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post transcriptional

Dennis A Revicki, Sara Lavoie, Rebecca M Speck, Jorge Puelles, Braden Kuo, Michael Camilleri, Cristina Almansa, Henry P Parkman
BACKGROUND: The American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (ANMS GCSI-DD) was developed to meet Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for patient-reported outcome (PRO) endpoints in gastroparesis studies, including therapeutic trials. The current version of the ANMS GCSI-DD contains five items pertaining to nausea, early satiety, post-prandial fullness, upper abdominal pain, and vomiting. The specific aims of this study were to determine if the appropriate symptoms are included in the ANMS GCSI-DD and to assess the content validity in patients with idiopathic (IG) and diabetic gastroparesis (DG)...
December 13, 2018: Journal of patient-reported outcomes
Sean Matthew McCauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William Edward Diehl, Jeremy Luban
HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4+ T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA...
December 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Xinzhong Li, Yili Sun, Senlin Huang, Yanmei Chen, Xiaoqiang Chen, Mengsha Li, Xiaoyun Si, Xiang He, Hao Zheng, Lintao Zhong, Yang Yang, Wangjun Liao, Yulin Liao, Guojun Chen, Jianping Bin
BACKGROUND: We previously found that loss of lncRNA-AZIN2 splice variant (AZIN2-sv) increases cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation and attenuates adverse ventricular remodelling post-myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether inhibition of AZIN2-sv can simultaneously induce angiogenesis and thus improve prognosis after MI is unclear. METHODS: We used in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR to determine AZIN2-sv expression in endothelial cells. Knockdown and overexpression were performed to detect the role of AZIN2-sv in endothelial cell function, angiogenesis and prognosis after MI...
December 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Jianfang Huang, Xuan Luo, Miaoqin Huang, Guangmou Liu, Weiwei You, Caihuan Ke
BACKGROUND: The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is the most important cultivated abalone in China. Improving abalone muscle growth and increasing the rate of growth are important genetic improvement programs in this industry. MicroRNAs are important small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate post-transcription gene expression. However, no miRNAs have been reported to regulate muscle growth in H. discus hannai. RESULTS: we profiled six small RNA libraries for three large abalone individuals (L_HD group) and three small individuals (S_HD group) using RNA sequencing technology...
December 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ling Li, Weihua Zhao, Xuechao Feng, Lulu Chen, Lida Zhang, Lingxia Zhao
Fruit firmness is an important trait in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), associated with shelf life and economic value; however, the precise mechanism determining fruit softening remains elusive. A yellow fruit tomato 1(yft1) mutant, harbors a genetic lesion in the YFT1 gene, and has significantly firmer fruit than those of the cv. M82 wild type at a red ripe stage, 54 dpa (days post anthesis). When softening was further dissected, it was found that the yft1 firm fruit phenotype correlated with a difference in cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin deposition in the primary cell wall (PCW) compared to cv...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiaorong Guo, Junfeng Niu, Xiaoyan Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes post-transcriptionally; they are known to play major roles in development and responses to abiotic stress. MicroRNA408 (miR408) is a conserved small RNA in plants; it was reported that miR408 genes were involved in abiotic stress in Arabidopsis . However, miR408 in Salvia miltiorrhiza has been rarely investigated. In this study, we cloned Sm-MIR408 , the miR408 precursor sequence, and its promoter sequence from S...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Julieta Lisa Mateos, Maria José de Leone, Jeanette Torchio, Marlene Reichel, Dorothee Staiger
The circadian clock is an important endogenous timekeeper, helping plants to prepare for the periodic changes of light and darkness in their environment. The clockwork of this molecular timer is made up of clock proteins that regulate transcription of their own genes with a 24 h rhythm. Furthermore, the rhythmically expressed clock proteins regulate time-of-day dependent transcription of downstream genes, causing messenger RNA (mRNA) oscillations of a large part of the transcriptome. On top of the transcriptional regulation by the clock, circadian rhythms in mRNAs rely in large parts on post-transcriptional regulation, including alternative pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA degradation, and translational control...
December 10, 2018: Genes
Abdollah Dehzangi, Yosvany López, Ghazaleh Taherzadeh, Alok Sharma, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda
Post Translational Modification (PTM) is defined as the modification of amino acids along the protein sequences after the translation process. These modifications significantly impact on the functioning of proteins. Therefore, having a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism of PTMs turns out to be critical in studying the biological roles of proteins. Among a wide range of PTMs, sumoylation is one of the most important modifications due to its known cellular functions which include transcriptional regulation, protein stability, and protein subcellular localization...
December 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Paola Dongiovanni, Marica Meroni, Miriam Longo, Silvia Fargion, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide pathological spectrum ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may predispose to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It represents the leading cause of hepatic damage worldwide. Diagnosis of NASH still requires liver biopsy but due to the high prevalence of NAFLD, this procedure, which is invasive, is not practicable for mass screening. Thus, it is crucial to non-invasively identify NAFLD patients at higher risk of progression to NASH and fibrosis...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Miruna Mihaela Micheu, Alina Ioana Scarlatescu, Alexandru Scafa-Udriste, Maria Dorobantu
Despite significant progress in treating ischemic cardiac disease and succeeding heart failure, there is still an unmet need to develop effective therapeutic strategies given the persistent high-mortality rate. Advances in stem cell biology hold great promise for regenerative medicine, particularly for cardiac regeneration. Various cell types have been used both in preclinical and clinical studies to repair the injured heart, either directly or indirectly. Transplanted cells may act in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner to improve the myocyte survival and migration of remote and/or resident stem cells to the site of injury...
December 7, 2018: Cells
Sooyoung Franck, Kent N Strodtman, Jing Qiu, David W Emerich
The transcriptional activity of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficens isolated from soybean nodules was monitored over the period from symbiosis to late plant nodule senescence. The bacteria retained a near constant level of RNA throughout this period, and the variation in genes demonstrating increased, decreased, and/or patterned transcriptional activity indicates that the bacteria are responding to the changing environment within the nodule as the plant cells progress from an organized cellular structure to an unorganized state of internal decay...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Seoyoung Kim, Ga-Young Park, Young Jo Yoo, Ji Seong Jeong, Ki Taek Nam, Sun-Ha Jee, Kyung-Min Lim, Yun-Sil Lee
Phthalates are being suggested to be associated with altered thyroid function and proliferative changes, but detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on DNA damage and proliferation in thyroid using thyroid carcinoma cell line, 8505C, in vitro and the rats orally treated with DEHP at 0, 0.3, 3, 30 and 150 mg/kg for 90 days from post-natal day 9 in vivo. Exposure to DHEP (1-50 μM) induced cellular proliferation, as evidenced by increased cell viability and DNA synthesis...
December 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sam A Menzies, Norbert Volkmar, Dick Jh van den Boomen, Richard T Timms, Anna S Dickson, James A Nathan, Paul J Lehner
Mammalian HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and the therapeutic target of statins, is post-transcriptionally regulated by sterol-accelerated degradation. Under cholesterol-replete conditions, HMGCR is ubiquitinated and degraded, but the identity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase(s) responsible for mammalian HMGCR turnover remains controversial. Using systematic, unbiased CRISPR/Cas9 genome-wide screens with a sterol-sensitive endogenous HMGCR reporter, we comprehensively map the E3 ligase landscape required for sterol-accelerated HMGCR degradation...
December 13, 2018: ELife
Ayca Kiykim, Louis Marie Charbonnier, Arzu Akcay, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ahmet Ozen, Gulyuz Ozturk, Talal A Chatila, Safa Baris
PURPOSE: Human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function (GOF) mutations present with a broad range of manifestations ranging from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity to combined immunodeficiency (CID). So far, there is very limited experience with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) as a therapeutic modality in this disorder. Here, we describe two patients with heterozygous STAT1 GOF mutations mimicking CID who were treated with HSCT...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Si-In Yu, Hyojin Kim, Dae-Jin Yun, Mi Chung Suh, Byeong-Ha Lee
A Kelch repeat F-box containing protein, SMALL AND GLOSSY LEAVES1 (SAGL1) regulates phenylpropanoid biosynthesis as a post-translational regulator for PAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase) and an indirect transcriptional regulator for ANTHOCYANIDIN SYNTHASE. Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants produces diverse aromatic metabolites with important biological functions. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis by converting L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid...
December 12, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Tianlong Ling, Fengrong Yu, Hui Cao
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common type of mesenchymal tumor of the digestive tract. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs, which control gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Dysregulated miRNAs are involved in various types of human disease, including cancer. In the present study, it was revealed that miRNA-182 (miR-182) expression was significantly upregulated in human GISTs compared with adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of miR-182 enhanced GIST-T1 cell growth, with increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis...
October 3, 2018: Oncology Reports
Liang Yan, Jinzhu Ma, Yi Wang, Jiawei Zan, Zhen Wang, Yu Zhu, Yiping Zhu, Liefeng Ling, Long Cao, Xin Liu, Shu Li, Lei Xu, Zhilin Qi, Liuwang Nie, Yao Zhang
The mortality rate of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains high worldwide. miR-21-5p plays an important part in many cancer types, including NSCLC. However, the effect of miR-21-5p in NSCLC tumorigenesis remains poorly understood. The present study investigated whether miR-21-5p promoted NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro . In order to study the molecular mechanism by which miR-21-5p contributes to NSCLC progression, three bioinformatics algorithms were used to predict the genes which miR-21-5p targeted...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ilya R Akberdin, David A Collins, Richard Hamilton, Dmitry Y Oshchepkov, Anil K Shukla, Carrie D Nicora, Ernesto S Nakayasu, Joshua N Adkins, Marina G Kalyuzhnaya
Background: Rare Earth Elements (REEs) control methanol utilization in both methane- and methanol-utilizing microbes. It has been established that the addition of REEs leads to the transcriptional repression of MxaFI-MeDH [a two-subunit methanol dehydrogenase (MeDH), calcium-dependent] and the activation of XoxF-MeDH (a one-subunit MeDH, lanthanum-dependent). Both enzymes are pyrroquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and show significant homology; however, they display different kinetic properties and substrate specificities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rui Zhang, Jing-Jing Hong, Qiaoyun Yang, Chin-Tong Ong, Bo-An Li, Yih-Cherng Liou
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) is a post-translational modification by which poly ADP-ribose (PAR) polymers are covalently added to proteins through a PAR polymerase (PARP). Here, using proteomic approach, we identify the transcriptional regulator, OVOL2, is a novel substrate of PARP1 and can be PARylated at residues Lysine 145, Lysine 176, and Lysine 212 within its C2H2 zinc finger domains. Overexpression of PARylated OVOL2 alters cell morphology and induces lagging chromosomes and aneuploidy. To define the underlying molecular mechanism by which OVOL2 induces abnormal cell cycle and centrosome amplification, we uncover that the OVOL2 elevates the protein levels of Cyclin E by enhancing its stability...
December 12, 2018: Oncogene
Wenmin Fu, Dinesh Verma, Ashlee Burton, Sankar Swaminathan
Epstein-Barr virus SM protein is an RNA-binding protein that has multiple post-transcriptional gene regulatory functions essential for EBV lytic replication. In this study, we identified an interaction between SM and DHX9, a DExH-box helicase family member, by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation. DHX9 participates in many cellular pathways involving RNA, including transcription, processing, transport and translation. DHX9 enhances virus production or infectivity of a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
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