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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030141/nephron-progenitor-cell-commitment-striking-the-right-balance
#1
REVIEW
Lori L O'Brien
The filtering component of the kidney, the nephron, arises from a single progenitor population. These nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) both self-renew and differentiate throughout the course of kidney development ensuring sufficient nephron endowment. An appropriate balance of these processes must be struck as deficiencies in nephron numbers are associated with hypertension and kidney disease. This review will discuss the mechanisms and molecules supporting NPC maintenance and differentiation. A focus on recent work will highlight new molecular insights into NPC regulation and their dynamic behavior in both space and time...
July 30, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961928/new-insights-into-the-role-of-hnf-1%C3%AE-in-kidney-patho-physiology
#2
REVIEW
Silvia Ferrè, Peter Igarashi
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) is an essential transcription factor that regulates the development and function of epithelia in the kidney, liver, pancreas, and genitourinary tract. Humans who carry HNF1B mutations develop heterogeneous renal abnormalities, including multicystic dysplastic kidneys, glomerulocystic kidney disease, renal agenesis, renal hypoplasia, and renal interstitial fibrosis. In the embryonic kidney, HNF-1β is required for ureteric bud branching, initiation of nephrogenesis, and nephron segmentation...
July 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939355/nephrotoxicity-and-renal-pathophysiology-a-contemporary-perspective
#3
Lillie M A Barnett, Brian S Cummings
The kidney consists of numerous cell types organized into the nephron, which is the basic functional unit of the kidney. Any stimuli that induce loss of these cells can induce kidney damage and renal failure. The cause of renal failure can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Extrinsic causes include cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, sepsis, and lung and liver failure. Intrinsic causes include glomerular nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, renal fibrosis, tubular cell death, and stones. The kidney plays a prominent role in mediating the toxicity of numerous drugs, environmental pollutants and natural substances...
August 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894319/distal-tubule-basolateral-potassium-channels-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-regulation
#4
Oleg Palygin, Oleh Pochynyuk, Alexander Staruschenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and translational evidence support benefits of high potassium diet; however, there many uncertainties underlying the molecular and cellular mechanisms determining effects of dietary potassium. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 proteins form a functional heteromer (Kir4.1/Kir5.1), which is the primary inwardly rectifying potassium channel on the basolateral membrane of both distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the collecting duct principal cells. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize latest advances in our understanding of the evolution, physiological relevance and mechanisms controlling these channels...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879472/development-of-the-renal-vasculature
#5
REVIEW
Tahagod Mohamed, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
The kidney vasculature has a unique and complex architecture that is central for the kidney to exert its multiple and essential physiological functions with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. An appropriate development and coordinated assembly of the different vascular cell types and their association with the corresponding nephrons is crucial for the generation of a functioning kidney. In this review we provide an overview of the renal vascular anatomy, histology, and current knowledge of the embryological origin and molecular pathways involved in its development...
June 5, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649832/the-impact-of-preexisting-chronic-kidney-disease-on-the-severity-and-recovery-of-acute-kidney-injury
#6
Sung Yoon Lim, Yoon Sook Ko, Hee Young Lee, Ji Hyun Yang, Myung Gyu Kim, Sang Kyung Jo, Won Yong Cho
BACKGROUND: Recent observational studies have shown that in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, a significantly smaller percentage of patients with an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) have full recovery of renal function compared to those without CKD. However, precise mechanisms involved in the incomplete repair after AKI with preexisting CKD have not been completely ascertained. Here, we assessed the impact of preexisting CKD on the severity and recovery of AKI in a mouse model of 5/6 nephrectomy...
2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530281/single-nephron-proteomes-connect-morphology-and-function-in-proteinuric-kidney-disease
#7
Martin Höhne, Christian K Frese, Florian Grahammer, Claudia Dafinger, Giuliano Ciarimboli, Linus Butt, Julia Binz, Matthias J Hackl, Mahdieh Rahmatollahi, Martin Kann, Simon Schneider, Mehmet M Altintas, Bernhard Schermer, Thomas Reinheckel, Heike Göbel, Jochen Reiser, Tobias B Huber, Rafael Kramann, Tamina Seeger-Nukpezah, Max C Liebau, Bodo B Beck, Thomas Benzing, Andreas Beyer, Markus M Rinschen
In diseases of many parenchymatous organs, heterogeneous deterioration of individual functional units determines the clinical prognosis. However, the molecular characterization at the level of such individual subunits remains a technological challenge that needs to be addressed in order to better understand pathological mechanisms. Proteinuric glomerular kidney diseases are frequent and assorted diseases affecting a fraction of glomeruli and their draining tubules to variable extents, and for which no specific treatment exists...
June 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522878/quantification-of-molecular-heterogeneity-in-kidney-tissue-by-targeted-proteomics
#8
K Johanna R Hoyer, Sebastian Dittrich, Malte P Bartram, Markus M Rinschen
Renal diseases are driven by alterations in the entity of proteins within the kidney, at the level of single cells, nephron subunits (such as glomerulus and tubule), tissues and body fluids. Histologically, kidney diseases are extremely heterogeneous. Mass-spectrometry based proteomics provides a unique opportunity to interrogate heterogeneity and dynamics of various proteome layers within the kidney to better understand physiology and pathophysiology, and to translate signaling networks into therapies. Yet, the success of this endeavor will largely depend on improving proteomic data acquisition methods toward increased reproducibility...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497325/the-importance-of-the-thick-ascending-limb-of-henle-s-loop-in-renal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#9
REVIEW
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Luca Rinaldi, Giovambattista Capasso
The thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop is a crucial segment for many tasks of the nephron. Indeed, the TAL is not only a mainstay for reabsorption of sodium (Na+ ), potassium (K+ ), and divalent cations such as calcium (Ca2+ ) and magnesium (Mg2+ ) from the luminal fluid, but also has an important role in urine concentration, overall acid-base homeostasis, and ammonia cycle. Transcellular Na+ transport along the TAL is a prerequisite for Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ homeostasis, and water reabsorption, the latter through its contribution in the generation of the cortico-medullar osmotic gradient...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449451/conserved-and-divergent-molecular-and-anatomic-features-of-human-and-mouse-nephron-patterning
#10
Nils O Lindström, Tracy Tran, Jinjin Guo, Elisabeth Rutledge, Riana K Parvez, Matthew E Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Jill A McMahon, Andrew P McMahon
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney, but the mechanism of nephron formation during human development is unclear. We conducted a detailed analysis of nephron development in humans and mice by immunolabeling, and we compared human and mouse nephron patterning to describe conserved and divergent features. We created protein localization maps that highlight the emerging patterns along the proximal-distal axis of the developing nephron and benchmark expectations for localization of functionally important transcription factors, which revealed unanticipated cellular diversity...
March 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344504/new-findings-on-the-pathogenesis-of-distal-renal-tubular-acidosis
#11
REVIEW
Francesco Trepiccione, Federica Prosperi, Luigi Regenburgh de la Motte, Christian A Hübner, Regine Chambrey, Dominique Eladari, Giovambattista Capasso
Background: Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is characterized by an impairment of the urinary acidification process in the distal nephron. Complete or incomplete metabolic acidosis coupled with inappropriately alkaline urine are the hallmarks of this condition. Genetic forms of dRTA are caused by loss of function mutations of either SLC4A1 , encoding the AE1 anion exchanger, or ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 , encoding for the B1 and a4 subunits of the vH+ ATPase, respectively. These genes are crucial for the function of A-type intercalated cells (A-IC) of the distal nephron...
December 2017: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341864/comparison-of-acute-kidney-injury-of-different-etiology-reveals-in-common-mechanisms-of-tissue-damage
#12
Michael Hultström, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Sofia Jönsson
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome of reduced glomerular filtration rate and urine production caused by a number of different diseases. It is associated with renal tissue damage. This tissue damage can cause tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis that leads to nephron loss and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review describes the in-common mechanisms behind tissue damage in AKI caused by different underlying diseases. Comparing six high-quality microarray studies of renal gene expression after AKI in disease models (gram-negative sepsis, gram-positive sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion, malignant hypertension, rhabdomyolysis, and cisplatin toxicity) identified 5,254 differentially expressed genes in at least one of the AKI models; 66% of genes were found only in one model, showing that there are unique features to AKI depending on the underlying disease...
March 1, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171153/gene-expression-and-delayed-nephrogenesis-in-the-growth-restricted-rat-foetus-and-neonate
#13
EDITORIAL
A M Carter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050031/reading-first-coordinates-from-the-nephrogenic-zone-in-human-fetal-kidney
#14
Will W Minuth
While substantial information is available on organ anlage and the primary formation of nephrons, molecular mechanisms acting during the late development of the human kidney have received an astonishing lack of attention. In healthy newborn babies, nephrogenesis takes place unnoticed until birth. Upon delivery, morphogenetic activity in the nephrogenic zone decreases, and the stem cell niches aligned beyond the organ capsule vanish by an unknown signal. However, this signal also plays a key role in preterm and low birth weight babies...
2018: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050002/urinary-erythrocyte-derived-mirnas-emerging-role-in-iga-nephropathy
#15
Zhi-Yu Duan, Guang-Yan Cai, Ji-Jun Li, Ru Bu, Xiang-Mei Chen
Hematuria is one of the basic clinical manifestations of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Isolated microscopic hematuria or microscopic hematuria combined with proteinuria is risk factor for the long-term prognosis of IgAN. Current evidence of the consequences of glomerular hematuria rests on insights from basic research on the molecular mechanisms of hemoglobin and related reactive oxygen species-induced tubular injury as well as on the clinical evidence of macroscopic hematuria-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) in IgAN...
2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043081/effects-of-phospho-and-calciotropic-hormones-on-electrolyte-transport-in-the-proximal-tubule
#16
REVIEW
Justin J Lee, Allein Plain, Megan R Beggs, Henrik Dimke, R Todd Alexander
Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH), active vitamin D3 , and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952698/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-damage-to-renal-parenchyma-in-renal-warm-ischemia
#17
REVIEW
S V Popov, R G Guseinov, A G Martov, T M Muratov, N B Tabynbaev
Warm ischemia of the renal parenchyma is a forced feature of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. It is accompanied by oxygen deprivation of the organ and followed by re-oxygenation, which can cause additional damage to the renal tissue. This damage can result in acute functional and structural disorders of individual parts of the nephron, increasing the risk for a renal dysfunction. Timely diagnosis of the dysfunction is vital for the success of the treatment. The article provides an overview of current scientific data on the mechanisms of ischemic and reperfusion injuries at the molecular-cellular level and describes the current methods of their detection...
September 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794066/insights-into-cellular-and-molecular-basis-for-urinary-tract-infection-in-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#18
REVIEW
Chao Gao, Long Zhang, Ye Zhang, Darren P Wallace, Reynold I Lopez-Soler, Paul J Higgins, Wenzheng Zhang
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a broad term referring to an infection of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and/or urethra. Because of its prevalence, frequent recurrence, and rising resistance to antibiotics, UTI has become a challenge in clinical practice. Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic disorder of the kidney and is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys. Progressive cystic enlargement, inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis result in nephron loss with subsequent decline in kidney function...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729036/molecular-mechanisms-of-renal-aging
#19
REVIEW
Roland Schmitt, Anette Melk
Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular evidence suggest that aging is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The aging kidney undergoes complex changes that predispose to renal pathology. The underlying molecular mechanisms could be the target of therapeutic strategies in the future. Here, we summarize recent insight into cellular and molecular processes that have been shown to contribute to the renal aging phenotype.The main clinical finding of renal aging is the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and its structural correlate is the loss of functioning nephrons...
September 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636485/mineralocorticoids-modulate-the-expression-of-the-%C3%AE-3-subunit-of-the-na-k-atpase-in-the-renal-collecting-duct
#20
Macarena Rojas, Pablo Díaz, Pablo León, Alexis A Gonzalez, Magdalena González, Víctor Barrientos, Nikolay B Pestov, Rodrigo Alzamora, Luis Michea
Renal sodium reabsorption depends on the activity of the Na+ ,K+ -ATPase α/β heterodimer. Four α (α1-4 ) and 3 β (β1-3 ) subunit isoforms have been described. It is accepted that renal tubule cells express α1 /β1 dimers. Aldosterone stimulates Na+ ,K+ -ATPase activity and may modulate α1 /β1 expression. However, some studies suggest the presence of β3 in the kidney. We hypothesized that the β3 isoform of the Na+ ,K+ -ATPase is expressed in tubular cells of the distal nephron, and modulated by mineralocorticoids...
September 3, 2017: Channels
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