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Oxidative stress cancer

Sandeep Kumar, Monisha Dhiman
Helicobacter pylori is a leading cause of gastric cancer worldwide, its type four secretary toxin CagA is cited to be primarily responsible for it. Other virulence factors such as urease, VacA, HopQ, BabA and SabA are responsible for bacterial survival in acidic environment, adherence and cellular damage but its molecular mechanism is not completely understood. A number of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and virus are involved in the regulation of cellular machinery of inflammasome. Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes formed after external stimuli such as PAMPs/DAMPs or salt crystals and activates cellular caspases causes inflammation via pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Aarifa Nazmeen, Smarajit Maiti
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) is highly used in rodent models of tumerogenesis/carcinogenesis. Xenografting human-cancer tissues/cells with estradiol (E2) treatment is also used to generate rodent-models of gynaecological cancers. The altered metabolic-redox environment leading to establishment of pre-tumorigenesis condition and their mechanism are less studied. Here, female Wister rats were treated with these drugs at their pre-tumerogenic dosage (one group ENU single intra-peritoneal dose of 90 mg/kg b.w. and another group were implanted with human breast tumor (stage-IIIB) and fed with 2...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Wen-Bo Zhou, Xin-Xin Zhang, Yun Cai, Wu Sun, Hao Li
Tamoxifen (TMX) is an antiestrogen drug that is used in the treatment and prevention of all stages of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Adverse effects of TMX include hepatotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole, isolated from medicinal plants especially Fructus Cnidii, on TMX-induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were injected with osthole (100 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle, followed by TMX (90 mg/kg, ip) 24 h later. We showed that a single injection of TMX-induced liver injury and oxidative stress...
October 12, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Shinya Toyokuni
Cancer is the primary cause of human mortality in most countries. This tendency has increased as various medical therapeutics have advanced, which suggests that we cannot escape carcinogenesis, although the final outcome may be modified by exposomes and statistics. Cancer is classified by its cellular differentiation. Mesothelial cells are distinct in that they line somatic cavities, facilitating the smooth movement of organs, but are not exposed to the external environment. Malignant mesothelioma, or simply mesothelioma, develops either in the pleural, peritoneal or pericardial cavities, or in the tunica vaginalis testes...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Fu-Mei Huang, Yu-Chao Chang, Shiuan-Shinn Lee, Yung-Chyuan Ho, Ming-Ling Yang, Hui-Wen Lin, Yu-Hsiang Kuan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is primarily used in production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins including plastic containers. BPA is an endocrine disruptor and supposes to induce asthma and cancer. However, so far only a few evidences have shown the BPA-induced toxic effect and its related mechanism in macrophages. BPA demonstrated cytotoxic effect on RAW264.7 macrophages in a concentration and time-dependent manner. BPA induces necrosis, apoptosis, and genotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of cytochrome C (cyto C) and p53 was due to mitochondrial disruption via BCL2 and BCL-XL downregulation and BAX, BID, and BAD upregulation...
October 9, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Miao Chen, Songbo Xie
Similar to bacteria, yeast, and other organisms that have evolved pathways to respond to environmental stresses, cancer cells develop mechanisms that increase genetic diversity to facilitate adaptation to a variety of stressful conditions, including hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and immune responses. To survive, cancer cells trigger mechanisms that drive genomic instability and mutation, alter gene expression programs, and reprogram the metabolic pathways to evade growth inhibition signaling and immune surveillance...
October 12, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Xiaotong Wu, Li Ying Han, Xiao Xiao Zhang, Ling Wang
Ovarian cancer is one of the most malignant gynecological tumors in the world, with a high fatality rate and resistance to chemotherapy. Much basic research has revealed that oxidative stress is involved in tumor occurrence and development processes and is associated with tumor progression as well as metastasis. In recent years, oxidative stress has been proven to have a close connection with malignant biological behavior in ovarian cancer, and this topic has garnered increasing attention. This article reviews the research aimed toward elucidating the relationship between oxidative stress and ovarian cancer...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Mohini A Tupurani, Chiranjeevi Padala, Kaushik Puranam, Rajesh K Galimudi, Keerthi Kupsal, Nivas Shyamala, Srilatha Gantala, Ramanjaneyulu Kummari, Sanjeeva K Chinta, Surekha R Hanumanth
Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is a key characteristic feature in cancer initiation and progression. Among multiple cancers, NADPH oxidase (NOX) dependent free radical production is implicated in oxidative stress. P22phox, a subunit of NADPH oxidase encoded by the CYBA gene has functional polymorphisms associated with various complex diseases. The present study was aimed to examine the importance and association of the functional polymorphisms of CYBA gene (-930 A/G and 242 C/T) with the oxidative stress in breast cancer (BC) development and progression...
2018: PeerJ
Soumyadip Paul, Suvranil Ghosh, Sukhendu Mandal, Subrata Sau, Mahadeb Pal
Functional up-regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activity through different post-translational modifications has been implicated in the survival and proliferation of various cancers. It is increasingly recognized that the HSF1 gene is also up-regulated at the transcriptional level, a phenomenon correlated with poor prognosis for patients with different cancers, including breast cancer. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional up-regulation of HSF1 in human cells upon arsenite- or peroxide-induced oxidative stress...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bradley J Monk, James T Kauderer, Katherine M Moxley, Albert J Bonebrake, Summer B Dewdney, Angeles Alvarez Secord, Frederick R Ueland, Carolyn M Johnston, Carol Aghajanian
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical data suggest elesclomol increases oxidative stress and enhances sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. The objective of this prospective multicenter phase 2 trial was to estimate the activity of IV elesclomol plus weekly paclitaxel in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer through the frequency of objective tumor responses (ORR). METHODS: Patients with measurable disease, acceptable organ function, performance status ≤ 2, and one prior platinum containing regimen were eligible...
October 8, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Lynae M Brayboy, Haley Clark, Laura O Knapik, Ruby E Schnirman, Gary M Wessel
Nitrogen mustard (NM) is an alkylating chemical warfare agent, and its derivatives are used in chemotherapy. Alkylating agents can cause mitochondrial damage, so exposed females may transmit damaged genomes to their children, since mitochondria are maternally inherited and oocytes are not thought to undergo mitophagy [1]. The objective of this study is to investigate NM's effects on oocyte mitochondria to understand risks facing female soldiers, cancer patients, and their children. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with NM, monitored for reproductive outcomes, and ovaries and oocytes were isolated for analysis...
October 8, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Muhammad T Islam, Abul B R Khalipha, Rajat Bagchi, Milon Mondal, Shanita Z Smrity, Shaikh J Uddin, Jamil A Shilpi, Razina Rouf
This review aims to summarize the anticancer effects of the natural monoterpene phenol derivative of cymenethymol and its derivatives as well as further molecular docking study to correlate the interaction of thymol and biomacromolecules that involved in cancer cell growth. For this, an up-to-date (till July 2018) literature study were made through using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, The American Chemical Society,, and Google Scholar databases. Literature study demonstrated that thymol, melasolv (3,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamate thymol ester), and Mannich bases of thymol have potential anticancer effects in various test systems, including mice, rats and cultured cancer cells through various anticancer pathways such as antioxidant/oxidative stress induction, apoptosis, anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory, anti-genotoxicity, chemo-, and radiopreventive ways...
October 11, 2018: IUBMB Life
Pei-Ying Lin, Yu-Jung Chang, Yu-Chen Chen, Chin-Hung Lin, Pinar Erkekoglu, Ming-Wei Chao, Chia-Yi Tseng
Exposure to 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), the metabolite of the 3-5-dimethylaniline, was shown to cause high levels of oxidative stress in different cells. The aim of the present work was to observe whether this metabolite can lead to cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cell cycle changes in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. 3,5-DMAP caused a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, generation of superoxide (O2-.), inductions in the enzyme activities orchestrating cellular antioxidant balance, increases in lipid peroxidation as well as DNA damage...
2018: PloS One
James F Powers, Brent Cochran, James D Baleja, Hadley D Sikes, Xue Zhang, Inna Lomakin, Troy Langford, Kassi Taylor Stein, Arthur S Tischler
We describe a unique patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and cell culture model of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumor (SDH-deficient GIST), a rare mesenchymal tumor that can occur in association with paragangliomas in hereditary and non-hereditary syndromes. This model is potentially important for what it might reveal specifically pertinent to this rare tumor type and, more broadly, to other types of SDH-deficient tumors. The primary tumor and xenografts show a very high proliferative fraction, and distinctive morphology characterized by tiny cells with marked autophagic activity...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Bo-Wei Han, Hua Ye, Pan-Pan Wei, Bo He, Cai Han, Zhen-Hua Chen, Yue-Qin Chen, Wen-Tao Wang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to play important roles in different cell contexts, including cancers. However, little is known about lncRNAs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a cholangiocyte malignancy with poor prognosis, and associated with chronic inflammation and damage to the biliary epithelium. This study determined whether lncRNAs were dysregulated and participated in disease diagnosis or pivotal inflammation pathways through a genome-wide lncRNA screening and functional analysis...
October 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Claire L Lyons, Helen M Roche
Nutritional status provides metabolic substrates to activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor that regulates metabolism. Recent evidence has demonstrated that AMPK has wider functions with respect to regulating immune cell metabolism and function. One such example is the regulatory role that AMPK has on NLRP3-inlflammasome and IL-1β biology. This in turn can result in subsequent negative downstream effects on glucose, lipid and insulin metabolism. Nutrient stress in the form of obesity can impact AMPK and whole-body metabolism, leading to complications such as type 2 diabetes and cancer risk...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ying Zhang, Hongkuan Deng, Hefeng Zhou, Yucong Lu, Luchen Shan, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Guozhen Cui
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a well-known chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various cancers. However, Dox-induced cardiotoxicity limits its further clinical use. We have previously reported a small molecular named biotin-conjugated ADTM analog (BAA) that exhibits cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell injury in cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. Here, the protective effects of BAA, indexed by attenuation of the cardiotoxicity induced by Dox as well as synergistic antitumor activity that increases the chemotherapeutic efficacy of Dox were investigated...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Su Zhang, Yong-Yan Chang, Yu-Wen Gong, Yan-Jun Gao, Qi Guo, Yu-Han Wang, You-Li Zhao, Zhi-Ping Wang
Chemotherapy is still a standard treatment of unresectable bladder cancer or distant metastases. The chemotherapy resistance always occurs after a period of treatment indicating poor prognosis. The current study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of chemoresistance in bladder cancer cells. The gene expression profiles of GSE77883, including three untreated T24 cells samples and three gemcitabine-resistant T24 cells samples, was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. The screening of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), gene function analysis, and interaction prediction between microRNAs (miRNAs) and DEGs were performed by R software...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Raha Orfali, Nasir Ali Siddiqui, Perwez Alam, Tawfeq Abdullah Alhowiriny, Areej Mohammad Al-Taweel, Sami Al-Yahya, Najwa Mohammed Majrashi, Rashad Mehmood, Shabana Iqrar Khan, Shagufta Perveen
Nepeta deflersiana (Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant that grows in Saudi Arabia. This plant is used in Saudi and Yemeni folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, carminative, and antirheumatic agent. In order to prove its use in folk medicine, four different extracts from the aerial parts of the plant: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n -butanol extracts were subjected to biological assays to screen PPAR α and PPAR ϒ agnostic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
My-Lan Kha, Lisa Hesse, Florian Deisinger, Bence Sipos, Christoph Röcken, Alexander Arlt, Susanne Sebens, Ole Helm, Heiner Schäfer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exhibits one of the worst survival rates of all cancers. While death rates show declining trends in the majority of cancers, PDAC registers rising rates. Based on the recently described crosstalk between TGF-β1 and Nrf2 in the PDAC development, the involvement of ATF3 and its splice variant ΔZip2 in TGF-β1- and Nrf2-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis was investigated. As demonstrated here, PDAC (Panc1, T3M4) cells or premalignant H6c7 pancreatic ductal epithelial cells differentially express ΔZip2- and ATF3, relating to stronger Nrf2 activity seen in Panc1 cells and TGF-ß1 activity in T3M4 or H6c7 cells, respectively...
October 9, 2018: Oncogene
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