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Pediatric infectious diseases

Lucía Rodríguez-Vázquez, Joaquín Martí
The cytostatic agent hydroxyurea (HU) has proven to be beneficial for a variety of conditions in the disciplines of oncology, hematology, infectious disease and dermatology. It disrupts the S phase of the cell cycle by inhibiting the ribonucleotide reductase enzyme, thus blocking the transformation of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides, a rate limiting step in DNA synthesis. HU is listed as an essential medicine by the World Health Organization. Several studies have indicated that HU is well tolerated and safe in pregnant women and very young pediatric patients...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Daisuke Hayashi, Yusaku Akashi, Hiromichi Suzuki, Masanari Shiigai, Koji Kanemoto, Shigeyuki Notake, Takumi Ishiodori, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Hironori Imai
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading causative pathogen of pneumonia among pediatric patients, and its accurate diagnosis may aid in the selection of appropriate antimicrobial agents. We established a rapid reporting system of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination for M. pneumoniae that enables physicians to obtain test results approximately 90 minutes after ordering the test. In this study, we evaluated the impact of this system on antimicrobial prescriptions for pediatric pneumonia patients after its implementation from May 2016 to April 2017...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Antonio Arbo, Luiza Helena Falleiros-Arlant, Eduardo L López, José Brea Del Castillo, Celia Martínez de Cuellar, Gabriela Moreno, Roger Rolón, Javier Cerda, Salim Eguiazú
As last notified case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus type 2 was 1999, in 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the withdrawal of the type 2 component of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the introduction of bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries by 2016. WHO recommended also that the withdrawal should be preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization schedules...
August 2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Paul Spearman, Yvonne Bryson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe some current challenges facing the field of pediatric infectious diseases and discuss strategies for enhancing recognition of the value of infectious disease services and for recruiting new talent to the field. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric infectious disease programs are currently filling approximately half of their fellowship positions, and salaries are among the lowest in medical subspecialties. Research-intensive careers in pediatric infectious diseases are threatened by low the National Institutes of Health paylines for career development awards...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Alessandra Bartoloni, Maria Pilar Aparisi Gómez, Marco Cirillo, Georgina Allen, Giuseppe Battista, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Paolo Tomà, Alberto Bazzocchi
Limping is a challenging symptom in the pediatric patient as the diagnosis can range from traumatic, malformative, infectious/inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. In this paper, we propose a schematic imaging algorithm to the limping child in three different age groups (Toddler: 1-3years, child: 4-10 years; adolescent: 11-16 years) based on presence of signs of infection, any specific localization of pain, and history of trauma. In this setting, the most common imaging pitfalls are also summarised. Finally, a literature review of the main differential causes of limping in the pediatric patient is reported...
December 2018: European Journal of Radiology
H X Shi, J Z Wu, G B Chen, B Z Zhu, W Y Yan, L Chen, Y J Xiao, L Y Zhang
Objective: To assess the effectiveness in optimizing resources and shortening critical children's waiting time in pediatric emergency department (PED) with five-level pediatric emergency triage system (PETS). Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University after PETS was applied. The data of patients who visited the pediatric emergency department from January 2015 to December 2017 were collected and analyzed, including age, sex, diseases, visiting time, triage rate and destination...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Laurel K Leslie, Murrey G Olmsted, Adam Turner, Carol Carraccio, Andrew Dwyer, Linda Althouse
The American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifies that general and subspecialty pediatricians meet standards of excellence established by their peers. Certification helps demonstrate that a general pediatrician or pediatric subspecialist has successfully completed accredited training and fulfills continuous certification requirements (Maintenance of Certification [MOC]). One current component of the MOC program is a closed-book examination administered at a secure testing center (ie, the MOC Part 3 examination)...
December 2018: Pediatrics
Francisco Airton Castro Rocha, Joaquim Ivo Vasques Dantas Landim, Leila Nascimento da Rocha
Despite resilient inequities, Brazil has seen progressive improvement in health care in the last 25 years. Infectious diseases rendered place to chronic non-communicable diseases as a major cause of death. Existence of traditional schools of medicine and training services in rheumatology helped form a reasonable number of specialists, though irregular distribution due to the economic issues favoring their clustering in major cities. The Brazilian Society of Rheumatology provides continued medical education, helps training rheumatologists, family physicians and other health professionals and has worked to publish national recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of major rheumatic diseases...
December 1, 2018: Rheumatology International
A Michev, P Musso, T Foiadelli, C Trabatti, A Lozza, D Franciotta, A M Simoncelli, S Savasta
Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis (BBE) is a rare autoimmune encephalitis, characterized by acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and altered state of consciousness. Together with Guillan-Barrè Syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher Syndrome, it forms a spectrum of post-infectious demyelinating diseases. Overlapping forms between BBE and GBS (BBE/GBS) are described in patients with lower limbs weakness and typical signs of BBE, suggesting a combined involvement of Central and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), but only few reported cases are focused on pediatric population...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Todd Karsies, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Mark Hall
Background: Risk-based guidelines aid empiric antibiotic selection for critically ill adults with suspected infection with Gram-negative bacilli with high potential for antibiotic resistance (termed high-risk GNRs). Neither evidence-based guidelines for empiric antibiotic selection nor validated risk factors predicting high-risk GNR growth exist for critically ill children. We developed and validated a model for predicting high-risk GNR growth in critically ill children with suspected infection...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Dimitri Poddighe, Vitaliy Sazonov
Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is the inflammatory disease of the gallbladder in the absence of gallstones. AAC is estimated to represent at least 50% to 70% of all cases of acute cholecystitis during childhood. Although this pathology was originally described in critically ill or post-surgical patients, most pediatric cases have been observed during several infectious diseases. In addition to cases caused by bacterial and parasitic infections, most pediatric reports after 2000 described children developing AAC during viral illnesses (such as Epstein-Barr virus and hepatitis A virus infections)...
November 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
N Sawadogo, F Garanet, D Traoré, Christiane Somé/Béré, Z Maré, G Dabiré
AIM: This study aimed to determine the epidemiological and evolutionary profile of hospital-based adolescent disease in Kaya, Burkina Faso. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive studyall adolescents hospitalized from 2014 to 2015 at the regional hospital center (CHR) of Kaya. RESULTS: A total of 1,312 adolescents were hospitalized during the study period, an hospitalization rate of 7.21%. The mean age was 15.52 ± 3 years with a sex ratio of 0...
2018: Le Mali Médical
Mohammed Lamorde, Arthur Mpimbaza, Richard Walwema, Moses Kamya, James Kapisi, Henry Kajumbula, Asadu Sserwanga, Jane Frances Namuganga, Abel Kusemererwa, Hannington Tasimwa, Issa Makumbi, John Kayiwa, Julius Lutwama, Prosper Behumbiize, Abner Tagoola, Jane Frances Nanteza, Gilbert Aniku, Meklit Workneh, Yukari Manabe, Jeff N Borchert, Vance Brown, Grace D Appiah, Eric D Mintz, Jaco Homsy, George S Odongo, Raymond L Ransom, Molly M Freeman, Robyn A Stoddard, Renee Galloway, Matthew Mikoleit, Cecilia Kato, Ronald Rosenberg, Eric C Mossel, Paul S Mead, Kiersten J Kugeler
Global health security depends on effective surveillance for infectious diseases. In Uganda, resources are inadequate to support collection and reporting of data necessary for an effective and responsive surveillance system. We used a cross-cutting approach to improve surveillance and laboratory capacity in Uganda by leveraging an existing pediatric inpatient malaria sentinel surveillance system to collect data on expanded causes of illness, facilitate development of real-time surveillance, and provide data on antimicrobial resistance...
2018: Health Security
L Z Feng, Z B Peng, D Y Wang, P Yang, J Yang, Y Y Zhang, J Chen, S Q Jiang, L L Xu, M Kang, T Chen, Y M Zheng, J D Zheng, Y Qin, M J Zhao, Y Y Tan, Z J Li, Z J Feng
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and its complications. Currently, China has licensed trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. In most parts of China, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients need to pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and the operational research on influenza vaccination in China, the National Immunization Advisory Committee (NIAC), Influenza Vaccine Technical Working Group (TWG), updated the 2014 technical guidelines and compiled the " Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China ( 2018 - 2019 )" , based on most recent existing scientific evidences...
November 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Muhammad Adnan Khan, Syed Abdul Qader Quadri, Abdulmuqueeth Syed Kazmi, Vishal Kwatra, Anirudh Ramachandran, Aaron Gustin, Mudassir Farooqui, Sajid Sattar Suriya, Atif Zafar
Skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is a complex and fatal clinical entity that is often misdiagnosed for malignancy. SBO is commonly a direct complication of otogenic, sinogenic, odontogenic, and rhinogenic infections and can present as central, atypical, or pediatric clival SBO. This review describes the clinical profile, investigational approach, and management techniques for these variants. A comprehensive literature review was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, Research Gate, EMBASE, Wiley Online Library, and various Neurosurgical and Neurology journals with the keywords including: SBO, central or atypical SBO, fungal osteomyelitis, malignant otitis externa, temporal bone osteomyelitis, and clival osteomyelitis...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Miliard Derbew
Pediatric age groups constitute more than 50% of the Sub-Saharan African, SSA, population. Very poor socioeconomic conditions and rare and advanced pathologies are the major health challenges of the region. Despite the overwhelming burden of diseases in the region, the health workforce and infrastructure are underdeveloped. The overall poverty, poor hygiene and sanitation, and widespread infectious disease with very limited infrastructures (road, health institutions) on top of lack of government commitment to improve the health of their people are some of the drawbacks that fail to address the unmet needs of pediatric health in SSA...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Achille Marino, Teresa Giani, Rolando Cimaz
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Several drugs blocking TNF-α are employed in clinical practice in pediatrics. Given their action on the immune system, TNF-α inhibitors have raised concerns on their safety profile since their introduction. A broad spectrum of side effects related to TNF inhibition has been reported: immunogenicity, infectious diseases, malignancies and others. Areas covered: In order to assess the risk related to the use of anti-TNF-α agents in children with rheumatic diseases we analyzed data obtained from retrospective and prospective safety studies, case reports and case series and controlled trials...
November 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana Rerksuppaphol
Background: Zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and increases the risk for several infectious diseases. Low serum zinc levels have been reported in children with dengue virus infection (DVI). This study aimed to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on DVI outcomes. Methods: A double-blinded, randomized trial was conducted in 50 children with dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever admitted to the pediatric unit of MSMC Srinakharinwirot University Hospital, Thailand, between January 2016 and April 2017...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Deniz Aygun, Sezgin Sahin, Amra Adrovic, Kenan Barut, Haluk Cokugras, Yıldız Camcıoglu, Ozgur Kasapcopur
INTRODUCTION: The most effective and concurrently the safest treatment regimen selection is important to provide early control of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to have an acceptable quality of life. The effectivity of biologic agents as well as standard disease-modifying drugs is well documented in treatment of JIA. In spite of their high benefit, these drugs have the risk of serious infections. Herein, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the infectious complications of biologic agents in patients diagnosed with JIA...
November 17, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Chiara Tersigni, Alessandro Semeraro, Marcello Caremani, Elisabetta Venturini, Claudio de Filippi, Luisa Galli
We report the case of an adolescent Moroccan girl with abdominal pain and palpable mass in the upper right side of the abdomen. In the emergency department, an abdominal ultrasound showed hepatomegaly and eight active liver cysts, compatible with cystic echinococcosis. Serology for Echinococcus granulosus confirmed the diagnosis. Other sites of localization were excluded. Treatment involved albendazole combined with puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration, performed only for the most medial cysts. Periodical follow-up with abdominal ultrasound and with abdominal magnetic resonance imaging showed a progressive involution of all cysts...
November 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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