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“Carotid body”

Shuai Li, Jie Tan, Hong Zhang, Gui-Lan Huang, Duo-Xi Deng, Kui-Kui Guo, Jia-Qing Liu, Tong-Yan Liu, Yun-Yun Wu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of catgut embedment at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14), etc. on learning-memory ability, expression of hippocampal protein kinase C interacting protein 1 (PICK 1) and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR 2) proteins and level of calcium ions, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of vascular cognitive impairment. METHODS: A total of 56 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation, model, catgut embedment and medication groups ( n =14 in each)...
June 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Jia-Peng Wu, Xue-Zhi Li, Ying Wang, Lin Ma, Tai-Wan Yao, Yong-Yue Zhang, Fei Long
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) and EA combined with intracerebral injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) related proteins and genes as activating transcription factor (ATF 6), inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE 1), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X box-binding protein-1 (XBP 1) of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats, so as to study its repair effect for CIRI. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were equally and randomly divided into 5 groups: sham operation, model, EA, VEGF and EA+VEGF groups ( n =8)...
June 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Pankaj Hari, Priyanka Khandelwal, Amit Satpathy, Smriti Hari, Ranjeet Thergaonkar, R Lakshmy, Aditi Sinha, Arvind Bagga
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Efficacy of statins for treatment of hyperlipidemia in children with SRNS is unclear. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial enrolled 30 patients with SRNS, aged 5-18 years, with serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between 130 and 300 mg/dl, to receive a fixed dose of atorvastatin (n = 15, 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 15) by block randomization in a 1:1 ratio...
August 8, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Daina Kashiwazaki, Shusuke Yamamoto, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama, Kyo Noguchi, Satoshi Kuroda
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was aimed to assess the hypothesis that unstable plaque formation in the carotid artery is one of phenotypes of chronic and systemic inflammation. METHODS: This study included 8 symptomatic patients with internal carotid stenosis (ICS) and 7 healthy controls. All subjects underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucos positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG PET) of whole body. Plaque vulnerability was evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ying-Jie Peng, Vladislav V Makarenko, Anna Gridina, Irina Chupikova, Xiuli Zhang, Ganesh K Kumar, Aaron P Fox, Nanduri R Prabhakar
The role of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) derived H2 S in the hypoxic and anoxic responses of the carotid body (CB) were examined. Experiments were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, wild type and CSE knockout mice on C57BL/6 J background. Hypoxia (pO2  = 37 ± 3 mmHg) increased the CB sensory nerve activity and elevated H2 S levels in rats. In contrast, anoxia (pO2  = 5 ± 4 mmHg) produced only a modest CB sensory excitation with no change in H2 S levels. DL-propargylglycine (DL-PAG), a blocker of CSE, inhibited hypoxia but not anoxia-evoked CB sensory excitation and [Ca2+ ]i elevation of glomus cells...
August 4, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Reza Fadaei, Hossein Poustchi, Reza Meshkani, Nariman Moradi, Taghi Golmohammadi, Shahin Merat
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with a substantial increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), which is partly related to dyslipidemia and low HDL-C level. The cardioprotective activity of HDL in the body is closely connected to its role in promoting cholesterol efflux, which is determined by cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). Hitherto, the role of HDL, as defined by CEC has not been assessed in NAFLD patients. In this research study, we present the results of a study of cAMP-treated J774 CEC and THP-1 macrophage CEC in ApoB-depleted plasma of 55 newly diagnosed NAFLD patients and 30 controls...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Renata Lopes, Mauro Batista de Morais, Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli Oliveira, Ana Paula Brecheret, Ana Lucia Cardoso Santos Abreu, Maria Cristina de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: To assess the carotid intima-media thickness and factors associated with cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional study carried out at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (chronic kidney disease outpatient clinics) with 55 patients (60% males) with a median age of 11.9 years (I25-I75: 9.2-14.8 years). Of the 55 patients, 43 were on conservative treatment and 12 were on dialysis...
July 31, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
S F Celik, E Celik
Objective: Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for predisposing to atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Hcy levels increase with Vitamin B12 deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) in early detection of atherosclerosis and impaired cardiac autonomic control in pediatric patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency (14...
August 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Karoline Winckler, Niels Wiinberg, Andreas Kryger Jensen, Birger Thorsteinsson, Louise Lundby-Christensen, Berit Lilienthal Heitmann, Gorm Boje Jensen, Lise Tarnow
Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and ankle brachial index (ABI) are non-invasive indicators of generalised atherosclerosis. The aim was to determine the association between carotid IMT and ABI in subjects with and without diabetes mellitus (DM), and to analyse specific age change-points. We included 2744 subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (mean age (SD) 56.6 (17.2) years, 56.8% women and body mass index (BMI) 25.4 (4.1) kg/m2 ). Carotid IMT and ABI measurements were performed during the fifth examination...
August 3, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Ammar A Oglat, M Z Matjafri, Nursakinah Suardi, Mohammad A Oqlat, Mostafa A Abdelrahman, Ahmad A Oqlat
Medical Doppler ultrasound is usually utilized in the clinical adjusting to evaluate and estimate blood flow in both the major (large) and the minor (tiny) vessels of the body. The normal and abnormal sign waveforms can be shown by spectral Doppler technique. The sign waveform is individual to each vessel. Thus, it is significant for the operator and the clinicians to understand the normal and abnormal diagnostic in a spectral Doppler show. The aim of this review is to explain the physical principles behind the medical Doppler ultrasound, also, to use some of the mathematical formulas utilized in the medical Doppler ultrasound examination...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasound
Tadeusz Dereziński, Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Aleksandra Uruska, Mariusz Dąbrowski
BACKGROUND: The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI) is considered to be a reliable indicator of adipose tissue dysfunction and cardiometabolic disease risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate its usefulness in assessing cardiometabolic risk in a sample of elderly women living in a rural-urban community in central Poland. METHODS: A total of 365 women aged 65-74 years were included in this cross-sectional study. All patients were interviewed to obtain their history of diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke and revascularization...
July 31, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Elisabetta Bianchini, Rosa Maria Bruno, Nicole Di Lascio, Alessandra Vezzoli, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Anca Irina Corciu, Mario Comassi, Lorenza Pratali
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of participation in an Ironman distance triathlon competition on arterial function by ultrasound, in relation to cardiac function and body water content. METHODS: Twenty-eight male triathletes participating in an Ironman distance competition underwent carotid, femoral, and cardiac ultrasound examinations. Moreover, the presence of extravascular lung water was identified by lung echo B-lines (echogenic coherent wedge-shaped signal with a narrow origin from the hyperechoic pleural line) at rest and within 20 minutes of arrival...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Kamila U Migdal, Austin T Robinson
The arterial baroreceptors, originating in the carotid bodies and aorta, are important in the rapid regulation of the cardiovascular system, buffering short-term changes in arterial blood pressure (BP). Beat-to-beat increases and decreases in BP cause conformational changes in the arterial baroreceptors, ultimately leading to changes in sympathetic efferent neuronal firing. During exercise, the arterial baroreflex resets in an intensity-dependent manner, enabling parallel increases in BP and heart rate (HR) to facilitate an increase in cardiac output...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Seymour G Blank, Gary D James, Mary J Roman
INTRODUCTION: The wideband external pulse (WEP) recorded during blood pressure measurement reveals three components (K1, K2, K3). K1 is recorded with cuff pressure (CP) above systolic (SP). AIM: To assess whether the K1 pattern contains information about the functional and structural properties of the cardiovascular system. METHODS: WEP analysis, echocardiography, carotid artery (CA) ultrasonography and applanation tonometry were conducted on 178 hypertensives...
July 27, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Ian D van Koeverden, Marie de Bakker, Saskia Haitjema, Sander W van der Laan, Jean-Paul P M de Vries, Imo E Hoefer, Gert J de Borst, Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M den Ruijter
Aims: The effects of testosterone on cardiovascular disease (CVD) as reported in literature have been ambiguous. Recently, the interplay between testosterone and estradiol as assessed by testosterone/estradiol (T/E2) ratio was suggested to be better informative on the normal physiological balance. Considering the role in CVD, we hypothesized that a low T/E2 ratio in men with CVD is associated with increased inflammation, a more unstable plaque and a worse cardiovascular outcome. Methods and results: Testosterone and estradiol concentrations were determined in blood samples of 611 male carotid endarterectomy patients included in the Athero-Express Biobank Study...
July 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Midori Tanaka, Motoaki Sugawara, Yasuo Ogasawara, Kiyomi Niki
BACKGROUND: The differences in hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to graded exercise between men and women have not been well documented. Using wave intensity (WI) analysis, which is useful for analyzing ventriculo-arterial interaction, we aimed to elucidate the sex-specific differences. METHODS: We enrolled 48 healthy subjects (24 men and 24 women, age 21.3 ± 1.6 and 20.5 ± 0.9 years, n.s. [not significant]). Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, we measured WI, arterial stiffness parameter (β), force-frequency relation (FFR) and other hemodynamic parameters in the carotid artery before and during graded bicycle exercise...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
María P Oyarce, Rodrigo Iturriaga
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the hallmark of obstructive sleep apnea, is the main risk factor to develop systemic hypertension. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and sympathetic overflow have been proposed as possible mechanisms underlying the CIH-induced hypertension. CIH potentiates the carotid body (CB) chemosensory discharge leading to sympathetic overflow, autonomic dysfunction, and hypertension. Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory molecules are involved in neurogenic models of hypertension, acting on brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei related to the cardiorespiratory control, such as the nucleus of the solitary tract, which is the primary site for the afferent inputs from the CB...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sayoko Ihara, Kazushige Touhara
Olfactory receptor(OR)genes constitute the largest gene family in mammals. Some of them have been shown to be expressed not only in the olfactory system, but also in various non-olfactory tissues. So far, the roles of such ectopically expressed ORs have been suggested mainly by in vitro experiments using cultured cells or tissues. Recently, analyses using OR knockout mice have revealed a few examples of important physiological functions outside the olfactory epithelium. An OR expressed in the carotid body senses the hypoxia and regulates breathing...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Wesley K Lefferts, Jacob P DeBlois, Tiago V Barreira, Kevin S Heffernan
Hypertension, even when controlled, may accelerate arterial stiffening and impair the ability of the cerebrovasculature to increase blood flow to support neural activity (neurovascular coupling [NVC]). Optimal NVC depends on continuous, non-pulsatile flow, which is partially determined by extra- and intra-cranial vessel function. We sought to compare extra- and intra-cranial hemodynamics during cognitive activity (Stroop task) in 30 middle-aged, well-controlled medicated hypertensive and 30 age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-hypertensive adults (56±6 yrs, BMI 28...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Marie Joyeux-Faure, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Christian Borel, Sandrine Millasseau, Louis-Marie Galerneau, Marie Destors, Sébastien Bailly, Jean Louis Pepin
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness, measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is a strong independent predictor of late cardiovascular events and mortality. It is recognised that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and mortality. Although previous meta-analyses concluded that PWV is elevated in OSA, we feel that an individual patient data analysis from nine relatively homogeneous studies could help answer: to what extent does OSA drive arterial stiffness? METHODS: Individual data from well-characterised patients referred for suspicion of OSA, included in nine studies in which carotid-femoral PWV was measured using a Complior device, were merged for an individual patient data meta-analysis...
July 21, 2018: Thorax
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