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adult-onset diabetes

David C Klonoff, Mark L Evans, Wendy Lane, Hans-Peter Kempe, Eric Renard, J Hans DeVries, Tina Graungaard, Agon Hyseni, Theis Gondolf, Tadej Battelino
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart [FA]) vs insulin aspart (IAsp) in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in participants with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Double-blind, treat-to-target, randomized, 16-week trial investigating CSII treatment with FA (n = 236) or IAsp (n = 236). All available information regardless of treatment discontinuation was used for the evaluation of effect. RESULTS: FA was non-inferior to IAsp regarding the change from baseline in HbA1c (primary endpoint)...
December 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Cynthia L Holle, Mary A Turnquist, James L Rudolph
Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced in addressing common health needs of older adult clients such as diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease. These nurses also have the requisite training to respond to more acute medical events, including the symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. They provide care and comfort to those suffering from the distress, anxiety, and fear caused by disasters...
December 9, 2018: Nursing Forum
Nina L Beckwith, Jaclyn C Khil, Jason Teng, Kore K Liow, Alice Smith, Jesus Luna
Gelastic seizures (GS) are a rare form of epilepsy characterized by inappropriate, uncontrolled laughter. They are highly associated with abnormal cognitive development and behavioral problems in patients. Research has shown that GS can originate from hypothalamic hamartomas (HH), non- neoplastic masses consisting of gray matter with large and small neurons interspersed with glial nuclei. GS have also been observed in patients with frontal and temporal lobe lesions. The patient in this case report is a 40-year-old man with a past medical history significant for brain tumor, diabetes mellitus, and schizophrenia who presented with a long standing history of sudden, involuntary laughter occurring 2-3 times a week since 8 years old...
December 2018: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
Venkat Bhat, Mahmood Tazari, Kymberly D Watt, Mamatha Bhat
OBJECTIVE: To identify key predictors and survival outcomes of new-onset diabetes after transplant (NODAT) in liver transplant (LT) recipients by using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of all adult LT recipients between October 1, 1987, and March 31, 2016, were analyzed using various machine learning methods. These data were divided into training (70%) and validation (30%) data sets to robustly determine predictors of NODAT...
December 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Asma Sriha Belguith, Kaouthar Beltaief, Mohamed Amine Msolli, Wahid Bouida, Hela Abroug, Manel Ben Fredj, Imen Zemni, Mohamed Habib Grissa, Hamdi Boubaker, Mohamed Hsairi, Samir Nouira
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe diagnosed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and its care management and outcomes in emergency departments (EDs) and to determine related cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional multicenter study that included 1173 adults admitted to EDs for acute chest pain (ACP) in 2015 at 14 sites in Tunisia. Data included patients' baseline characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and output. RESULTS: ACS represented 49...
December 3, 2018: BMC Emergency Medicine
Tanya M Wildes, Kenneth C Anderson
Mrs. A. is a 73-year-old woman who has developed increasing fatigue and lower back pain over the past year. The pain limits her exercise tolerance such that she can now walk only 1 block. She is a retired schoolteacher who does volunteer efforts in her community but has limited her activities due to fatigue. Karnofsky performance status is 70%. She has a history of chronic hypertension treated with a diuretic, adult-onset diabetes mellitus treated with metformin, and hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Thierry Facon, Kenneth Anderson
Mrs. A. is a 73-year-old woman who has developed increasing fatigue and lower back pain over the past year. The pain limits her exercise tolerance such that she can now walk only 1 block. She is a retired schoolteacher who does volunteer efforts in her community but has limited her activities due to fatigue. Karnofsky performance status is 70%. She has a history of chronic hypertension treated with a diuretic, adult-onset diabetes mellitus treated with metformin, and hypothyroidism treated with levothyroxine...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Melissa D Olfert, Amanda Dent, Rachel A Wattick
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have investigated the MetS risk of young adults (18⁻24 years old). This study aims to determine the prevalence of MetS in Appalachian and non-Appalachian students attending West Virginia University. The prevalence of MetS in this population was 15%. There was no difference in MetS prevalence between male students and female students (18.8% males and 11.1% females, p -value = 0...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Julia C Wilmanns, Raghav Pandey, Olivia Hon, Anjana Chandran, Jan M Schilling, Elvira Forte, Qizhu Wu, Gael Cagnone, Preeti Bais, Vivek Philip, David Coleman, Heidi Kocalis, Stuart K Archer, James T Pearson, Mirana Ramialison, Joerg Heineke, Hemal H Patel, Nadia A Rosenthal, Milena B Furtado, Mauro W Costa
OBJECTIVE: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most frequent birth defect worldwide. The number of adult patients with CHD, now referred to as ACHD, is increasing with improved surgical and treatment interventions. However the mechanisms whereby ACHD predisposes patients to heart dysfunction are still unclear. ACHD is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, but how ACHD interacts with poor modern lifestyle choices and other comorbidities, such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, is mostly unknown...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Sara Tellefsen, Mathias Kaurstad Morthen, Stephen M Richards, Scott M Lieberman, Raheleh Rahimi Darabad, Wendy R Kam, David A Sullivan
Purpose: Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disease that occurs primarily in women, and is associated with lacrimal gland inflammation and aqueous-deficient dry eye. We hypothesize that sex-associated differences in lacrimal gland gene expression are very important in promoting lymphocyte accumulation in this tissue and contribute to the onset, progression, and/or severity of the inflammatory disease process. To test our hypothesis, we explored the nature and extent of sex-related differences in gene expression in autoimmune lacrimal glands...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kiyuri Naicker, Douglas Manuel, Simon Øverland, Jens C Skogen, Jeffrey A Johnson, Børge Sivertsen, Ian Colman
Background: Population attributable fractions (PAFs) are frequently used to quantify the proportion of Type 2 diabetes cases due to single risk factors, an approach which may result in an overestimation of their individual contributions. This study aimed to examine Type 2 diabetes incidence associated with multiple risk factor combinations, including the metabolic syndrome, behavioural factors, and specifically, depression and anxiety. Methods: Using data from the population-based HUNT cohort, we examined incident diabetes in 36,161 Norwegian adults from 1995 to 2008...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Jingchuan Guo, Karen A Nunley, Tina Costacou, Rachel G Miller, Caterina Rosano, Daniel Edmundowicz, Trevor J Orchard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We assessed the predictive role of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in clinically relevant cognitive impairment in 148 middle-aged individuals with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) Study. METHODS: Baseline CAC was measured in 1996-98 and repeated 4-8 years later. Per extensive neuropsychological testing in 2010-15, 28% (41/148) of participants met the study definition of clinically relevant cognitive impairment (two or more of 7 select test scores ≥1...
November 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Yufei Xiang, Gan Huang, Yaxi Zhu, Xuan Zuo, Xinyuan Liu, Qiong Feng, Xia Li, Tubao Yang, Juming Lu, Zhongyan Shan, Jie Liu, Haoming Tian, Qiuhe Ji, Dalong Zhu, Jiapu Ge, Lixiang Lin, Li Chen, Xiaohui Guo, Zhigang Zhao, Qiang Li, Jianping Weng, Weiping Jia, Zhenqi Liu, Linong Ji, Wenying Yang, R David Leslie, Zhiguang Zhou
AIMS: We previously reported in China, using a hospital-based national survey, a high frequency of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes. Here, in a population-based, multicenter nation-wide study, in phenotypic type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, we investigate the prevalence of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes (ADM) and predisposition to autoimmune diseases by quantifying serum organ-specific autoantibodies MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included a nationally representative sample of 46 239 adults aged 20 years or older from 14 provinces, of whom 4671 had diabetes plus 1000 control subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
November 24, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Takashi Oshio, Mari Kan
Social participation (SP) is known to have a favorable impact on the health of older adults by reducing the risk of functional disability, psychological distress, cognitive impairment, and mortality. However, the preventive impact of SP on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among middle-aged adults is largely understudied. Using the dataset from a population-based, 10-wave longitudinal survey that started with Japanese adults aged 50-59 years in 2005 (16,290 men and 17,248 women), we estimated Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the preventive impact of SP adjusted for baseline covariates...
November 20, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Stanisław Pilacinski, Krystyna Wyka, Bogna Wierusz-Wysocka, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz
AIM: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8-ab), other diabetes-related autoantibodies and clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes in adults, depending on age of the onset of disease. METHODS: 119 patients with type 1 diabetes, 66 at age <35 years (T1DM < 35) and 53 T1DM at age ≥35 years (T1DM ≥ 35). We assessed clinical features, GAD-ab, IA2-ab, ICA, ZnT8-ab and thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO)...
November 19, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Michael E Symonds, Grace Farhat, Peter Aldiss, Mark Pope, Helen Budge
There is increasing evidence that the global rise in temperature is contributing to the onset of diabetes, which could be mediated by a concomitant reduction in brown fat activity. Brown (and beige) fat are characterised as possessing a unique mitochondrial protein uncoupling protein (UCP)1 that when activated can rapidly generate large amounts of heat. Primary environmental stimuli of UCP1 include cold-exposure and diet, leading to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and large amounts of lipid and glucose being oxidised by brown fat...
November 21, 2018: Adipocyte
Larissa G Gomes, Marina Cunha-Silva, Raiane P Crespo, Carolina O Ramos, Luciana R Montenegro, Ana Canton, Melissa Lees, Helen Spoudeas, Andrew Dauber, Delanie B Macedo, Danielle S Bessa, Gustavo A Maciel, Edmund C Baracat, Alexander A L Jorge, Berenice B Mendonca, Vinicius N Brito, Ana Claudia Latronico
Background: Delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), also called preadipocyte factor 1, prevents adipocyte differentiation and has been considered a molecular gatekeeper of adipogenesis. A DLK1 complex genomic defect was identified in five women from a single family with central precocious puberty (CPP) and increased body fat percentage. Methods: We studied 60 female patients with a diagnosis of CPP or history of precocious menarche. Thirty-one of them reported a family history of precocious puberty...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tomoaki Murakami, Yoko Horibata, Shigeru Tateno, Yasutaka Kawasoe, Koichiro Niwa
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), which induces vasoconstriction and conserves solute-free water when released during high plasma osmolality, is secreted through 2 mechanisms: osmoregulation and baroregulation. This study aims to clarify the mechanisms and influencing factors for non-osmotic AVP secretion in adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). AVP levels were measured in 74 adults with CHD. Non-osmotic AVP secretion was defined as excessive AVP secretion relative to the AVP level inferred from plasma osmolality...
November 20, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Jose I Riezu-Boj, Fermin I Milagro, J Alfredo Martinez
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors for the onset and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the association of DNA methylation signatures at HCC pathway genes with obesity and related metabolic disturbances. A population of 474 adults within the Methyl Epigenome Network Association (MENA) project was included. DNA methylation levels were measured in white blood cells by microarray. The identification and discrimination of HCC pathway genes were performed using KEGG and PathDIP databases...
November 20, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Claudia G Liberini, Rinzin Lhamo, Misgana Ghidewon, Tyler Ling, Nina Juntereal, Jack Chen, Anh Cao, Lauren M Stein, Matthew R Hayes
AIMS: Maternal and early-postnatal consumption of high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFSD) dramatically alters the offspring phenotype, predisposing the progeny to have reduced sensitivity to satiation signals, increased body weight, and blood glucose impairments. Recent therapeutics for treating adult obesity have focused on targeting the glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) system. Here, we examine whether the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide could be used in juvenile male and female rats as an anti-obesity/diabetic pharmaceutical to prevent not only adolescent obesity/ hyperglycemia, but also prevent early-adult onset obesity...
November 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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