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Anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344570/tanycytes-as-regulators-of-seasonal-cycles-in-neuroendocrine-function
#1
REVIEW
Jo E Lewis, Francis J P Ebling
Annual cycles of physiology and behavior are highly prevalent in organisms inhabiting temperate and polar regions. Examples in mammals include changes in appetite and body fat composition, hibernation and torpor, growth of antlers, pelage and horns, and seasonal reproduction. The timing of these seasonal cycles reflects an interaction of changing environmental signals, such as daylength, and intrinsic rhythmic processes: circannual clocks. As neuroendocrine signals underlie these rhythmic processes, the focus of most mechanistic studies has been on neuronal systems in the hypothalamus...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340892/reproductive-medicine-in-ferrets
#2
REVIEW
Vladimir Jekl, Karel Hauptman
In the United States, desexing is performed routinely in ferrets at the age of 6 weeks, therefore reproductive tract diseases are not so common. However, in Europe most ferrets are desexed when they are several months old, or they are kept as intact animals. For this reason, diseases of the reproductive organs and a prolonged estrus are far more frequent in Europe than in the United States. This article summarizes and reviews the anatomy, reproductive physiology, management of reproduction (including surgical and hormonal contraception) and reproductive tract diseases in male and female ferrets...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340891/reproductive-medicine-in-guinea-pigs-chinchillas-and-degus
#3
REVIEW
Leonie Kondert, Jörg Mayer
Guinea pigs, chinchillas, and degus are hystricomorph rodents originating from South America. They are commonly presented as exotic pets in veterinary practice. Reviewing the anatomy and physiology of their reproductive tract helps to offer better client education about preventive medicine and helps to act faster in emergency situations. Choosing the right anesthetic protocol helps to prevent complications. This article should aid as a guideline on the most common reproductive problems of these 3 species and help in making decisions regarding the best treatment options...
May 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340650/functional-rhinoplasty
#4
REVIEW
Oren Friedman, Erdinc Cekic, Ceren Gunel
Understanding nasal anatomy and physiology are the most important points for successful functional rhinoplasty. Anatomic structures playing major roles in nasal breathing functions include the septum, and internal and external nasal valves, so physical examination of these regions is essential. Planning for functional rhinoplasty involves the identification of the sites of nasal airway obstruction or old trauma, and addressing those regions during the operation with a number of different techniques that have been described...
May 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340646/essential-anatomy-and-evaluation-for-functional-rhinoplasty
#5
REVIEW
Justin C Sowder, Andrew J Thomas, Preston Daniel Ward
The nose, a prominent facial feature in defining facial beauty, is responsible for the fundamental physiologic functions of heating, humidifying, and filtering inspired air. When the normal balance of laminar and turbulent airflow become disturbed due to anatomic abnormalities, nasal obstruction may result. To successfully restore these basic physiologic functions, the surgeon must have a detailed understanding of the nasal anatomy and be able to successfully identify the specific cause of the nasal obstruction...
May 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340164/denervation-of-the-extrinsic-cardiac-sympathetic-nervous-system-as-a-treatment-modality-for-arrhythmia
#6
Chance M Witt, Luciana Bolona, Michelle O Kinney, Christopher Moir, Michael J Ackerman, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christopher J McLeod
Denervation of the extrinsic cardiac sympathetic nervous system is a method of altering the autonomic tone experienced by the heart and vasculature. It has been studied and employed as a therapy for cardiac disease for decades. Currently, there is a high level of interest in using cardiac denervation for treatment of arrhythmias. This review describes the anatomy and physiology of the cardiac autonomic nervous system followed by a discussion of the mechanistic studies which provide a basis for the therapeutic use of sympathetic denervation...
March 10, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334406/male-and-female-cervical-spine-biomechanics-and-anatomy-implication-for-scaling-injury-criteria
#7
Narayan Yoganandan, Cameron R Bass, Liming Voo, Frank A Pintar
There is an increased need to develop female-specific injury criteria and anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) for automotive and military environments, especially as women take occupational roles traditionally reserved for men. Although some exhaustive reviews on the biomechanics and injuries of the human spine have appeared in clinical and bioengineering literatures, focus on the difference between male and female cervical spine responses and characteristics has largely been ignored. Current neck injury criteria for automotive dummies for assessing crashworthiness and occupant safety are obtained from animal and human cadaver experiments, computational modeling and human volunteer studies...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333816/committee-opinion-no-696-nonobstetric-surgery-during-pregnancy
#8
(no author information available yet)
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' Committee on Obstetric Practice acknowledges that the issue of nonobstetric surgery during pregnancy is an important concern for physicians who care for women. It is important for a physician to obtain an obstetric consultation before performing nonobstetric surgery and some invasive procedures (eg, cardiac catheterization or colonoscopy) because obstetricians are uniquely qualified to discuss aspects of maternal physiology and anatomy that may affect intraoperative maternal-fetal well-being...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333376/regulation-of-coronary-blood-flow
#9
Adam G Goodwill, Gregory M Dick, Alexander M Kiel, Johnathan D Tune
The heart is uniquely responsible for providing its own blood supply through the coronary circulation. Regulation of coronary blood flow is quite complex and, after over 100 years of dedicated research, is understood to be dictated through multiple mechanisms that include extravascular compressive forces (tissue pressure), coronary perfusion pressure, myogenic, local metabolic, endothelial as well as neural and hormonal influences. While each of these determinants can have profound influence over myocardial perfusion, largely through effects on end-effector ion channels, these mechanisms collectively modulate coronary vascular resistance and act to ensure that the myocardial requirements for oxygen and substrates are adequately provided by the coronary circulation...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333375/renal-nerves-and-long-term-control-of-arterial-pressure
#10
John W Osborn, Jason D Foss
The objective of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation of how renal nerves regulate renal and cardiovascular function with a focus on long-term control of arterial pressure. We begin by reviewing the anatomy of renal nerves and then briefly discuss how the activity of renal nerves affects renal function. Current methods for measurement and quantification of efferent renal-nerve activity (ERNA) in animals and humans are discussed. Acute regulation of ERNA by classical neural reflexes as well and hormonal inputs to the brain is reviewed...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320887/hip-region-muscular-dystrophy-and-emergence-of-motor-deficits-in-dysferlin-deficient-bla-j-mice
#11
Nadia Nagy, Randal J Nonneman, Telmo Llanga, Catherine F Dial, Natallia V Riddick, Tom Hampton, Sheryl S Moy, Kimmo K Lehtimäki, Toni Ahtoniemi, Jukka Puoliväli, Hillarie Windish, Douglas Albrecht, Isabelle Richard, Matthew L Hirsch
The identification of a dysferlin-deficient animal model that accurately displays both the physiological and behavior aspects of human dysferlinopathy is critical for the evaluation of potential therapeutics. Disease progression in dysferlin-deficient mice is relatively mild, compared to the debilitating human disease which manifests in impairment of particular motor functions. Since there are no other known models of dysferlinopathy in other species, locomotor proficiency and muscular anatomy through MRI (both lower leg and hip region) were evaluated in dysferlin-deficient B6...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320741/hypoxia-enhances-antibody-dependent-dengue-virus-infection
#12
Esther Shuyi Gan, Wei Fun Cheong, Kuan Rong Chan, Eugenia Ziying Ong, Xiaoran Chai, Hwee Cheng Tan, Sujoy Ghosh, Markus R Wenk, Eng Eong Ooi
Dengue virus (DENV) has been found to replicate in lymphoid organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver in post-mortem analysis. These organs are known to have low oxygen levels (~0.5-4.5% O2) due to the vascular anatomy. However, how physiologically low levels of oxygen affect DENV infection via hypoxia-induced changes in the immune response remains unknown. Here, we show that monocytes adapted to 3% O2 show greater susceptibility to antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection. Low oxygen level induces HIF1α-dependent upregulation of fragment crystallizable gamma receptor IIA (FcγRIIA) as well as HIF1α-independent alterations in membrane ether lipid concentrations...
March 20, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319480/right-axillary-artery-cannulation-for-endovascular-repair-of-an-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection
#13
Corbin E Muetterties, Jeremy H Conklin, G William Moser, Grayson H Wheatley
We present the case of a 48-year-old woman with an acute type A aortic dissection that was treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair at our institution. The patient was found to have a focal type A dissection with pericardial effusion but no tamponade physiology and no involvement of the aortic valve or root. We elected to treat the patient's type A aortic dissection with an endovascular stent because of the patient's favorable anatomy and no evidence of neurologic deficits or signs of distal malperfusion...
March 17, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318532/modern-approach-to-an-old-technique-narrative-revision-of-techniques-used-to-locate-the-epidural-space
#14
N Brogly, E Guasch Arévalo, A Kollmann Camaiora, E Alsina Marcos, C García García, F Gilsanz Rodríguez
Since the first description of the epidural technique during the 1920s, the continuous progress of knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the epidural space has allowed the development of different techniques to locate this space while increasing both the safety and efficacy of the procedure. The most common techniques used today are based on the two main characteristics of the epidural space: the difference in distensibility between the ligamentum flavum and the epidural space, and the existence of negative pressure within the epidural space...
March 16, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#15
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modelling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302283/pediatric-thoracic-trauma-current-trends
#17
Erik G Pearson, Caitlin A Fitzgerald, Matthew T Santore
Pediatric thoracic trauma is relatively uncommon but results in disproportionately high levels of morbidity and mortality when compared with other traumatic injuries. These injuries are often more devastating due to differences in children׳s anatomy and physiology relative to adult patients. A high index of suspicion is of utmost importance at the time of presentation because many significant thoracic injuries will have no external signs of injury. With proper recognition and management of these injuries, there is an associated improved long-term outcome...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299269/temporalis-pull-through-vs-fascia-lata-augmentation-in-facial-reanimation-for-facial-paralysis
#18
S M Balaji
OBJECTIVES: Surgical rehabilitation of facial palsy is challenging as each case is unique and success rate is often unpredictable. In one technique, temporalis is elevated from origin preserving vessels, and this elevation increases the length which is tunneled into buccal tissues (pull-through technique, Group A). In the other technique, a harvested fascia lata is attached to temporalis after a coronoidectomy release and the fascia lata is attached to the modiolus (Group B). The aim of this study is to compare the two different surgical techniques...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297275/how-dose-sparing-of-cardiac-structures-correlates-with-in-field-heart-volume-and-sternal-displacement
#19
Taeho Kim, Kelli Reardon, Daniel M Trifiletti, Constance Geesey, Kaitlyn Sukovich, Edwin Crandley, Paul W Read, Krishni Wijesooriya
Cardiac irradiation increases the risk of coronary artery disease in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Techniques exist to reduce cardiac irradiation, but the optimum technique depends on individual patient anatomy and physiology. We investigated the correlation of delta heart volume in field (dHVIF) and sternal excursion with dose sparing in heart and left anterior descending artery (LAD) to develop quantitative predictive models for expected dose to heart and LAD. A treatment planning study was performed on 97 left-breast cancer patients who underwent whole breast radiotherapy (prescription dose = 50 Gy) under deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH)...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296272/ergonomic-analysis-of-the-surgical-position-in-functional-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#20
Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Benjamin M Milam
BACKGROUND: Ergonomics is the methodologic study of people's efficiency in their work environment and is based on anatomy, physiology, psychology, and engineering. Although highly studied in other work environments, little attention has been paid to surgeons until the landmark survey by Park et al in 2010. Many unique aspects of endoscopic surgery amplify task-related physical discomfort, and, because of these issues, we aimed to study the physical fatigue effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) performed in the standing and sitting positions...
March 15, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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