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messenger RNA degradation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515529/escaping-nuclear-decay-the-significance-of-mrna-export-for-gene-expression
#1
REVIEW
Agnieszka Tudek, Manfred Schmid, Torben Heick Jensen
In this perspective, we discuss the regulatory impact of nuclear RNA export and decay on messenger RNA (mRNA) functionality. It is well established that control of protein-coding gene expression in eukaryotes employs the regulated production of mRNA, its intra-cellular transfer to cytoplasmic ribosomes and final transcript degradation. Despite a rich body of literature on these events, an involvement of nuclear RNA decay systems remains largely unexplored. Instead, nuclear RNA degradation is often considered a quality control precaution engaged primarily in ridding cells of aberrantly processed transcripts and spurious non-coding RNA...
December 4, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499743/precise-tuning-of-disulfide-crosslinking-in-mrna-polyplex-micelles-for-optimizing-extracellular-and-intracellular-nuclease-tolerability
#2
Anjaneyulu Dirisala, Satoshi Uchida, Theofilus A Tockary, Naoto Yoshinaga, Junjie Li, Shigehito Osawa, Lahari Gorantla, Shigeto Fukushima, Kensuke Osada, Kazunori Kataoka
The major issues in messenger (m)RNA delivery are rapid mRNA degradation in the extracellular and intracellular spaces, which decreases the efficiency and duration for protein expression from mRNA. Stabilization of mRNA carriers using environment-responsive crosslinkings has promises to overcome these issues. Herein, we fine-tuned the structure of disulfide crosslinkings, which are selectively cleaved in the intracellular reductive environment, using the mRNA-loaded polyplex micelles (PMs) prepared from poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lysine) (PEG-PLys) block copolymers, particularly by focusing on cationic charge density after the crosslinking...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444997/if-you-d-like-to-stop-a-type-iii-crispr-ribonuclease-then-you-should-put-a-ring-nuclease-on-it
#3
Charlie Y Mo, Luciano A Marraffini
Athukoralage et al. (2018) identify a new class of nuclease that degrades cyclic oligoadenylate (cOA), a second messenger that activates non-specific RNA degradation by the type III CRISPR-Cas accessory RNase Csm6/Csx1. This discovery provides a mechanism for regulating the degradation of foreign transcripts during the type III CRISPR immune response.
November 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419118/epigenetic-hallmarks-of-fetal-early-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-humans
#4
Filomena de Nigris, Francesco Cacciatore, Francesco P Mancini, Dino F Vitale, Gelsomina Mansueto, Francesco P D'Armiento, Concetta Schiano, Andrea Soricelli, Claudio Napoli
Importance: Although increasingly strong evidence suggests a role of maternal total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) levels during pregnancy as a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in the offspring, the underlying mechanisms need to be clarified for future clinical applications. Objective: To test whether epigenetic signatures characterize early fetal atherogenesis associated with maternal hypercholesterolemia and to provide a quantitative estimate of the contribution of maternal cholesterol level to fetal lesion size...
November 7, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401835/m-6-a-facilitates-hippocampus-dependent-learning-and-memory-through-ythdf1
#5
Hailing Shi, Xuliang Zhang, Yi-Lan Weng, Zongyang Lu, Yajing Liu, Zhike Lu, Jianan Li, Piliang Hao, Yu Zhang, Feng Zhang, You Wu, Jary Y Delgado, Yijing Su, Meera J Patel, Xiaohua Cao, Bin Shen, Xingxu Huang, Guo-Li Ming, Xiaoxi Zhuang, Hongjun Song, Chuan He, Tao Zhou
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), the most prevalent internal RNA modification on mammalian messenger RNAs, regulates the fates and functions of modified transcripts through m6 A-specific binding proteins1-5 . In the nervous system, m6 A is abundant and modulates various neural functions6-11 . Whereas m6 A marks groups of mRNAs for coordinated degradation in various physiological processes12-15 , the relevance of m6 A for mRNA translation in vivo remains largely unknown. Here we show that, through its binding protein YTHDF1, m6 A promotes protein translation of target transcripts in response to neuronal stimuli in the adult mouse hippocampus, thereby facilitating learning and memory...
November 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397475/trichohepatoenteric-syndrome-a-rare-mutation-in-skiv2l-gene-in-the-first-balkan-reported-case
#6
Ioannis Xinias, Antigoni Mavroudi, Dimitrios Mouselimis, Anastasios Tsarouchas, Konstantina Vasilaki, Ioannis Roilides, Florence Lacaille, Olga Giouleme
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome or syndromic diarrhea is a rare and severe Mendelian autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by intractable diarrhea, facial and hair abnormalities, liver dysfunction, immunodeficiency and failure to thrive. It has been associated with mutations in TTC37 and SKIV2L genes, which encode proteins of the SKI complex that contributes to the cytosolic degradation of the messenger RNA by the cell's exosome. We report a case of a male infant who suffered from typical symptoms and signs of trichohepatoenteric syndrome without immunodeficiency...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397100/rna-uridylation-and-decay-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Caroline de Almeida, Hélène Scheer, Anthony Gobert, Veronica Fileccia, Federico Martinelli, Hélène Zuber, Dominique Gagliardi
RNA uridylation consists of the untemplated addition of uridines at the 3' extremity of an RNA molecule. RNA uridylation is catalysed by terminal uridylyltransferases (TUTases), which form a subgroup of the terminal nucleotidyltransferase family, to which poly(A) polymerases also belong. The key role of RNA uridylation is to regulate RNA degradation in a variety of eukaryotes, including fission yeast, plants and animals. In plants, RNA uridylation has been mostly studied in two model species, the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana Plant TUTases target a variety of RNA substrates, differing in size and function...
November 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397097/5-and-3-modifications-controlling-rna-degradation-from-safeguards-to-executioners
#8
Dominique Gagliardi, Andrzej Dziembowski
RNA degradation is a key process in the regulation of gene expression. In all organisms, RNA degradation participates in controlling coding and non-coding RNA levels in response to developmental and environmental cues. RNA degradation is also crucial for the elimination of defective RNAs. Those defective RNAs are mostly produced by 'mistakes' made by the RNA processing machinery during the maturation of functional transcripts from their precursors. The constant control of RNA quality prevents potential deleterious effects caused by the accumulation of aberrant non-coding transcripts or by the translation of defective messenger RNAs (mRNAs)...
November 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370612/hepcidin-and-iron-regulatory-proteins-coordinately-regulate-ferroportin-1-expression-in-the-brain-of-mice
#9
Lan Wang, Xiaopeng Liu, Lin-Hao You, Yun-Zhe Ci, Shiyang Chang, Peng Yu, Guofen Gao, Yan-Zhong Chang
Iron plays an essential role in various cellular metabolic processes of the body. Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis is particularly important for keeping the normal functions of the cells. Ferroportin 1 (FPN1) is the currently only known iron exporter on the cell membrane. It has been indicated that the regulation of FPN1 in response to the alteration of iron level mainly involves two processes, posttranscriptional repression by iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) and posttranslational degradation by hepcidin, the major iron-sensing hormone...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327455/cyclin-b1-stability-is-increased-by-interaction-with-brca1-and-its-overexpression-suppresses-the-progression-of-brca1-associated-mammary-tumors
#10
Eun Kyung Choi, Jeong-A Lim, Jong Kwang Kim, Moon Sun Jang, Sun Eui Kim, Hye Jung Baek, Eun Jung Park, Tae Hyun Kim, Chu-Xia Deng, Rui-Hong Wang, Sang Soo Kim
Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer. BRCA1, a large protein with multiple functional domains, interacts with numerous proteins involved in many important biological processes and pathways. However, to date, the role of BRCA1 interactions at specific stages in the progression of mammary tumors, particularly in relation to cell cycle regulation, remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1 interacts with cyclin B1, a crucial cell cycle regulator, and that their interaction is modulated by DNA damage and cell cycle phase...
October 16, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321376/site-specific-target-binding-controls-rna-cleavage-efficiency-by-the-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-endonuclease-sox
#11
Aaron S Mendez, Carolin Vogt, Jens Bohne, Britt A Glaunsinger
A number of viruses remodel the cellular gene expression landscape by globally accelerating messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation. Unlike the mammalian basal mRNA decay enzymes, which largely target mRNA from the 5' and 3' end, viruses instead use endonucleases that cleave their targets internally. This is hypothesized to more rapidly inactivate mRNA while maintaining selective power, potentially though the use of a targeting motif(s). Yet, how mRNA endonuclease specificity is achieved in mammalian cells remains largely unresolved...
October 13, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317618/spindlin1-alters-the-metaphase-to-anaphase-transition-in-meiosis-i-through-regulation-of-bub3-expression-in-porcine-oocytes
#12
Jeong-Woo Choi, Wenjun Zhou, Zheng-Wen Nie, Ying-Jie Niu, Kyung-Tae Shin, Xiang-Shun Cui
Spindlin 1 (SPIN1), which contains Tudor-like domains, regulates maternal transcripts via interaction with a messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein. SPIN1 is involved in tumorigenesis in somatic cells and is highly expressed in cancer cells. Nevertheless, the role of SPIN1 in porcine oocyte maturation remains totally unknown. To explore the function of SPIN1 in porcine oocyte maturation, knockdown, and overexpression techniques were used. SPIN1 mRNA was identified in maternal stages ranging from GV to MII. SPIN1 was localized in the cytoplasm and to chromosomes during meiosis...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304829/protective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-against-oxidative-stress-induced-by-zearalenone-via-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway-in-siec02-cells
#13
Jingjing Wang, Mengmeng Li, Wei Zhang, Aixin Gu, Jiawen Dong, Jianping Li, Anshan Shan
Zearalenone (ZEN), a nonsteroidal estrogen mycotoxin, is widely found in feed and foodstuffs. Intestinal cells may become the primary target of toxin attack after ingesting food containing ZEN. Porcine small intestinal epithelial (SIEC02) cells were selected to assess the effect of ZEN exposure on the intestine. Cells were exposed to ZEN (20 µg/mL) or pretreated with (81, 162, and 324 µg/mL) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ZEN treatment. Results indicated that the activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and glutathione reductase (GR) were reduced by ZEN, which induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) production...
October 9, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296860/proof-of-concept-studies-for-sirna-delivery-by-non-ionic-surfactant-vesicles-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-protein-knockdown
#14
Mohammad A Obeid, Christine Dufès, Sukrut Somani, Alexander B Mullen, Rothwelle J Tate, Valerie A Ferro
RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective and naturally occurring post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanism. This mechanism involves the degradation of a target messenger RNA (mRNA) through the introduction of short interfering RNA (siRNA) that is complementary to the target mRNA. The application of siRNA-based therapeutics is limited by the development of an effective delivery system, as naked siRNA is unstable and cannot penetrate the cell membrane. In this study, we investigated the use of cationic niosomes (CN) prepared by microfluidic mixing for siRNA delivery...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288702/rna-regulation-in-plant-cold-stress-response
#15
Kentaro Nakaminami, Motoaki Seki
In addition to plants, all organisms react to environmental stimuli via the perception of signals and subsequently respond through alterations of gene expression. However, genes/mRNAs are usually not the functional unit themselves, and instead, resultant protein products with individual functions result in various acquired phenotypes. In order to fully characterize the adaptive responses of plants to environmental stimuli, it is essential to determine the level of proteins, in addition to the regulation of mRNA expression...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275517/nmd-degradome-sequencing-reveals-ribosome-bound-intermediates-with-3-end-non-templated-nucleotides
#16
Tatsuaki Kurosaki, Keita Miyoshi, Jason R Myers, Lynne E Maquat
Nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay (NMD) controls mRNA quality and degrades physiologic mRNAs to fine-tune gene expression in changing developmental or environmental milieus. NMD requires that its targets are removed from the translating pool of mRNAs. Since the decay steps of mammalian NMD remain unknown, we developed assays to isolate and sequence direct NMD decay intermediates transcriptome-wide based on their co-immunoprecipitation with phosphorylated UPF1, which is the active form of this essential NMD factor...
October 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272664/tissue-specific-mirna-expression-profiling-in-mouse-heart-sections-using-in-situ-hybridization
#17
Fani Memi, Daniela Tirziu, Irinna Papangeli
micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA transcripts that bind to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and inhibit their translation or promote their degradation. To date, miRNAs have been implicated in a large number of biological and disease processes, which has signified the need for the reliable detection methods of miRNA transcripts. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for digoxigenin-labeled (DIG) Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) probe-based miRNA detection, combined with protein immunostaining on mouse heart sections...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260027/gene-expression-in-chronic-granulomatous-disease-and-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-deficient-cells-treated-in-vitro-with-interferon-%C3%AE
#18
Josias B Frazão, Martino Colombo, Cedric Simillion, Adem Bilican, Irene Keller, Daniel Wüthrich, Zhiqing Zhu, Michal J Okoniewski, Rémy Bruggmann, Antonio Condino-Neto, Peter E Newburger
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity against intracellular infections and is used clinically for the prevention and control of infections in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and inborn defects in the IFN-γ/interleukin (IL)-12 axis. Using transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq), we sought to identify differentially expressed genes, transcripts and exons in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes (B-EBV) cells from CGD patients, IFN-γ receptor deficiency patients, and normal controls, treated in vitro with IFN-γ for 48 hours...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251172/patisiran-first-global-approval
#19
Sheridan M Hoy
Patisiran (ONPATTRO™) is a double-stranded small interfering RNA encapsulated in a lipid nanoparticle for delivery to hepatocytes. By specifically binding to a genetically conserved sequence in the 3' untranslated region of mutant and wild-type transthyretin (TTR) messenger RNA, patisiran causes its degradation (via RNA interference) and subsequently a reduction in serum TTR protein levels and tissue TTR protein deposits. Patisiran has been developed by Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; it was recently approved in the USA for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary TTR-mediated amyloidosis (hATTR) in adults and subsequently approved in the EU for the treatment of hATTR in adults with stage 1 or 2 polyneuropathy...
October 2018: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249708/a-subset-of-exoribonucleases-serve-as-degradative-enzymes-for-pgpg-in-c-di-gmp-signaling
#20
Mona W Orr, Cordelia A Weiss, Geoffrey B Severin, Husan Turdiev, Soo-Kyoung Kim, Asan Turdiev, Kunquing Liu, Benjamin P Tu, Christopher M Waters, Wade C Winkler, Vincent T Lee
Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger that regulates processes such as biofilm formation and virulence. During degradation, c-di-GMP is first linearized to pGpG and subsequently hydrolyzed to two GMPs by a previously unknown enzyme, which was recently identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the 3' to 5' exoribonuclease Oligoribonuclease (Orn). Mutants of orn accumulated pGpG, which inhibited linearization of c-di-GMP. This product inhibition led to elevated c-di-GMP levels, resulting in increased aggregate and biofilm formation...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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