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Anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775596/digital-museum-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-with-dense-anatomy-and-physiology
#1
J Alexander Bae, Shang Mu, Jinseop S Kim, Nicholas L Turner, Ignacio Tartavull, Nico Kemnitz, Chris S Jordan, Alex D Norton, William M Silversmith, Rachel Prentki, Marissa Sorek, Celia David, Devon L Jones, Doug Bland, Amy L R Sterling, Jungman Park, Kevin L Briggman, H Sebastian Seung
When 3D electron microscopy and calcium imaging are used to investigate the structure and function of neural circuits, the resulting datasets pose new challenges of visualization and interpretation. Here, we present a new kind of digital resource that encompasses almost 400 ganglion cells from a single patch of mouse retina. An online "museum" provides a 3D interactive view of each cell's anatomy, as well as graphs of its visual responses. The resource reveals two aspects of the retina's inner plexiform layer: an arbor segregation principle governing structure along the light axis and a density conservation principle governing structure in the tangential plane...
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773513/insights-in-the-history-of-pancreas-restoring-the-true-meaning-of-kallikreas
#2
REVIEW
Niki Papavramidou
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This paper investigates the history of pancreas in classical and late antiquity with the intent to correlate it to the modern medical knowledge. Furthermore, an attempt is made to understand the true meaning of the term "kallikreas". METHODS: Only primary textual sources are used in the transcription of ancient references of "pancreas" and/or "kallikreas". All of the references are analyzed and interpreted under a modern prism for better understanding the ancient anatomy proposed...
May 4, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771958/cooperation-of-bmp-and-ihh-signaling-in-interdigital-cell-fate-determination
#3
Arunima Murgai, Sara Altmeyer, Stephanie Wiegand, Przemko Tylzanowski, Sigmar Stricker
The elaborate anatomy of hands and feet is shaped by coordinated formation of digits and regression of the interdigital mesenchyme (IM). A failure of this process causes persistence of interdigital webbing and consequently cutaneous syndactyly. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key inductive factors for interdigital cell death (ICD) in vivo. NOGGIN (NOG) is a major BMP antagonist that can interfere with BMP-induced ICD when applied exogenously, but its in vivo role in this process is unknown. We investigated the physiological role of NOG in ICD and found that Noggin null mice display cutaneous syndactyly and impaired interdigital mesenchyme specification...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762883/associative-bacteria-influence-maize-zea-mays-l-growth-physiology-and-root-anatomy-under-different-nitrogen-levels
#4
Anderson Kikuchi Calzavara, Pedro Henrique Godoy Paiva, Lorrant Cavanha Gabriel, André Luiz Martinez de Oliveira, Karina Milani, Halley Caixeta Oliveira, Edmilson Bianchini, José Antonio Pimenta, Maria Cristina Neves de Oliveira, Jaqueline Dias-Pereira, Renata Stolf-Moreira
Despite the great diversity of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with potential to partially replace the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture, few PGPB are explored for the production of commercial inoculants, reinforcing the importance of identifying positive plant-bacteria interactions. Aiming to better understand the influence of PGPB inoculation in plant development, two PGPB species with distant phylogenetic relationship were inoculated in maize. Maize seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. or Azospirillum brasilense...
May 15, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761471/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-and-the-synovial-membrane-an-anatomo-functional-unit
#5
REVIEW
Veronica Macchi, Elena Stocco, Carla Stecco, Elisa Belluzzi, Marta Favero, Andrea Porzionato, Raffaele De Caro
The infrapatellar pad, a fibro-adipose tissue with peculiar microscopic and mechanical features, is gaining wide attention in the field of rheumatological research. The purpose of this descriptive review is to summarize the most recent published evidence on the anatomic, physiologic and biomechanical inter-relationship between the infrapatellar fat pad and the knee synovial membrane. As an extrasynovial tissue, the infrapatellar fat pad does not directly interact with the articular cartilage; based on its location in close contact with the synovial membrane, and due to the metabolic properties of adipose tissue, it may influence the behavior of the synovial membrane...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760363/-education-of-physiology-in-nursing-school-common-issues-and-measures-with-pharmacology
#6
Yuka Saeki
Anatomy, physiology or pharmacology is the important subject in nursing education. Nursing education is established in a law since 1951. Although the law is revised many times according to social situation, the subjects like physiology have been positioned as a basic specialized subject in the law now. Physiology is educated at 1st grade in most nursing school. However, there are some problems in educating physiology. First, academic ability in nursing students tend to decline recently. For example, there are some students who cannot solve simple arithmetic...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758190/conserved-characteristics-of-ocular-refractive-development-did-the-eye-evolve-once
#7
REVIEW
Jacob G Sivak, Jeremy M Sivak
It has been speculated that the unitary eyes of vertebrates and molluscs, and the compound eyes of insects and crustaceans, evolved separately. On the other hand, the common use of rhodopsin as a photoreceptor molecule, and the conservation of Pax6 as a master control gene for eye development, suggest instead that the eye evolved once. Yet, recently the molecular genetics that had seemed to suggest a definitive answer to this evolutionary point has once again become cloudy. Here we propose an alternative approach to addressing the question of eye evolution through comparative analyses of physiological optics...
May 11, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757965/nutrition-of-six-selected-neo-tropical-mammals-in-trinidad-and-tobago-with-the-potential-for-domestication
#8
REVIEW
Kavita Ranjeeta Lall, Kegan Romelle Jones, Gary Wayne Garcia
This review highlights the available literature on the nutrition of six neo-tropical animals with the potential for domestication-the agouti ( Dasyprocta leporina / D. aguti ), lappe ( Agouti paca ), capybara ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ), manicou/opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis insularis ), collared peccary ( Peccary tajucu ) and the red brokcet deer ( Mazama americana ). Over 100 references were used, spanning over 100 years. The earliest being 1915 and the most recent being 2018. The references used in this review were synthesized to give a detailed look of the dentition, anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract and type of feed these animals consume...
May 14, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756614/transoral-glossoepiglottopexy-in-the-treatment-of-adult-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-a-surgical-approach
#9
V Roustan, M Barbieri, F Incandela, F Missale, H Camera, F Braido, R Mora, G Peretti
The treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is still a matter of debate; among the different therapeutic alternatives, both surgical and conservative, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the "gold standard". The recent scientific literature reports that even if CPAP represents an effective solution for sleep apnoeas, 12% of patients do not benefit from its use. In most cases, primary collapse of the epiglottis is responsible for failure. We developed a surgical technique that provides a stable support to the epiglottis without influencing its function during swallowing while preserving laryngeal anatomy and physiology...
February 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754625/inguinal-hernia-mastering-the-anatomy
#10
REVIEW
Heidi J Miller
The success of an inguinal hernia repair is defined by the permanence of the operation while creating the fewest complications at minimal cost and allowing patients an early return to activity. This success relies and depends on the surgeon's knowledge and understanding of groin anatomy and physiology. This article reviews relevant anatomy to inguinal hernia repair and technical steps to open tissue and mesh repairs as well as minimally invasive approaches.
June 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754161/motion-corrected-whole-heart-pet-mr-for-the-simultaneous-visualisation-of-coronary-artery-integrity-and-myocardial-viability-an-initial-clinical-validation
#11
Camila Munoz, Karl P Kunze, Radhouene Neji, Teresa Vitadello, Christoph Rischpler, René M Botnar, Stephan G Nekolla, Claudia Prieto
PURPOSE: Cardiac PET-MR has shown potential for the comprehensive assessment of coronary heart disease. However, image degradation due to physiological motion remains a challenge that could hinder the adoption of this technology in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to validate a recently proposed respiratory motion-corrected PET-MR framework for the simultaneous visualisation of myocardial viability (18 F-FDG PET) and coronary artery anatomy (coronary MR angiography, CMRA) in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO)...
May 12, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753817/arch-augmentation-via-median-sternotomy-for-coarctation-of-aorta-with-proximal-arch-hypoplasia
#12
W Hampton Gray, Winfield J Wells, Vaughn A Starnes, S Ram Kumar
BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta can be associated with hypoplasia of the proximal transverse aortic arch. One approach to manage this condition is via left thoracotomy and extended end-to-end anastomosis with the expectation that the proximal arch will grow over time. Our preferred approach is to augment the aorta via midline sternotomy. We hypothesized that this approach is safe, durable and allows reliable growth of the aorta. METHODS: We identified the records of patients with biventricular anatomy who had coarctation of the aorta, hypoplasia of the proximal transverse arch, and no other cardiac lesion that would mandate cardiopulmonary bypass use and midline sternotomy...
May 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749768/incontinence-associated-dermatitis-from-a-urinary-incontinence-perspective
#13
Mary Wilson
This article looks at incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) from the perspective of urinary incontinence (UI). IAD is caused by urine remaining on the skin following UI, which has many causes. It therefore should be assessed, treated and either resolved or managed to reduce the risk of IAD or its impact. The skin's anatomy and physiology are discussed and the changes resulting from IAD are explained. Should it occur, IAD can be treated by cleansing, moisturising and protecting the skin as appropriate, thus restoring its previous barrier functions...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742969/perioperative-and-anesthetic-considerations-in-interrupted-aortic-arch
#14
Nelson Burbano-Vera, Katherine L Zaleski, Gregory J Latham, Viviane G Nasr
Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is defined as the loss of luminal continuity between the ascending and descending aorta and is classified based on the anatomic level of interruption. IAA is associated with a number of intracardiac anomalies with the most common being patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, and left ventricular outflow obstruction. There is also a strong association between type B interruption and 22q11 deletion syndrome. The perioperative management of the neonate with IAA begins in the intensive care unit with optimization of end-organ perfusion and function...
May 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738171/-animal-models-of-erectile-dysfunction-establishment-and-evaluation
#15
REVIEW
Hao Yan, Qiong Wang, Dong-Dong Xiao, Mu-Jun Lu
At present, the study of erectile dysfunction depends heavily on animal models, but the differences in anatomy and physiology of currently used animals make it difficult to exceed the limitations on the experiment. In order to make the results of experiments more applicable and beneficial to the public, it is essential to establish most suitable animal models for the study of the sexual function of humans. Moreover, a consensus has not yet been reached on the methods of detecting and evaluating the erectile function of animals, and therefore an informative and instructional summary of the existing methods seems even more necessary...
November 2017: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735113/anatomy-physiology-and-clinical-syndromes-of-the-basal-ganglia-a-brief-review
#16
Arash Fazl, Jori Fleisher
Movement disorders typically arise from dysfunction of the basal ganglia (BG), cerebellum, or both. The BG-a group of deep, subcortical structures-form complex circuits that shape motor control and motor learning, as well as limbic and associative functions. In this article, we summarize the anatomy and physiology of the BG and cerebellum, and briefly highlight the clinical syndromes that may arise in the context of their injury or dysfunction.
April 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732926/imaging-guided-pre-dilatation-stenting-post-dilatation-ipsp-a-protocolized-approach-highlighting-the-importance-of-intravascular-imaging-for-implantation-of-bioresorbable-scaffolds
#17
Ziad A Ali, Keyvan Karimi Galougahi, Richard Shlofmitz, Akiko Maehara, Gary S Mintz, Alexandre Abizaid, Daniel Chamié, Jonathan Hill, Patrick W Serruys, Yoshinobu Onuma, Gregg W Stone
The advent of the fully bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) is the latest step in a series of advancements in the design of intracoronary stents over the past few decades. The novelty of this technology is in providing temporary vessel scaffolding and local antiproliferative therapy to prevent neointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous coronary intervention followed by gradual resorption of the scaffold to restore the native vessel anatomy and physiology-a process termed vascular reparative therapy. Areas covered: The first generation of BVS has not been able to fully match the high benchmark in safety and efficacy set by contemporary metallic drug-eluting stents...
May 7, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729671/multilevel-social-structure-and-diet-shape-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-gelada-monkey-the-only-grazing-primate
#18
Pål Trosvik, Eric J de Muinck, Eli K Rueness, Peter J Fashing, Evan C Beierschmitt, Kadie R Callingham, Jacob B Kraus, Thomas H Trew, Amera Moges, Addisu Mekonnen, Vivek V Venkataraman, Nga Nguyen
BACKGROUND: The gelada monkey (Theropithecus gelada), endemic to the Ethiopian highlands, is the only graminivorous primate, i.e., it feeds mainly on grasses and sedges. In spite of known dental, manual, and locomotor adaptations, the intestinal anatomy of geladas is similar to that of other primates. We currently lack a clear understanding of the adaptations in digestive physiology necessary for this species to subsist on a graminoid-based diet, but digestion in other graminivores, such as ruminants, relies heavily on the microbial community residing in the gastrointestinal (GI) system...
May 5, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725688/biomimetic-neural-scaffolds-a-crucial-step-towards-optimal-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Jian Du, Huanwen Chen, Liming Qing, Xiuli Yang, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injury is a common disease that affects more than 20 million people in the United States alone and remains a major burden to society. The current gold standard treatment for critical-sized nerve defects is autologous nerve graft transplantation; however, this method is limited in many ways and does not always lead to satisfactory outcomes. The limitations of autografts have prompted investigations into artificial neural scaffolds as replacements, and some neural scaffold devices have progressed to widespread clinical use; scaffold technology overall has yet to be shown to be consistently on a par with or superior to autografts...
May 4, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724984/a-study-on-the-korean-medicine-education-and-the-changes-in-the-traditional-korean-medicine-during-the-japanese-colonial-era-focused-on-the-korean-medicine-training-schools
#20
Yongyuan Huang
The modern education institutes play an important role in fostering professional talents, reproducing knowledge and studies, and forming the identities of certain academic fields and vocational communities. It is a matter of common knowledge that the absence of an official Korean medicine medical school during the Japanese colonial era was a severely disadvantageous factor in the aspects of academic progress, fostering follow-up personnel, and establishment of social capability. Therefore, the then Korean medicine circle put emphasis on inadequate official education institutes as the main factor behind oppression...
April 2018: Ŭi Sahak
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