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Anatomy and physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148257/multiscale-memory-and-bioelectric-error-correction-in-the-cytoplasm-cytoskeleton-membrane-system
#1
REVIEW
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146030/pain-in-birds-the-anatomical-and-physiological-basis
#2
REVIEW
Jamie M Douglas, David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
This article reviews the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain in birds, with consideration of some of its differences from mammalian pain. From transduction to transmission, modulation, projection, and perception, birds possess the neurologic components necessary to respond to painful stimuli and they likely perceive pain in a manner similar to mammals. This article also describes the current understating of opioid receptors, inflammatory mediators, and additional factors in the modulation of pain in avian species...
January 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141537/ophthalmic-applications-of-sln-and-nlc
#3
Neslihan Ustundag Okur, Evren Homan Gokce
BACKGROUND: The eyes are among the most readily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug delivery to eye tissues is particularly problematic. The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye limit the ophthalmic delivery of drugs. Numerous strategies in ophthalmic drug delivery have been made to expand the bioavailability and to prolong the remaining time of drugs treated topically to eye. METHODS: Designing a novel delivery vehicles that can proficiently target the diseased eye tissue, generate high drug levels, and keep sustained and effective concentrations with no or minimum side effects is the main concentration of present examination...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138215/physiology-undergraduate-degree-requirements-in-the-u-s
#4
Valerie S VanRyn, James M Poteracki, Erica A Wehrwein
Course-level learning objectives and core concepts for undergraduate physiology teaching exist. The next step is to consider how these resources fit into generalizable program-level guidelines for Bachelor of Science (BS) degrees in Physiology. In the absence of program-level guidelines for Physiology degree programs, we compiled a selective internal report to review degree requirements from 18 peer BS programs entitled "Physiology" in the United States (U.S.). There was a range of zero to three required semesters of math, physics, physics laboratory, general biology, biology laboratory, general chemistry, chemistry laboratory, organic chemistry, organic chemistry laboratory, biochemistry, biochemistry laboratory, anatomy, anatomy laboratory, core systems physiology, and physiology laboratory...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137728/a-computational-model-for-false-lumen-thrombosis-in-type-b-aortic-dissection-following-thoracic-endovascular-repair
#5
Claudia Menichini, Zhuo Cheng, Richard G J Gibbs, Xiao Yun Xu
Thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) has recently been established as the preferred treatment option for complicated type B dissection. This procedure involves covering the primary entry tear to stimulate aortic remodelling and promote false lumen thrombosis thereby restoring true lumen flow. However, complications associated with incomplete false lumen thrombosis, such as aortic dilatation and stent graft induced new entry tears, can arise after TEVAR. This study presents the application and validation of a recently developed mathematical model for patient-specific prediction of thrombus formation and growth under physiologically realistic flow conditions...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130520/narrated-video-demonstrating-the-procedure-of-videourodynamics
#6
Linda Cardozo, Fevzi Shakir, George Araklitis, Angie Rantell, Dudley Robinson
AIMS: To present a narrated video designed to demonstrate the steps involved in the procedure of videourodynamics. METHODS: The technique shown and described in this teaching video is that performed in the urogynaecology Department at King's College Hospital, London. The equipment utilizes fluid filled lines and external pressure transducers which provide accurate and consistent results. RESULTS: The advantage of videocystourolodraphy is that as well as incorporating screening fluoroscopy with a cystometric trace, simultaneous assessment of lower urinary tract anatomy and morphology and function is possible...
November 11, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125097/historical-and-contemporary-aspects-of-maternal-immunity-in-swine
#7
Korakrit Poonsuk, Jeff Zimmerman
Maternal immunity plays a pivotal role in swine health and production because piglets are born agammaglobulinemic and with limited cell-mediated immunity, i.e. few peripheral lymphoid cells, immature lymphoid tissues, and no effector and memory T-lymphocytes. Swine do not become fully immunologically competent until about 4 weeks of age, which means that their compromised ability to respond to infectious agents during the first month of life must be supplemented by maternal immune components: (1) circulating antibodies derived from colostrum; (2) mucosal antibodies from colostrum and milk; and (3) immune cells provided in mammary secretions...
November 10, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121815/preclinical-animal-models-for-temporomandibular-joint-tissue-engineering
#8
Alejandro Almarza, Bryan Brown, Boaz Arzi, David Faustino Ângelo, William L Chung, Stephen F Badylak, Michael Scott Detamore
There is a paucity of in vivo studies that investigate the safety and efficacy of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) tissue regeneration approaches, in part due to the lack of established animal models. Review of disease models for study of the TMJ is presented herein with an attempt to identify relevant preclinical animal models for TMJ tissue engineering, with emphasis on the disc and condyle. Although degenerative joint disease models have been mainly performed on mice, rats, and rabbits, pre-clinical regeneration approaches must employ larger animal species...
November 9, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120686/why-is-the-heel-particularly-vulnerable-to-pressure-ulcers
#9
Amit Gefen
In this article, the vulnerability of the soft tissues of the heel to pressure ulcers (injuries) is explained from a biomechanical engineering perspective, and emerging technologies for protecting the heel, particularly low-friction garments, are reviewed. Sustained deformations in the soft tissue of the weight-bearing posterior heel cause progressive cell and tissue damage due to loss of homeostasis in the cells, as the cytoskeleton and plasma membranes of the affected cells lose integrity and functionality...
November 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119295/treatment-of-hip-fracture-of-pope-innocent-xii-by-marcello-malpighi-with-bed-rest
#10
REVIEW
Marco Bigoni, Giovanni Zatti, Nicolò Zanchi, Filippo Maria Anghilieri, Michele A Riva
Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), who is referred to as the father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology was an Italian biologist and physician, well known for his discoveries on microscopical anatomy of kidney, circulating and lymphatic systems. As well as being a brilliant anatomist, Malpighi was also a valued physician so far as to became the personal physician of Pope Innocent XII (1615-1700). On 23 August 1691, one month after his election, the Pope fell to the ground hitting his left hip...
November 8, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118107/morphological-constraints-on-cerebellar-granule-cell-combinatorial-diversity
#11
Jesse I Gilmer, Abigail L Person
Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar granule cell layer and examined how GCL architecture contributes to granule cell (GrC) combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116158/optical-mapping-of-the-dominant-frequency-of-brain-signal-oscillations-in-motor-systems
#12
Feng-Mei Lu, Yi-Feng Wang, Juan Zhang, Hua-Fu Chen, Zhen Yuan
Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the dominant frequency of neural oscillations is brain-region-specific and can vary with frequency-specific reorganization of brain networks during cognition. In this study, we examined the dominant frequency in low-frequency neural oscillations represented by oxygenated hemoglobin measurements after the hemodynamic response function (HRF) deconvolution. Twenty-nine healthy college subjects were recruited to perform a serial finger tapping task at the frequency of 0...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112797/exploring-anatomy-and-physiology-using-ipad-applications
#13
Tandra R Chakraborty, Deborah F Cooperstein
This study examined the use of iPads with anatomy applications (apps) in the laboratory sections of the largest undergraduate course at the university, Anatomy and Physiology, serving more than 300 students. The majority of these students were nursing, exercise science/physical education and biology majors. With a student survey (student opinion) and student practicum grades as metrics, this study determined whether the introduction of this novel mobile technology improved student grades and aided the students in learning the course material...
November 7, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#14
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109913/comparative-analysis-of-the-microrna-transcriptome-between-yak-and-cattle-provides-insight-into-high-altitude-adaptation
#15
Jiuqiang Guan, Keren Long, Jideng Ma, Jinwei Zhang, Dafang He, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Anan Jiang, Xun Wang, Yaodong Hu, Shilin Tian, Zhi Jiang, Mingzhou Li, Xiaolin Luo
Extensive and in-depth investigations of high-altitude adaptation have been carried out at the level of morphology, anatomy, physiology and genomics, but few investigations focused on the roles of microRNA (miRNA) in high-altitude adaptation. We examined the differences in the miRNA transcriptomes of two representative hypoxia-sensitive tissues (heart and lung) between yak and cattle, two closely related species that live in high and low altitudes, respectively. In this study, we identified a total of 808 mature miRNAs, which corresponded to 715 pre-miRNAs in the two species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108539/the-pathophysiology-of-the-male-aging-face-and-body
#16
REVIEW
Neil S Sadick
Increasing numbers of men are seeking aesthetic treatments for fat reduction, skin rejuvenation, and other antiaging goals. Compared with women, however, men have distinctly different anatomy and physiologic differences that manifest in the aging process. Given that both anatomy and the aging process affect treatment strategies and clinical outcomes, there is a need for dermatologists to be acutely aware of these male-specific nuances to provide the best clinical care and patient satisfaction.
January 2018: Dermatologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104583/not-all-trees-sleep-the-same-high-temporal-resolution-terrestrial-laser-scanning-shows-differences-in-nocturnal-plant-movement
#17
András Zlinszky, Bence Molnár, Anders S Barfod
Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid measurement of distances to the targets, thus producing three dimensional point cloud models of sub-centimeter resolution and accuracy in a few minutes. Here, we aim to gain an overview of the variability of circadian movement of small trees across different taxonomic groups, growth forms and leaf anatomies...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103609/parameters-and-scales-used-to-assess-and-report-findings-from-stroboscopy-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Heather Shaw Bonilha, Maude Desjardins, Kendrea L Garand, Bonnie Martin-Harris
OBJECTIVE: Laryngeal endoscopy with stroboscopy, a critical component of the assessment of voice disorders, is rarely used as a treatment outcome measure in the scientific literature. We hypothesized that this is because of the lack of a widely used standardized, validated, and reliable method to assess and report laryngeal anatomy and physiology, and undertook a systematic literature review to determine the extent of the inconsistencies of the parameters and scales used in voice treatment outcome studies...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103139/the-sacral-parasympathetic-ontogeny-and-anatomy-of-a-myth
#19
REVIEW
Isabel Espinosa-Medina, Orthis Saha, Franck Boismoreau, Jean-François Brunet
We recently defined genetic traits that distinguish sympathetic from parasympathetic neurons, both preganglionic and ganglionic (Espinosa-Medina et al., Science 354:893-897, 2016). By this set of criteria, we found that the sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic, not parasympathetic as has been thought for more than a century. Proposing such a belated shift in perspective begs the question why the new criterion (cell types defined by their genetic make-up and dependencies) should be favored over the anatomical, physiological and pharmacological considerations of long ago that inspired the "parasympathetic" classification...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102929/three-dimensional-laser-scanning-confocal-analysis-of-conjunctival-microcysts-in-glaucomatous-patients-before-and-after-trabeculectomy
#20
Silvio DI Staso, Luca Agnifili, Angela DI Gregorio, Hilary Climastone, Emilio Galassi, Vincenzo Fasanella, Marco Ciancaglini
BACKGROUND/AIM: In glaucoma, conjunctival epithelial microcysts (CEM) have been extensively investigated by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy. In the present case series, we examined eight glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy to obtain a 3-dimensional (3-D) characterization of CEM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Image acquisition was performed in z-scan automatic volume mode by Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III/Rostock Cornea Module and a series of 40 images of 300×300 μm (384×384 pixels) to a maximum depth of 40 μm were acquired throughout the upper bulbar conjunctiva before (at the site planned for surgery) and eight weeks after trabeculectomy...
November 2017: In Vivo
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