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Anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925702/quantitative-elastosonography-of-the-myotendinous-junction-normal-behavior-and-correlation-with-a-standard-measurement-system-during-functional-tests
#1
Paolo Minafra, Chandra Bortolotto, Ermanno Rampinini, Fabrizio Calliada, Giuseppe Monetti
OBJECTIVES: In recent years, an increasing need to use imaging to assess normal and adaptive muscle function, in addition to its anatomy and structure, has emerged. We evaluated the myotendinous junction's elastosonographic behavior in light of the most recent literature on its physiologic behavior. The elastosonographic studies were compared with the results obtained from a standard measurement system to ensure a correlation with maximal muscle contraction. METHODS: Nineteen male professional soccer players were assessed during functional tests...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925529/respiratory-nursing-at-a-glance-preston-wendy-and-kelly-carol-respiratory-nursing-at-a-glance-152pp-%C3%A2-27-99-wiley-blackwell-9781119048305-1119048303-formula-see-text
#2
(no author information available yet)
This text presents information on respiratory conditions in a succinct manner, beginning with an overview of the historical context of respiratory nursing and moving on to discuss anatomy and physiology, epidemiology, exercise, nutrition and pulmonary rehabilitation.
December 7, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921072/anatomy-based-algorithm-for-automatic-segmentation-of-human-diaphragm-in-noncontrast-computed-tomography-images
#3
Elham Karami, Yong Wang, Stewart Gaede, Ting-Yim Lee, Abbas Samani
In-depth understanding of the diaphragm's anatomy and physiology has been of great interest to the medical community, as it is the most important muscle of the respiratory system. While noncontrast four-dimensional (4-D) computed tomography (CT) imaging provides an interesting opportunity for effective acquisition of anatomical and/or functional information from a single modality, segmenting the diaphragm in such images is very challenging not only because of the diaphragm's lack of image contrast with its surrounding organs but also because of respiration-induced motion artifacts in 4-D CT images...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919375/software-intelligent-system-for-effective-solutions-for-hearing-impaired-subjects
#4
Rajkumar S, Muttan S, Sapthagirivasan V, Jaya V, Vignesh S S
PURPOSE: The anatomy and physiology of the ear is complex in nature, which makes it a challenge for audiologists to prescribe solutions for varied hearing-impaired subjects. There is a need to increase the satisfaction level of hearing-aid users by adopting better strategies that involve modern technological advancements. AIM: To design and develop a decision support Software Intelligent System (SIS) that performs audiological investigations to assess the degree of hearing loss and to suggest appropriate hearing-aid gain values...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918530/a-probabilistic-approach-to-demixing-odors
#5
Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska, Simon Barthelmé, Jeff Beck, Zachary F Mainen, Alexandre Pouget, Peter E Latham
The olfactory system faces a hard problem: on the basis of noisy information from olfactory receptor neurons (the neurons that transduce chemicals to neural activity), it must figure out which odors are present in the world. Odors almost never occur in isolation, and different odors excite overlapping populations of olfactory receptor neurons, so the central challenge of the olfactory system is to demix its input. Because of noise and the large number of possible odors, demixing is fundamentally a probabilistic inference task...
December 5, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916657/pharmacokinetic-analysis-and-drug-delivery-efficiency-of-the-focused-ultrasound-induced-blood-brain-barrier-opening-in-non-human-primates
#6
Gesthimani Samiotaki, Maria Eleni Karakatsani, Amanda Buch, Stephanos Papadopoulos, Shih Ying Wu, Sachin Jambawalikar, Elisa E Konofagou
PURPOSE: Focused Ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with systemically administered microbubbles has been shown to open the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) locally, non-invasively and reversibly in rodents and non-human primates (NHP), suggesting the immense potential of this technique. The objective of this study entailed the investigation of the physiologic changes in the brain following the FUS-induced BBB opening and their relationship with the underlying anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic analysis was implemented in NHP's that received FUS at various acoustic pressures...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915422/state-of-the-art-review-of-the-right-ventricle-in-copd-patients-it-is-time-to-look-closer
#7
REVIEW
Daniela Graner Schuwartz Tannus-Silva, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi
Since the first description of pulmonary circulation in the 16th century, the knowledge of the complex interaction between the heart and lungs has greatly improved. Hypoxemia plays a classical role in the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction in patients presenting with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, more recent results have revealed the presence of RV vascular structural and functional changes even in patients with mild COPD, without hypoxemia or pulmonary hypertension at rest...
December 3, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911923/morphology-and-hydraulic-architecture-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-syrah-and-torront%C3%A3-s-riojano-plants-are-unaffected-by-variations-in-red-to-far-red-ratio
#8
Carina Verónica González, María Florencia Jofré, Hernán F Vila, Markus Stoffel, Rubén Bottini, Carla Valeria Giordano
Plants have evolved an array of specific photoreceptors to acclimate to the light environment. By sensing light signals, photoreceptors modulate plant morphology, carbon- and water-physiology, crop yield and quality of harvestable organs, among other responses. Many cultural practices and crop management decisions alter light quantity and quality perceived by plants cultivated in the field. Under full sunlight, phytochromes perceive high red to far red ratios (R:FR; 1.1), whereas overhead or lateral low R:FR (below 1...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908510/anatomy-and-physiology-of-the-small-bowel
#9
REVIEW
Neil Volk, Brian Lacy
Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients.
January 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904099/effects-of-reinforcement-method-of-dissection-physiology-education-on-the-achievement-in-pharmacology
#10
Tomoya Kitayama, Satomi Kagota, Noriko Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki Kawai, Kanae Nishimura, Takeshi Miura, Naomi Yasui, Kazumasa Shinozuka, Toshikatsu Nakabayashi
 The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896394/the-orientation-of-the-surgical-epicondylar-axis-varies-in-varus-and-non-varus-knees-in-the-coronal-plane
#11
Yunjie Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Yunchao Shao, Qing Xia
PURPOSE: To investigate the orientations of the surgical epicondylar axis (SEA) of varus and non-varus knees in the coronal plane. METHODS: One-hundred and sixty-two knees from 81 Chinese patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively investigated. The angle between the medial side of the femoral mechanical axis and the SEA (MA-SEA), as well as the physiological valgus angle, was measured in the coronal plane using three-dimensional reconstruction...
November 28, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895264/sex-differences-in-human-and-animal-toxicology-toxicokinetics
#12
Michael Gochfeld
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891334/life-orientation-test-revised-lot-r-versus-academic-score-in-various-first-year-health-professional-students
#13
Puja Dulloo, Neeraj Vedi, Achleshwar Gandotra
INTRODUCTION: Health field per se requires mental, physical and psychological steadiness and wellbeing. In modern times decline in psychological and physical health has been observed in student after admission in health education program. Factors like perfectionism, self-esteem, personal and professional consequence have affected their academic score directly or indirectly. Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) instrument measures optimism in relation to self-esteem of individual. A better score will show more confidence level of the student...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890350/the-histophysiology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-peritoneum
#14
REVIEW
J O A M van Baal, K K Van de Vijver, R Nieuwland, C J F van Noorden, W J van Driel, A Sturk, G G Kenter, L G Rikkert, C A R Lok
The peritoneum is an extensive serous organ with both epithelial and mesenchymal features and a variety of functions. Diseases such as inflammatory peritonitis and peritoneal carcinomatosis can induce disturbance of the complex physiological functions. To understand the peritoneal response in disease, normal embryonic development, anatomy in healthy conditions and physiology of the peritoneum have to be understood. This review aims to summarize and discuss the literature on these basic peritoneal characteristics...
November 13, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890190/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region
#15
REVIEW
John L Go, Anandh G Rajamohan
The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890186/advanced-imaging-techniques-of-the-skull-base
#16
REVIEW
Elliot Dickerson, Ashok Srinivasan
Although conventional imaging can depict the anatomy of the head and neck with exquisite detail, it often falls short in its ability to characterize tissue physiology and abnormality; this is especially seen in the posttherapy setting where benign posttreatment changes and recurrent tumors can show intense postcontrast enhancement and similar features on conventional imaging. Advanced imaging can evaluate tissue physiology and, along with conventional imaging, provide a more accurate assessment of the skull base...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888398/the-value-of-the-electrocardiogram-for-evaluating-prognosis-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Xiao-Ling Cheng, Jian-Guo He, Zhi-Hong Liu, Qing Gu, Xin-Hai Ni, Zhi-Hui Zhao, Qin Luo, Chang-Ming Xiong
BACKGROUND: Association between electrocardiography (ECG) features and right ventricular anatomy and physiology has been established. This study is aimed to identify the value of 12-lead ECG in evaluating prognosis of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). METHOD: 194 patients with newly diagnosed IPAH were included in this study. Correlations between electrocardiography variables and hemodynamics were assessed. Univariate and multivariable cox regression analysis were performed to identify ECG variables for predicting all-cause mortality in IPAH...
November 25, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885585/the-conundrums-of-chronic-kidney-disease-and-aging
#18
REVIEW
Richard J Glassock, Aleksandar Denic, Andrew D Rule
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), as presently defined, is a common disorder. Aging is a nearly universal phenomenon that can affect renal anatomy and function, but at variable rates in individuals. Loss of nephrons and a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a characteristic of normal aging, called renal senescence. Using fixed and absolute thresholds for defining CKD on the basis of GFR for all ages may lead to diagnostic uncertainty (a conundrum) in both young and older subjects. This brief review will consider the physiological and anatomical changes of the kidney occurring in the process of normal renal senescence focusing on GFR and will examine the relevance of these observation for the diagnosis of CKD using GFR as the distinguishing parameter...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882040/a-new-model-of-master-of-philosophy-in-physiological-sciences
#19
H R Ahmad, F M Arain, N A Khan
The objectives of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in Physiological Sciences are: 1) to describe the new ways in which anatomy, biochemistry and physiology on one hand, and microbiology, pathology and pharmacology on other hand meet their functional requirements through multidisciplinary integrated concepts; 2) to elucidate relationships between cell biology, molecular biology and molecular genetics by connecting dots of how cell functions are driven by molecules and being controlled by genes. This forms the basis of cell, molecular and genetics [CMG] module upon which 7 multidisciplinary modules of Physiological Sciences follow; 3) these 24 credit hours provide the physiological basis for PhD studies as well as faculty development to enhance learning abilities of medical student; 4) the modules constitute Cardio- Respiratory Physiological Sciences, GI and Renal Physiological Sciences, Neurosciences, Endo-Reproductive Physiological Sciences...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881798/acclimation-of-leaf-water-status-and-stem-hydraulics-to-drought-and-tree-neighbourhood-alternative-strategies-among-the-saplings-of-five-temperate-deciduous-tree-species
#20
Torben Lübbe, Bernhard Schuldt, Christoph Leuschner
Adjustment in leaf water status parameters and modification in xylem structure and functioning can be important elements of a tree's response to continued water limitation. In a growth trial with saplings of five co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species (genera Fraxinus, Acer, Carpinus, Tilia and Fagus) conducted in moist or dry soil, we compared the drought acclimation in several leaf water status and stem hydraulic parameters. Considering the extremes in the species responses, Fraxinus excelsior L...
November 22, 2016: Tree Physiology
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