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post transcriptional

Xueyao Ma, Dawei Wei, Gong Cheng, Shijun Li, Li Wang, Yaning Wang, Xiaoyu Wang, Song Zhang, Hongbao Wang, Linsen Zan
Deposition of intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the most important traits for the evaluation of beef carcass quality grade. MicroRNA (miRNA) is an endogenous non-coding RNA that can play a role in the post-transcriptional regulation of mammalian preadipocyte differentiation. Previously, we identified that bta-miR-130a regulates milk fat biosynthesis by targeting PPARG mRNA. However, the role of miR-130 in the regulation of bovine adipocyte differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we found that overexpression of bta-miR-130a/b led to significantly decreased cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) levels during adipogenesis process as well as reduced lipid droplet formation...
October 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Ariadne Hernández-Pérez, Jesús Alejandro Zamora-Briseño, Eliel Ruiz-May, Alejandro Pereira-Santana, José Miguel Elizalde-Contreras, Sirenia Pozos-González, Edgar Torres-Irineo, Jorge Hernández-López, Martha Gabriela Gaxiola-Cortés, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul
To elucidate the proteomic responses of shrimp hemocytes to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection at the proteome level, a quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis was performed to detect differentially synthesized proteins in infected hemocytes of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). We identified 1528 proteins associated to 203 gene ontology (GO) categories. The most representative GO categories were regulation of cellular processes, organic substance metabolic processes and nitrogen compound metabolic processes...
October 15, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yehudit Michelson, Yaniv Lustig, Shira Avivi, Eli Schwartz, Amos Danielli
Background: Zika virus has created global alarm as it has been associated with catastrophic fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, spontaneous abortion, and intrauterine growth restriction. Current serological assays that detect antiviral antibodies suffer from low sensitivity and high cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. Methods: Here, utilizing a novel Magnetic Modulation Biosensing (MMB) system and the Zika non-structural 1 (NS1) protein, we show highly sensitive and specific Zika serological assays...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alastair Copland, David Bending
Since the identification of the regulatory T-cell (Treg)-associated transcription factor Foxp3, there have been intensive research efforts to understand its biology and roles in maintaining immune homeostasis. It is well established that thymic selection of a repertoire of self-reactive Foxp3+ T-cells provides an essential mechanism to minimize reactions to self-antigens in the periphery, and thus aid in the prevention of autoimmunity. It is clear from both genetic and immunological analyses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients that T-cells have a strong role to play in both the initiation and propagation of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Rui-Si Hu, Jun-Jun He, Hany M Elsheikha, Fu-Kai Zhang, Yang Zou, Guang-Hui Zhao, Wei Cong, Xing-Quan Zhu
Brain microRNAs (miRNAs) change in abundance in response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. However, their precise role in the pathogenesis of cerebral infection with T. gondii oocyst remains unclear. We studied the abundance of miRNAs in the brain of mice on days 11 and 33 post-infection (dpi) in order to identify miRNA pattern specific to early (11 dpi) and late (33 dpi) T. gondii infection. Mice were challenged with T. gondii oocysts (Type II strain) and on 11 and 33 dpi, the expression of miRNAs in mouse brain was investigated using small RNA (sRNA) sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Holly Feen-Calligan, Julie Moreno, Emma Buzzard
This article is a descriptive study of two groups who came together through service-learning: The first group is graduate art therapy students enrolled in a research class, who partnered with six community agencies to help them prepare assignments for undergraduate service-learning students in a subsequent semester. The art therapy research students also assisted the agencies with program evaluation. The second group is the six directors of the community agencies who were preparing for service-learning students enrolled in an art history class titled Art as A Social Practice...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gracjan Patryk Michlewski, Javier F Caceres
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that bind complementary target mRNAs and repress their expression. Precursor miRNA molecules undergo nuclear and cytoplasmic processing events, carried out by the endoribonucleases, DROSHA and DICER, respectively, to produce mature miRNAs that are loaded onto the RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) to exert their biological function. Regulation of mature miRNA levels is critical in development, differentiation and disease, as demonstrated by multiple levels of control during their biogenesis cascade...
October 17, 2018: RNA
Zhicheng Zhang, Heleen Coenen, Philip Ruelens, Rashmi Rekha Hazarika, Tareq Al Hindi, Georgiana Kae Oguis, Anja Vandeperre, Vera van Noort, Koen Geuten
The evolution of plants is characterized by whole genome duplications, sometimes closely associated with the origin of large groups of species. The gamma (γ) genome triplication occurred at the origin of the core eudicots, which comprise about 75% of flowering plants. To better understand the impact of whole genome duplication, we studied the protein interaction network of MADS-domain transcription factors, which are key regulators of reproductive development. We reconstructed, synthesized and tested the interactions of ancestral proteins immediately before and closely after the triplication and directly compared these ancestral networks to the extant networks of Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)...
October 17, 2018: Plant Cell
Shunbin Ning, Ling Wang
The multifunctional signaling hub p62 is well recognized as ubiquitin sensor and selective autophagy adaptor under myriad stress conditions including cancer. As a ubiquitin sensor, p62 promotes NFκB activation by facilitating TRAF6 ubiquitination and aggregation. As a selective autophagy receptor, p62 links ubiquitinated substrates including p62 itself for lysosome-mediated degradation. p62 plays crucial roles in myriad cellular processes including DNA damage response, aging/senescence, infection and immunity, chronic inflammation, and cancerogenesis, dependent on or independent of autophagy...
October 16, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Dailiany Orechio, Paula Fratini, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Patricia Castelucci, Maria Angelica Miglino
The incidence of diabetes mellitus in dogs is increasing in recent years, mainly because of genetic and/or environmental factors, including endocrine disorders (like in humans); failure of suitable control of blood sugar levels, which triggers hyperglycemia; glycosuria and weight loss, which demands the development of innovative treatments to cure or treat this complex disease in dogs. The present study established for the first time a protocol to obtain and characterize cells derived from pancreas of canine fetuses...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Susana Simões-Sousa, Samantha Littler, Sarah L Thompson, Paul Minshall, Helen Whalley, Bjorn Bakker, Klaudyna Belkot, Daniela Moralli, Daniel Bronder, Anthony Tighe, Diana C J Spierings, Nourdine Bah, Joshua Graham, Louisa Nelson, Catherine M Green, Floris Foijer, Paul A Townsend, Stephen S Taylor
Deviating from the normal karyotype dramatically changes gene dosage, in turn decreasing the robustness of biological networks. Consequently, aneuploidy is poorly tolerated by normal somatic cells and acts as a barrier to transformation. Paradoxically, however, karyotype heterogeneity drives tumor evolution and the emergence of therapeutic drug resistance. To better understand how cancer cells tolerate aneuploidy, we focused on the p38 stress response kinase. We show here that p38-deficient cells upregulate glycolysis and avoid post-mitotic apoptosis, leading to the emergence of aneuploid subclones...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Lok Hei Chan, Lei Zhou, Kai Yu Ng, Tin Lok Wong, Terence K Lee, Rakesh Sharma, Jane H Loong, Yick Pang Ching, Yun-Fei Yuan, Dan Xie, Chung Mau Lo, Kwan Man, Benedetta Artegiani, Hans Clevers, Helen H Yan, Suet Yi Leung, Stéphane Richard, Xin-Yuan Guan, Michael S Y Huen, Stephanie Ma
Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification that plays pivotal roles in signal transduction and gene transcription during cell fate determination. We found protein methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) to be frequently downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its expression to negatively correlate with aggressive cancer features in HCC patients. Silencing of PRMT6 promoted the tumor-initiating, metastasis, and therapy resistance potential of HCC cell lines and patient-derived organoids. Consistently, loss of PRMT6 expression aggravated liver tumorigenesis in a chemical-induced HCC PRMT6 knockout (PRMT6-/- ) mouse model...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Noëlani van den Berg, Waheed Mahomed, Nicholas A Olivier, Velushka Swart, Bridget G Crampton
Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands (Pc) is a hemibiotrophic oomycete and the causal agent of Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of the commercially important fruit crop avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Plant defense against pathogens is modulated by phytohormone signaling pathways such as salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), auxin and abscisic acid. The role of specific signaling pathways induced and regulated during hemibiotroph-plant interactions has been widely debated. Some studies report SA mediated defense while others hypothesize that JA responses restrict the spread of pathogens...
2018: PloS One
Wenhui Wei, Gan Li, Xiaoling Jiang, Yuquan Wang, Zhihui Ma, Zhipeng Niu, Zhiwei Wang, Xinxin Geng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a prominent role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation and have been involved in various biological and metabolic processes to regulate gene expression. For Brassica napus, improving seed-weight and oil-content is the main breeding goal. In order to better understand the regulation mechanism of miRNAs during seed-weight formation and oil-content accumulation in B. napus, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing technology was used to profile miRNAs expression of Brassica napus immature seeds from one to six weeks after flowering...
2018: PloS One
Michael Fähling, Alexander Paliege, Sofia Jönsson, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Jacqueline M Melville, Trude Skogstrand, Michael Hultström
The aim was to identify new targets that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in Angiotensin II (ANGII)-mediated hypertension. Heparin affinity chromatography was used to enrich nucleic acid-binding proteins from kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive Wistar rats. The experiment was repeated with 14 days ANGII infusion using Alzet osmotic mini pumps, with or without ANGII receptor AT1a inhibition using Losartan in the drinking water. Mean arterial pressure increased after 2K1C or ANGII infusion and was inhibited with Losartan...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Simone Altmann, Jose M Muino, Vivien Lortzing, Ronny Brandt, Axel Himmelbach, Lothar Altschmied, Monika Hilker
Plant responses to insect egg depositions are known to shape subsequent defensive responses to larvae hatching from the eggs. Elm (Ulmus minor) leaves, on which elm leaf beetles laid their eggs, mount a more efficient defense against larvae hatching from the eggs. However, the molecular mechanisms of this egg-mediated, improved defense are insufficiently understood and have so far only been studied in annual plants. We analyzed the dynamics of transcriptomic changes in larval feeding-damaged elm leaves with and without prior egg deposition using de novo assembled RNA-seq data...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Teresa Casar Tena, Lars D Maerz, Karol Szafranski, Marco Groth, Tamara J Blätte, Cornelia Donow, Sabrina Matysik, Paul Walther, Penelope A Jeggo, Martin D Burkhalter, Melanie Philipp
Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins facilitate replication by licensing origins and unwinding the DNA double strand. Interestingly, the number of MCM hexamers greatly exceeds the number of firing origins suggesting additional roles of MCMs. Here we show a hitherto unanticipated function of MCM2 in cilia formation in human cells and zebrafish that is uncoupled from replication. Zebrafish depleted of MCM2 develop ciliopathy-phenotypes including microcephaly and aberrant heart looping due to malformed cilia...
October 17, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Vanika Garg, Aamir W Khan, Himabindu Kudapa, Sandip M Kale, Annapurna Chitikineni, Sun Qiwei, Mamta Sharma, Chuanying Li, Baohong Zhang, Xin Liu, P B Kavi Kishor, Rajeev K Varshney
Ascochyta blight (AB) is one of the major biotic stresses known to limit the chickpea production worldwide. To dissect the complex mechanisms of AB resistance in chickpea, three approaches, namely, transcriptome, small RNA and degradome sequencing were used. The transcriptome sequencing of 20 samples including two resistant genotypes, two susceptible genotypes and one introgression line under control and stress conditions at two time points (3rd and 7th day post inoculation) identified a total of 6767 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
October 16, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Megan R Sanctuary, Rick H Huang, Ashleigh A Jones, Marisa E Luck, Carol M Aherne, Paul Jedlicka, Edwin F de Zoeten, Colm B Collins
Pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα antagonizes regulatory T cell (Treg) suppressive function with a measurable reduction of IL-10 protein secretion. Tregs are critical to suppress excessive immune activation, particularly within the intestine where high antigenic loads elicit chronic subclinical immune activation. Employing a TNFα-driven murine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model (TNFΔARE/+ ), which mirrors the Treg expansion and transmural ileitis seen in Crohn's disease, we demonstrate that the TNFα-mediated loss of Treg suppressive function coincides with induction of a specific miRNA, miR-106a in both humans and mice, via NFκB promoter binding to suppress post-transcriptional regulation of IL-10 release...
October 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Jamie A Hackett, Yun Huang, Ufuk Günesdogan, Kristjan A Gretarsson, Toshihiro Kobayashi, M Azim Surani
Early mammalian development entails transit through naive pluripotency towards post-implantation epiblast, which subsequently gives rise to primordial germ cells (PGC), the founding germline population. To investigate these cell fate transitions, we developed a compound-reporter to track cellular identity in a model of PGC specification (PGC-like cells; PGCLC), and coupled it with genome-wide CRISPR screening. We identify key genes both for exit from pluripotency and for acquisition of PGC fate, and characterise a central role for the transcription regulators Nr5a2 and Zfp296 in germline ontogeny...
October 16, 2018: Nature Communications
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