonetta Spada, Giuseppe Vallar
Spatial neglect is a debilitating disorder frequently observed after damage to the right cerebral hemisphere. Previous investigations have revealed that prism adaptation (PA) therapy can lead to improvements in neglect-related symptoms. In the typical PA protocol patients repeatedly point toward a visual target while wearing prism goggles. A few years ago, a novel PA procedure, involving a variety of more "ecological" visuo-motor activities during adaptation, less repetitive than a sequence of pointings, was introduced by our research group, and shown to be able to improve neglect-related symptoms to the same extent as the standard pointing task...
September 18, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Jack M Colicchio, John K Kelly, Lena C Hileman
BACKGROUND: Transgenerational plasticity occurs when the environmental experience of an organism modifies the growth and development of its progeny. Leaf damage in Mimulus guttatus exhibits transgenerational plasticity mediated through differential expression of hundreds of genes. The epigenetic mechanisms that facilitate this response have yet to be described. RESULTS: We performed whole genome bisulfite sequencing in the progeny of genetically identical damaged and control plants and developed a pipeline to compare differences in the mean and variance of methylation between treatment groups...
October 12, 2018: BMC Genomics
Danuta K Knihinicki, Radmila PetanoviĆ, Tatjana CvrkoviĆ, Sonal Varia
A new, gall-forming eriophyoid mite species is described from Australia. Aculus crassulae sp. nov. was found causing significant leaf deformation in Crassula helmsii (Kirk) Cockayne (Crassulaceae), a semi-aquatic, succulent plant. Native to Australia and New Zealand, this plant is now a highly invasive weed in the United Kingdom and Western Europe. The host specificity of the new mite species, and damage caused to the host plant, infer its potential to be a valuable biological control agent in countries where Australian swamp stonecrop is threatening native flora...
October 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Lena Burri, Cathy Wyse, Stuart R Gray, William S Harris, Kali Lazzerini
A seafood-based supplement from krill, rich in omega-3 phospholipids and proteins was tested on a group of dogs competing in the 2016 Iditarod dog sled race to investigate the effects of krill meal on exercise-induced inflammation and muscle damage in comparison to a control group. A single team of 16 dogs received 8% krill meal for 5 weeks prior to the start of race, while another team of 16 dogs received no supplementation. Ten dogs of the treatment and 11 dogs of the control group finished the race and their blood was analyzed for omega-3 index, inflammation (CRP) and muscle damage (CK)...
October 3, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Julia Tilburg, Reheman Adili, Thankam S Nair, Megan E Hawley, David C Tuk, Madeline Jackson, Henri M Spronk, Henri H Versteeg, Thomas E Carey, Bart J M van Vlijmen, Chrissta X Maracle, Michael Holinstat
INTRODUCTION: Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) identified a novel susceptibility locus for thrombosis, harbouring the SLC44A2 gene which encodes the Solute Carrier Family 44 Member 2 protein (SLC44A2). Thus far, SLC44A2 has not been studied in the context of thrombosis, and may be a unique contributor to thrombotic disease. Here we utilize mice lacking SLC44A2 (Slc44a2-/- ) to evaluate a possible role of SLC44A2 in hemostasis. METHODS: Slc44a2-/- mice were evaluated in key aspects of normal hemostasis including a challenge of vascular damage by applying laser induced injury to the cremaster muscle arteriole...
September 26, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Ronald Chu, Jed A Meltzer, Tali Bitan
Right-hemisphere involvement in language processing following left-hemisphere damage may reflect either compensatory processes, or a release from homotopic transcallosal inhibition, resulting in excessive right-to-left suppression that is maladaptive for language performance. Using fMRI, we assessed inter-hemispheric effective connectivity in fifteen patients with post-stroke aphasia, along with age-matched and younger controls during a sentence comprehension task. Dynamic Causal Modeling was used with four bilateral regions including inferior frontal gyri (IFG) and primary auditory cortices (A1)...
September 11, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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