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Oxidative stress cancer

Aline Gottlieb, Wesal Mosthael, Jan-Peter Sowa, Ali Canbay
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) is expected to become the leading liver disease worldwide. Typical liver-related complications are fibrosis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) with the need for liver transplantation. Up to now there is no approved pharmacotherapy. Indeed, this might be due to the complexity of this disease. While the cheapest therapeutic approach is still a lifestyle change leading to weight loss, the proportion of people achieving sufficient weight reduction without additional support is low...
December 7, 2018: Digestion
Jagjit Singh, Lekha Saha, Neha Singh, Puja Kumari, Alka Bhatia, Amitava Chakrabarti
OBJECTIVES: The role of nuclear factor-2 erythroid related factor-2 (Nrf2) activator, berberine (BBR), has been established in rat model of streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy. Around 30-40% of cancer patients, on paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapy develop peripheral neuropathy. The present study was contemplated with the aim of establishing the neuropathy preventive role of BBR, in paclitaxel induced peripheral neuropathy model in rats. METHODS: A total of 30 Wistar rats were divided into five groups as follows: Group I: dimethyl sulfoxide; Group II: PTX+ 0...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Zhiyu Wang, Neng Wang, Yifeng Zheng, Shengqi Wang
The current chapter focuses on the role of inflammasome in cancer prevention and development. Emerging evidence suggested that inflammasome is closely correlated with elevated levels of IL-1β and IL-18, activation of NF-κB signaling, enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress, and activation of autophagic process in cancer. Meanwhile, inflammasome component NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are also involved in carcinogenesis and closely correlated to chemoresponse and prognosis. Although several lines indicated the duplex role of inflammasome in cancer development, the phenomenon might be attributed to NLR difference, cell and tissue type, cancer stage, and specific experimental conditions...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Guo-Xing Wan, Lan Cheng, Hai-Lun Qin, Yun-Zhang Zhang, Ling-Yu Wang, Yong-Gang Zhang
The wide use of anthracyclines represented by doxorubicin (DOX) has benefited cancer patients, yet the clinical application is limited due to its cardiotoxicity. Although numerous evidences have supported a role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in DOX-induced myocardial damage, the exact etiology and pathogenesis remain largely obscure. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-15b-5p in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. We employed a public miRNA and gene microarray to screen differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in rat cardiomyocytes, and 33 DEMs including miR-15b-5p and 237 DEGs including Bmpr1a and Gata4 were identified...
December 7, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Guiqin Peng, Zongwei Tang, Yongjia Xiang, Wanyi Chen
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been widely accepted as critical molecules playing regulatory roles in various biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic/ferroptotic/necrotic cell death. Emerging evidence suggests that ROS may be involved in the induction of epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), which has been reported to promote cancer stem‑like cell (CSC) generation. Recent data indicate that altered accumulation of ROS is associated with CSC generation, EMT and hypoxia exposure, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
December 6, 2018: Oncology Reports
Qiang Liu, Peng Shan, Haibin Li
Gamboge is the dry resin secreted by Garcinia hanbaryi Hook.f, with the function of promoting blood circulation and anti‑cancer effects, detoxification, hemostasis and killing insects. It is also used for the treatment of cancer, brain edema and other diseases. Gambogic acid is the main effective constituent of Gamboge. The present study tested the hypothesis that the effect of Gambogic acid prevents angiotensin II‑induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and explored its underlying mechanism. It was demonstrated that gambogic acid significantly inhibited AAA incidence rate, and reduced edge leading aortic diameter and aortic wall thickness in AAA mice...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Huai-Qiang Ju, Yun-Xin Lu, Dong-Liang Chen, Zhi-Xiang Zuo, Ze-Xian Liu, Qi-Nian Wu, Hai-Yu Mo, Zi-Xian Wang, De-Shen Wang, Heng-Ying Pu, Zhao-Lei Zeng, Bo Li, Dan Xie, Peng Huang, Mien-Chie Hung, Paul J Chiao, Rui-Hua Xu
Background: Overcoming oxidative stress is a critical step for tumor progression; however, the underlying mechanisms in colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Methods: We investigated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P))-dependent enzyme methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) expression, clinical relevance, redox modification, and molecular mechanisms using the CRC cells and tissues (n = 462 paired samples). The antitumor effects of MTHFD2 inhibitor LY345899 on CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis were evaluated in vitro and in vivo...
December 8, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Katia Rupel, Luisa Zupin, Andrea Colliva, Anselmo Kamada, Augusto Poropat, Giulia Ottaviani, Margherita Gobbo, Lidia Fanfoni, Rossella Gratton, Massimo Santoro, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto, Serena Zacchigna
Photobiomodulation (PBM) is emerging as an effective strategy for the management of multiple inflammatory conditions, including oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Still, the poor understanding of the mechanisms by which the light interacts with biological tissues and the heterogeneity of light sources and protocols employed worldwide significantly limits its applicability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are massively generated during the early phases of OM and play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in general...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
María Gómez-Serrano, Emilio Camafeita, Marta Loureiro, Belén Peral
Mitochondria are highly dynamic and regulated organelles that historically have been defined based on their crucial role in cell metabolism. However, they are implicated in a variety of other important functions, making mitochondrial dysfunction an important axis in several pathological contexts. Despite that conventional biochemical and molecular biology approaches have provided significant insight into mitochondrial functionality, innovative techniques that provide a global view of the mitochondrion are still necessary...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Liqing Deng, Wei Zong, Xueying Tao, Shuang Liu, Zhiying Feng, Yuping Lin, Zhihua Liao, Min Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants of Epilobium angustifolium are popular in China to treatment of traumatic injury, subduing inflammation and menstrual disorders. In European, the preparations or extracts containing E. angustifolium are popular to treat prostate diseases. Recent research suggested that E. angustifolium showed therapeutic effects in early stage of BPH, inflammation of urethra and prostate, as well as micturition problems. And the related researches were focus on aqueous extract and its main constituent of oenothein B...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ayesha Atiq, Bushra Shal, Muhammad Naveed, Adnan Khan, Jawad Ali, Sara Zeeshan, Shakir D Al-Sharari, Yeong Shik Kim, Salman Khan
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly prescribed anti-cancer agent however, its use is associated with several debilitating adverse effects such as intestinal mucositis (IM) and myelosuppression. Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors in the development of mucositis. Diadzein is known for its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities from decades. Therefore, present study focused on investigating the effects of diadzein on intestinal mucositis induced by 5-FU by mainly focusing on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in mice...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jaroon Wandee, Auemduan Prawan, Laddawan Senggunprai, Sarinya Kongpetch, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan
AIMS: Metformin (Met), an essential antidiabetic agent, shows antitumor activity in some cancers. A previous study showed that Met enhanced cytotoxic activity of cisplatin (Cis) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in association with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and suppression of Akt-mTOR. However, these effects do not entirely explain the observed chemosensitizing effect. The present study investigated the interaction of Met and Cis over the enhanced antitumor effect. MAIN METHODS: KKU-100 and KKU-M156 cells were used in the study...
December 5, 2018: Life Sciences
F Ng Kee Kwong, A G Nicholson, S Pavlidis, I M Adcock, K F Chung
BACKGROUND: COPD patients are at increased risk of developing non-small cell lung carcinoma that has a worse prognosis. Oxidative stress contributes to carcinogenesis and is increased in COPD patients due to mitochondrial dysfunction. We determined whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a contributing factor to the reduced survival of COPD patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). METHODS: Using a transcriptomic database and outcome data of 3553 NSCLC samples, we selected mitochondrial-related genes whose levels in the tumour correlated with patient mortality...
December 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
Wenlong Li, Feijie Xu, Wen Shuai, Honghao Sun, Hong Yao, Cong Ma, Shengtao Xu, Hequan Yao, Zheying Zhu, Dong-Hua Yang, Zhe-Sheng Chen, Jinyi Xu
A series of novel quinoline-chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. Among them, compound 24d exhibited the most potent activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 μM in a panel of cancer cell lines. Compound 24d also displayed a good safety profile with LD50 value of 665.62 mg/kg by intravenous injection, and its hydrochloride salt 24d-HCl significantly inhibited tumor growth in H22 xenograft models without observable toxic effects, which was more potent than that of CA-4...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Timothy J Humpton, Andreas K Hock, Oliver D K Maddocks, Karen H Vousden
Background: In response to oncogenic stress, the tumour suppressor protein p53 can induce the elimination of cells through induction of cell death or senescence, helping to restrain malignant progression. Conversely, under nutrient stress, p53 can protect cells by supporting metabolic adaptation. Many cancers express mutant p53 proteins that have lost the cell-elimination properties of wild-type p53. However, a previous report showed that a tumour-derived mutant can retain the ability to support cells under glutamine starvation...
2018: Cancer & Metabolism
Jessica Gambardella, Michele Ciccarelli, Carmine Del Giudice, Antonella Fiordelisi, Matteo De Rosa, Marina Sala, Roberto Pacelli, Pietro Campiglia, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino, Daniela Sorriento
Background: The RH domain of GRK5 is an effective modulator of cancer growth through the inhibition of NF κ B activity. The aim of this study was to identify the minimum effective sequence of RH that is still able to inhibit tumor growth and could be used as a peptide-based drug for therapy. Methods: Starting from the RH sequence, small peptides were cloned and tested in KAT-4 cells. The effects on NF κ B signaling and its dependent phenotypes were evaluated by Western blot, TUNEL assay, proliferation assay, and angiogenesis in vitro ...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Jinpeng Ruan, Junde Chen, Jie Zeng, Zhenggang Yang, Chonggang Wang, Zhuan Hong, Zhenghong Zuo
Oxidative stress is regarded as one of the most important factors associated with many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes. Various chemicals are released into the environment, causing environmental pollution. Importantly, many of them may cause damage to organisms through oxidative stress. In this work, we investigated the possible protective effects of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) scale collagen hydrolysate (TSCH) (molecular weight approximately 4 kDa) against tributyltin (TBT)-induced oxidative stress in vitro...
December 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor alectinib is clinically used for the treatment of ALK positive non-small-cell lung cancer. At least in part the substance is effective by triggering suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Erythrocytes are lacking mitochondria and nuclei, key organelles of apoptosis but are, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, able to enter suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis. Stimulators of eryptosis include energy depletion, hyperosmotic shock, oxidative stress, and increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i)...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ebtesam S Al-Sheddi, Nida N Farshori, Mai M Al-Oqail, Shaza M Al-Massarani, Quaiser Saquib, Rizwan Wahab, Javed Musarrat, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Maqsood A Siddiqui
In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Nepeta deflersiana plant. The prepared AgNPs (ND-AgNPs) were examined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that average size of synthesized AgNPs was 33 nm and in face-centered-cubic structure...
2018: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Qinghua Wu, Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Kamil Kuca
Beauvericin (BEA) is an emerging Fusarium mycotoxin that contaminates food and feeds globally. BEA biosynthesis is rapidly catalyzed by BEA synthetase through a nonribosomal, thiol-templated mechanism. This mycotoxin has cytotoxicity and is capable of increasing oxidative stress to induce cell apoptosis. Recently, large evidence further shows that this mycotoxin has a variety of biological activities and is being considered a potential candidate for medicinal and pesticide research. It is noteworthy that BEA is a potential anticancer agent since it can increase the intracellular Ca2+ levels and induce the cancer cell death through oxidative stress and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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