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Anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428909/a-biomechanical-perspective-on-distal-radioulnar-joint-instability
#1
Shohei Omokawa, Akio Iida, Kenji Kawamura, Yasuaki Nakanishi, Takamasa Shimizu, Tsutomu Kira, Tadanobu Onishi, Naoki Hayami, Yasuhito Tanaka
Background The purpose of this article was to review the anatomy, kinematics of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ), and to discuss definition, classification, and diagnosis of DRUJ instability. Methods A biomechanical perspective on physical examination of DRUJ ballottement test was documented. Physiological dynamic DRUJ translation and differences of the translation following sequential ligament sectioning and changes in different forearm and wrist positions were demonstrated. The clinical significance of each ligament's contribution to joint stability in specific wrist positions was addressed...
May 2017: Journal of Wrist Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428052/opening-eyes-to-nanomedicine-where-we-are-challenges-and-expectations-on-nanotherapy-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Elisa J Campos, António Campos, João Martins, António Francisco Ambrósio
People affected with ocular diseases will significantly increase over the next decades, and, consequently, a substantial increase in health costs is expected. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. The treatment of eye diseases affecting the posterior segment, such as diabetic retinopathy, is quite challenging due to the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye. Therefore, the development of new therapeutics for posterior eye diseases has been a major focus of pharmaceutical research in the area of vision sciences...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427481/triage-and-the-lost-art-of-decoding-vital-signs-restoring-physiologically-based-triage-skills-in-complex-humanitarian-emergencies
#3
Frederick M Burkle
Triage management remains a major challenge, especially in resource-poor settings such as war, complex humanitarian emergencies, and public health emergencies in developing countries. In triage it is often the disruption of physiology, not anatomy, that is critical, supporting triage methodology based on clinician-assessed physiological parameters as well as anatomy and mechanism of injury. In recent times, too many clinicians from developed countries have deployed to humanitarian emergencies without the physical exam skills needed to assess patients without the benefit of remotely fed electronic monitoring, laboratory, and imaging studies...
April 21, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418997/exercise-is-medicine%C3%A2-but-does-it-interfere-with-medicine
#4
Mackenzie McLaughlin, Ira Jacobs
Exercise is frequently prescribed therapeutically, either on its own or combined with drugs. A drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion can be affected by the user's anatomy and physiology which are both changed by the myriad of complex adaptations to acute and chronic exercise. This article reviews the research that suggests that exercise may influence a drug's plasma concentration, and thus its efficacy and safety.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416459/the-error-of-broca-from-the-traditional-localizationist-concept-to-a-connectomal-anatomy-of-human-brain
#5
REVIEW
Hugues Duffau
Neurology, especially aphasiology, was mainly built on behavioral-structural correlations ("lesion method"). In this setting, Broca's area has been considered as the "speech area"; moreover, this observation led to localizationism. However, advances in brain mapping techniques, as functional neuroimaging and direct electrical stimulation in patients undergoing awake surgery for gliomas, has resulted in a paradigmatic shift regarding models of neural architecture. In fact, the brain is organized in distributed complex networks underpinning sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, cognitive and emotional functions...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410000/properties-of-porcine-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-their-applications-in-preclinical-models
#6
Julien H Arrizabalaga, Matthias U Nollert
Adipose-derived stem cells represent a reliable adult stem cell source thanks to their abundance, straightforward isolation, and broad differentiation abilities. Consequently, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been used in vitro for several innovative cellular therapy and regenerative medicine applications. However, the translation of a novel technology from the laboratory to the clinic requires first to evaluate its safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy through preclinical studies in animals...
March 30, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407636/neuronal-regression-of-internal-leg-vibroreceptor-organs-in-a-cave-dwelling-insect-orthoptera-rhaphidophoridae-dolichopoda-araneiformis
#7
Johannes Strauß, Nataša Stritih
Animals' adaptations to cave habitats generally include elaboration of extraoptic senses, and in insects the receptor structures located on the legs are supposed to become more prominent in response to constant darkness. The receptors for detecting substrate vibrations are often highly sensitive scolopidial sensilla localized within the legs or the body. For troglobitic insects the evolutionary changes in vibroreceptor organs have not been studied. Since rock is an extremely unfavorable medium for vibration transmission, selection on vibration receptors may be weakened in caves, and these sensory organs may undergo regressive evolution...
April 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407076/differential-gene-expression-and-transport-functionality-in-the-bundle-sheath-versus-mesophyll-a-potential-role-in-leaf-mineral-homeostasis
#8
Noa Wigoda, Metsada Pasmanik-Chor, Tianyuan Yang, Ling Yu, Menachem Moshelion, Nava Moran
Under fluctuating ambient conditions, the ability of plants to maintain hydromineral homeostasis requires the tight control of long distance transport. This includes the control of radial transport within leaves, from veins to mesophyll. The bundle sheath is a structure that tightly wraps around leaf vasculature. It has been suggested to act as a selective barrier in the context of radial transport. This suggestion is based on recent physiological transport assays of bundle sheath cells (BSCs), as well as the anatomy of these cells...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404159/a-microbiota-centric-view-of-diseases-of-the-upper-gastrointestinal-tract
#9
REVIEW
Gerardo Nardone, Debora Compare, Alba Rocco
The distinctive anatomy and physiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract and the difficulty of obtaining samples led to the theory that it was bacteria free. However, multiomics studies are indicating otherwise. Although influenced by both oral and gastric bacteria, the resident microbial ecosystem in the oesophagus is dominated by Streptococcus. A shift from Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria occurs in oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and this shift might be involved in the pathogenesis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma...
April 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401869/leadless-pacemaker-implantation-in-a-patient-with-complex-congenital-heart-disease-and-limited-vascular-access
#10
Paolo Ferrero, Michael Yeong, Emilia D'Elia, Edward Duncan, Alan Graham Stuart
Management of rhythm related issues might be particularly challenging in patients with congenital heart disease due to complex anatomy and restricted vascular access. The leadless technology appears a suitable and attractive alternative for this population. We describe a patient with single ventricle physiology who successfully underwent implantation of a leadless pacemaker.
November 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401479/gestation-specific-changes-in-the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-healthy-pregnant-women-an-extended-repository-of-model-parameters-for-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-in-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
André Dallmann, Ibrahim Ince, Michaela Meyer, Stefan Willmann, Thomas Eissing, Georg Hempel
BACKGROUND: In the past years, several repositories for anatomical and physiological parameters required for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in pregnant women have been published. While providing a good basis, some important aspects can be further detailed. For example, they did not account for the variability associated with parameters or were lacking key parameters necessary for developing more detailed mechanistic pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, such as the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues...
April 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401229/microengineered-biomimetic-ocular-models-for-ophthalmological-drug-development
#12
REVIEW
Zachary Estlack, Devasier Bennet, Ted Reid, Jungkyu Kim
Current ophthalmological drug discovery and testing methods have limitations and concerns regarding reliability, ethicality, and applicability. These drawbacks can be mitigated by developing biomimetic eye models through mathematical and experimental methods which are often referred to as "eye-on-a-chip" or "eye chip". These eye chip technologies emulate ocular physiology, anatomy, and microenvironmental conditions. Such models enable understanding of the fundamental biology, pharmacology, and toxicology mechanisms by investigating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various candidate drugs under ocular anatomical and physiological conditions without animal models...
April 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400779/making-plants-break-a-sweat-the-structure-function-and-evolution-of-plant-salt-glands
#13
REVIEW
Maheshi Dassanayake, John C Larkin
Salt stress is a complex trait that poses a grand challenge in developing new crops better adapted to saline environments. Some plants, called recretohalophytes, that have naturally evolved to secrete excess salts through salt glands, offer an underexplored genetic resource for examining how plant development, anatomy, and physiology integrate to prevent excess salt from building up to toxic levels in plant tissue. In this review we examine the structure and evolution of salt glands, salt gland-specific gene expression, and the possibility that all salt glands have originated via evolutionary modifications of trichomes...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400207/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-growth-hormone-secretagogues
#14
REVIEW
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone (GH) increases lean body mass, decreases fat mass, increases exercise tolerance and maximum oxygen uptake, enhances muscle strength, and improves linear growth. Long-term studies of GH administration offer conflicting results on its safety, which has led to strict Food and Drug Administration criteria for GH use. The potential drawbacks of exogenous GH use are believed to be due in part to impaired regulatory feedback. AIM: To review the literature on GH secretagogues (GHSs), which include GH-releasing peptides and the orally available small-molecule drug ibutamoren mesylate...
April 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#15
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389678/sexual-differences-in-food-preferences-in-the-white-stork-an-experimental-study
#16
Zbigniew Kwieciński, Zuzanna M Rosin, Łukasz Dylewski, Piotr Skórka
Sex differences in the foraging ecology of monomorphic species are poorly understood, due to problems with gender identification in field studies. In the current study, we used experimental conditions to investigate the food preferences of the white stork Ciconia ciconia, an opportunistic species in terms of food, but characterised by a low level of sexual dimorphism. During a 10-day experiment, 29 individuals (20 females and 9 males) were studied by means of a 'cafeteria test' in which the storks' diet consisted of mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, insects and earthworms...
June 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387098/-the-importance-of-pulp-therapy-in-deciduous-teeth
#17
REVIEW
A Bolette, S Truong, A Guéders, S Geerts
Preserving primary teeth is crucial for maintaining the maxillary growth, aesthetics, mastication, and speech and for preventing from abnormal habits. Given the peculiar anatomy of the primary tooth, caries grow faster and more frequently to the pulp. In pediatric dentistry, new methods and enhanced material have been recently released on the market and broadened the field of treatments. In this paper, we review the pulp diseases affecting children and focus on the current root canal therapies that favour the physiological primary tooth loss...
December 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381083/the-gut-microbiota-its-anatomy-and-physiology-during-all-life
#18
Giulia Gibiino, Gianluca Ianiro, Giovanni Cammarota, Antonio Gasbarrini
The wide assemblage of microorganisms inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract is an attractive field for overwhelming contemporary research in several aspects of the human health. Most recent molecular techniques, as the use of rRNAs or whole genome sequencing, definitely overcame traditional culture techniques in giving outline of the intestinal bacterial richness. Moreover, the crosstalk between host and intestinal microbes is considered a cornerstone affecting the host's metabolism, immunity, autoimmunity and autoinflammation and elaborate networks linked to several organs...
April 4, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377435/drawing-on-student-knowledge-of-neuroanatomy-and-neurophysiology
#19
Tara N Slominski, Jennifer L Momsen, Lisa M Montplaisir
Drawings are an underutilized assessment format in Human Anatomy and Physiology (HA&P), despite their potential to reveal student content understanding and alternative conceptions. This study used student-generated drawings to explore student knowledge in a HA&P course. The drawing tasks in this study focused on chemical synapses between neurons, an abstract concept in HA&P. Using two preinstruction drawing tasks, students were asked to depict synaptic transmission and summation. In response to the first drawing task, 20% of students (n = 352) created accurate representations of neuron anatomy...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374178/current-status-of-catheter-based-treatment-of-mitral-valve-regurgitation
#20
REVIEW
Mario Gössl, Robert S Farivar, Richard Bae, Paul Sorajja
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the current status of catheter-based repair and replacement for mitral valve disease, with a focus on native primary and secondary mitral valve regurgitation. RECENT FINDINGS: Transcatheter mitral valve repair with the MitraClip®, with >40,000 performed procedures worldwide, has significantly advanced the field of transcatheter therapy for mitral valve regurgitation. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement remains in the early stages of development, mainly due to the complex anatomy and physiology of the mitral valve...
May 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
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