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Pediatric infectious diseases

Joseph Connors, Rachel Aronov, Laura Malaga-Dieguez, Suzanne Vento, Laura Jane Pehrson, Ming Wu, Shailee Lala, Howard Trachtman
Interstitial nephritis (IN) is a relatively rare entity in children and adolescents that can be caused by a range of disorders including infection, medications, inflammatory bowel disease, and sarcoid. There is no proven therapy for this condition. We present 2 cases of biopsy-proven interstitial nephritis, of which 1 case was with granulomatous features that presented with unusual sonographic findings of discrete mass lesions in the kidney parenchyma bilaterally. Although a precise cause could not be identified in either case, 1 patient progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and the other is in the early stages of treatment...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Sinan Özçelik, İbrahim Kulaç, Mustafa Yazıcı, Esra Öcal
Aim: Studies on pediatric skin diseases in Turkey are not yet sufficient. It was aimed to characterize the prevalence of skin diseases, age and gender distribution in children living in the Erzincan region. Material and Methods: 10,115 children aged 0-16 years who reached to our outpatient clinic between 01.11.2014 and 30.11.2016 were included in the study. The frequency, age and gender distribution of the skin diseases were examined. The cases were divided into 4 groups; infantile period (0-2 years), preschool period (3-5 years), school period (6-11 years) and adolescence period (12-16 years)...
June 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Sean T O'Leary, James D Campbell, David W Kimberlin
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), a group of medical and public health experts, meets 3 times per year to develop recommendations for vaccine use in the United States. The group has 15 voting members, and each member's term is 4 years. ACIP members and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff discuss the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccine research, effectiveness, safety data, and clinical trial results. Representatives from the American Academy of Pediatrics (J...
August 2, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Maria Korzeniewska-Koseła
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the main features of TB epidemiology in 2016 in Poland and to compare with the situation in the EU/EEA countries. METHODS: Analysis of case- based data on TB patients from National TB Register, data on anti-TB drug susceptibility testing results in cases notified in 2016, data from National Institute of Public Health- National Institute of Hygiene on cases of tuberculosis as AIDS-defining disease, data from Central Statistical Office on deaths from tuberculosis based on death certificates, data from ECDC report „ European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control/WHO Regional Office for Europe...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Ying Chen, Melissa A Gilbert, Christopher M Grochowski, Deborah McEldrew, Jessica Llewellyn, Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Hakon Hakonarson, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Pierre Russo, Rebecca G Wells, Kathleen M Loomes, Nancy B Spinner, Marcella Devoto
Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare pediatric cholangiopathy characterized by fibrosclerosing obliteration of the extrahepatic bile ducts, leading to cholestasis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventual liver failure. The etiology of BA remains unknown, although environmental, inflammatory, infectious, and genetic risk factors have been proposed. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a European-American cohort of 343 isolated BA patients and 1716 controls to identify genetic loci associated with BA. A second GWAS was performed in an independent European-American cohort of 156 patients with BA and other extrahepatic anomalies and 212 controls to confirm the identified candidate BA-associated SNPs...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Lindy Zhang, Allison M Martin, Kathy Ruble
Pediatric oncology patients treated with antineoplastic therapy have impaired immune systems that lead to loss of protective antibodies. They require reimmunization to protect against vaccine-preventable diseases. There are a paucity of studies on the clinical practice of pediatric oncologists and the available recommendations are heterogenous. This study describes current reimmunization practices among pediatric oncologists. We surveyed the Children's Oncology Group (COG)-identified principle investigators to capture clinical practices among pediatric oncologists within their institutions regarding reimmunization of non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Moaaz Soliman, Fatima Neemuchwala, Amanda Sankar, Rama Jasty, Raja Rabah, Antonia P Popova, Erika A Newman
A 14-year-old male patient presented with a nonproductive cough, weight loss, fatigue, and malaise. A chest radiograph showed large bilateral cavitary lung lesions in both upper and lower lobes that failed to improve with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications. Infectious and rheumatologic work-ups were negative. Thoracoscopic lung biopsies were diagnostic for nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). The patient received combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy based on current treatment standards with an excellent clinical response...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Olexander I Smiyan, Andrii M Loboda, Yuliia A Manko, Tatiana P Bynda, Sergiy V Popov, Viktoriia O Petrashenko, Petro I Sichnenko, Oksana K Romaniuk, Viktoriia A Gorbas, Mykola P Zagorodnii, Kateryna O Smiian-Horbunova, Viktor V Kosarchuk, Olena L Ovsianko, Maria V Kolesnikova
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract in children and teenagers, such as chronic tonsillitis is quite common in pediatric populations, accompanied by changes in reactivity, causing a risk of complications. Due to the fact that the child's body resistance to acute infectious diseases depends on the sufficiency of trace elements, then at present stage greatly increased interest in deeper study of exchange of macro- and microelements in the human body in normal and pathological conditions...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Victoria J Wright, Jethro A Herberg, Myrsini Kaforou, Chisato Shimizu, Hariklia Eleftherohorinou, Hannah Shailes, Anouk M Barendregt, Stephanie Menikou, Stuart Gormley, Maurice Berk, Long Truong Hoang, Adriana H Tremoulet, John T Kanegaye, Lachlan J M Coin, Mary P Glodé, Martin Hibberd, Taco W Kuijpers, Clive J Hoggart, Jane C Burns, Michael Levin
Importance: To date, there is no diagnostic test for Kawasaki disease (KD). Diagnosis is based on clinical features shared with other febrile conditions, frequently resulting in delayed or missed treatment and an increased risk of coronary artery aneurysms. Objective: To identify a whole-blood gene expression signature that distinguishes children with KD in the first week of illness from other febrile conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: The case-control study comprised a discovery group that included a training and test set and a validation group of children with KD or comparator febrile illness...
August 6, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
A Orsi, C Azzari, E Bozzola, G Chiamenti, G Chirico, S Esposito, F Francia, P Lopalco, R Prato, R Russo, A Villani, E Franco
Combination vaccines represent a valuable technological innovation in the field of infectious disease prevention and public health, because of their great health and economic value from the individual, societal, and healthcare system perspectives. In order to increase parents' and healthcare professionals' confidence in the vaccination programs and maintain their benefits to society, more information about the benefits of innovative vaccination tools such as combination vaccines is needed. Purpose of this work is an examination of available hexavalent vaccines, that protect against Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Poliomyelitis, Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b infections...
June 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
Ayşe Betül Ergül, İkbal Gökçek, Taylan Çelik, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Aim: This study aimed to determine inappropriate antibiotic use in a children's hospital using the point-surveillance method. Material and Methods: One hundred thirteen hospitalized patients were included in the study on the study day. In all patients, data regarding age, sex, antibiotic use, type and dose of antibiotic if used, multiple antibiotic use, presence or absence of consultation with infectious diseases specialist before initiation of antibiotic, form of antibiotic use (empiric, targeted or prophylactic), and reason for antibiotic use were recorded...
March 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Emmanuel Montassier, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Benjamin Hillmann, Kimberly Viskocil, Amanda J Kabage, Christopher E McKinlay, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Dan Knights
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the human gut microbiome is defined as a maladaptive or clinically relevant deviation of the community profile from the healthy or normal state. Dysbiosis has been implicated in an extensive set of metabolic, auto-immune, and infectious diseases, and yet there is substantial inter-individual variation in microbiome composition even within body sites of healthy humans. An individual's microbiome varies over time in a high-dimensional space to form their personal microbiome cloud...
August 6, 2018: Microbiome
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
A Judit Machnitz, Janet R Reid, Michael R Acord, Asef B Khwaja, David M Biko, Rama S Ayyala, Sudha A Anupindi
MR enterography is traditionally used to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) both at initial presentation and at follow-up. MR enterography can also be used to evaluate non-IBD conditions such as polyps or other masses of the gastrointestinal tract. In this article, we emphasize how to recognize bowel conditions beyond IBD on conventional abdominal MRI without a specific enterographic technique. In this overview we discuss common and uncommon pediatric bowel conditions beyond IBD seen on MRI including infectious and inflammatory conditions, congenital diseases and tumor and tumor-like conditions...
August 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Jie Zhang, Licun He, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Shaohui Ma
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by multiple enteroviruses (EVs) in China. To better define the etiologic agents and clinical characteristics of HFMD, we conducted this study in Yunnan, China.In this study, 1280 stool specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD in 2010. EV was detected with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and directly genotyped by gene sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 partial gene and the clinical characteristics were analyzed using SPSS Software...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katia Perruccio, Luisa Sisinni, Antonio Perez-Martinez, Jaime Valentin, Ilaria Capolsini, Maria Speranza Massei, Maurizio Caniglia, Simone Cesaro
BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus (HHV-6) infection is increasingly recognized among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients, 30% being the risk of reactivation in the haploidentical setting. It has been associated with encephalitis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft failure. Here we report two cohorts of pediatric haploidentical manipulated HSCT in which, despite many differences, HHV-6 reactivation and disease occurred with very high incidence compared to data reported in literature, and represented the main early post-transplant infectious complication compared to other viral, bacterial or fungal infections...
July 29, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Maria Punchak, Kaitlin Hall, Amir Seni, W Chris Buck, Daniel A DeUgarte, Emily Hartford, Robert B Kelly, Valéria I Muando
OBJECTIVES: Delivery of pediatric critical care in low-income countries is limited by a lack of infrastructure, resources, and providers. Few studies have analyzed the epidemiology of disease associated with a PICU in a low-income country. The aim of this study was to document the primary diagnoses and the associated mortality rates of patients presenting to a tertiary PICU in Mozambique in order to formulate quality improvement projects through an international academic partnership. We hypothesized that the PICU mortality rate would be high and that sepsis would be a common cause of death...
July 30, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Naim Ouldali, Corinne Levy, Emmanuelle Varon, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Stéphane Béchet, Robert Cohen, François Angoulvant
BACKGROUND: Successive implementation of seven-valent then 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) led to a marked decrease in pneumococcal disease burden, including pneumococcal meningitis. We assessed the long-term effect of implementation of PCVs on incidence of pneumococcal meningitis in children in France over a 16-year period. METHODS: We did a quasi-experimental, population-based interrupted time-series analysis with a nationwide prospective survey over 16 years in France, recruiting children aged younger than 15 years from 227 paediatric wards from January, 2001, to December, 2016...
July 23, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Francesco Pichi
PURPOSE: To report a case of pediatric vascularized sarcoid choroidal granuloma complicated by placoid-like inflammation. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 10-year-old girl presented with blurry vision in her right eye and a yellowish macular lesion that had been diagnosed as fibrotic choroidal neovascular membrane and observed for several months. On referral to our clinic, optical coherence tomography revealed a homogeneous hyperreflective lesion obliterating the choroidal vasculature and protruding under the retina with associated subretinal and intraretinal fluid...
July 24, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
A Roussel, M Michel, A Lefevre-Utile, L De Pontual, A Faye, K Chevreul
BACKGROUND: Adult deprived patients consume more healthcare resources than others, particularly in terms of increased length of stay (LOS) and costs. Very few pediatric studies have focused on LOS, although the effect of deprivation could be greater in children due to the vulnerability of this population. Our objective was to compare LOS between deprived and nondeprived children hospitalized for acute infectious diseases in two university-affiliated pediatric departments located in a low-income area of northern Paris...
July 21, 2018: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
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