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microbiota intestinal

Bahman Yousefi, Majid Eslami, Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Parviz Kokhaei, Amir Salek Farrokhi, Narges Darabi
Mammalian intestine contains a large diversity of commensal microbiota, which is far more than the number of host cells. Probiotics play an insecure and protective role against the colonization of intestinal pathogenic microbes and increase mucosal integrity by stimulating epithelial cells. Probiotics have innate capabilities in many ways, including receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding and expression of adapter proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of microRNAs, endotoxin tolerance, and ultimately secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids, and metabolites to modulate the immune system...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Kimiya Aono, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Toshiya Okada, Hayato Tokumoto, Takeshi Izawa, Ryoichi Okano, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Tadayoshi Takeuchi, Yasu-Taka Azuma
Organ-organ crosstalk is involved in homeostasis. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with renal failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. We performed studies in C57BL/6 mice with chronic kidney disease after 5/6 nephrectomy. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated by assessing the ex vivo responses of ileum and distal colon strips to electrical field stimulation. Feces were collected from mice, and the composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Paula R Giaretta, Raquel R Rech, Blake C Guard, Amanda B Blake, Anna K Blick, Jörg M Steiner, Jonathan A Lidbury, Audrey K Cook, Mohsen Hanifeh, Thomas Spillmann, Susanne Kilpinen, Pernilla Syrjä, Jan S Suchodolski
BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorption of bile acids is mediated by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT). Fecal bile acid dysmetabolism has been reported in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE). OBJECTIVE: Characterization of ASBT distribution along the intestinal tract of control dogs and comparison to dogs with CIE. ANIMALS: Twenty-four dogs with CIE and 11 control dogs. METHODS: The ASBT mRNA and protein expression were assessed using RNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
María Díaz, Lucía Guadamuro, Irene Espinosa-Martos, Leonardo Mancabelli, Santiago Jiménez, Cristina Molinos-Norniella, David Pérez-Solis, Christian Milani, Juan Miguel Rodríguez, Marco Ventura, Carlos Bousoño, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles, Juan José Díaz, Susana Delgado
Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the most common food allergy in infancy. Non-IgE mediated (NIM) forms are little studied and the responsible mechanisms of tolerance acquisition remain obscure. Our aim was to study the intestinal microbiota and related parameters in the fecal samples of infants with NIM-CMPA, to establish potential links between type of formula substitutes, microbiota, and desensitization. Seventeen infants between one and two years old, diagnosed with NIM-CMPA, were recruited. They were all on an exclusion diet for six months, consuming different therapeutic protein hydrolysates...
October 11, 2018: Nutrients
Harry Sokol, Nizar Mahlaoui, Claire Aguilar, Perrine Bach, Olivier Join-Lambert, Aurélie Garraffo, Philippe Seksik, François Danion, Sarah Jegou, Marjolene Straube, Christelle Lenoir, Bénédicte Neven, Despina Moshous, Stéphane Blanche, Bénédicte Pigneur, Olivier Goulet, Frank Ruemmele, Felipe Suarez, Laurent Beaugerie, Stéphanie Pannier, Françoise Mazingue, Olivier Lortholary, Lionel Galicier, Capucine Picard, Geneviève de Saint Basile, Sylvain Latour, Alain Fischer
The gut microbiota plays a key role in host physiology and is an actor in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Patients with primary immunodeficiency causing intestinal inflammation have disease-specific dysbiosis.
October 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Gyorgy Baffy
Gut microbiota is the largest collection of commensal microorganisms in the human body, engaged in reciprocal cellular and molecular interactions with the liver. This mutually beneficial relationship may break down and result in dysbiosis, associated with disease phenotypes. Altered composition and function of gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathobiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a prevalent condition linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. NAFLD may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which is the result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and altered splanchnic circulation...
October 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Ting-Jia Fan, Sandrine Y Tchaptchet, Diana Arsene, Yoshiyuki Mishima, Bo Liu, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Edward A Miao, Anthony A Fodor, Jonathan J Hansen
Background: Human and mouse studies implicate the inflammasome in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, though the effects in mice are variable. The noncanonical inflammasome activator caspase-11 (Casp11) reportedly attenuates acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis in mice. However, the effects of Casp11 on chronic experimental colitis and factors that influence the impact of Casp11 on acute DSS colitis are unknown. Methods: We studied the role of Casp11 in Il10-/- mice and acute and chronic DSS colitis mouse models...
October 12, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Chenhe Wang, Yanfeng Zhou, Dawei Lv, You Ge, Huan Li, Yang You
As an important organ to maintain the host's homeostasis, intestinal microbes play an important role in development of the organism. In contrast to those of terrestrial animals, the intestinal microbes of aquatic organisms are affected by environmental microorganisms (including water microorganisms and sediment microorganisms). In the present study, the compositional differences of intestinal microbes in three representative developmental stages of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) were studied. Meanwhile, network association analysis, and visualization of the water microorganisms of the crabs' habitat, the environment microorganisms in the pond, and the intestinal microbes, was carried out...
October 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yilin Shu, Pei Hong, Dong Tang, Hui Qing, Oscar Omondi Donde, Huan Wang, Bangding Xiao, Hailong Wu
The Chinese concave-eared frog (Odorrana tormota) is a rare and threatened species with remarkable sexual dimorphism. Intestinal microbes are understood to play important roles in animal physiology, growth, ecology, and evolution. However, little is known about the intestinal microbes in female and male frogs, as well as the contributing effect by gut infesting nematodes to the co-habiting bacteria and their function in degradation food rich in chitin. Here, this study analyzed the microbiota of the intestinal tract of both female and male, healthy as well as nematode-infested concave-eared frogs using high throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic techniques...
October 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Silvana Bonilla, Samuel Nurko
Chronic abdominal pain is frequently encountered in pediatric practice. A large proportion of cases meet Rome criteria for abdominal pain-functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs). These disorders are costly and, in some cases, lead to impairment of daily functioning and overall quality of life. Pathophysiologic mechanisms include early stressful events, visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, changes in intestinal microbiota, and altered central nervous system processing. They are considered disorders of the brain-gut interaction...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Chun-Sai-Er Wang, Wen-Bin Li, Hong-Ying Wang, Yi-Ming Ma, Xin-Hua Zhao, Hong Yang, Jia-Ming Qian, Jing-Nan Li
AIM: To investigate the effects of VSL#3 on tumor formation, and fecal and intestinal mucosal microbiota in azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) induced mice model. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were administered AOM/DSS to develop the ulcerative colitis (UC) carcinogenesis model. Mice were treated with 5-ASA (75 mg/kg/d), VSL#3 (1.5 × 109 CFU/d), or 5-ASA combined with VSL#3 by gavage from the day of AOM injection for three months (five days/week). The tumor load was compared in each group, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels were evaluated in colon tissue...
October 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Carlos R Camara-Lemarroy, Luanne M Metz, V Wee Yong
The brain-gut axis serves as the bidirectional connection between the gut microbiome, the intestinal barrier and the immune system that might be relevant for the pathophysiology of inflammatory demyelinating diseases. People with multiple sclerosis have been shown to have an altered microbiome, increased intestinal permeability and changes in bile acid metabolism. Experimental evidence suggests that these changes can lead to profound alterations of peripheral and central nervous system immune regulation. Besides being of pathophysiological interest, the brain-gut axis could also open new avenues of therapeutic targets...
October 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
James W Keith, Eric G Pamer
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is an all-too-common consequence of antibiotic use. Although antibiotic resistance among virulent bacterial pathogens is a growing concern, the highest levels of antibiotic resistance occur among less pathogenic but more common bacteria that are prevalent in healthcare settings. Patient-to-patient transmission of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a perpetual concern in hospitals. Many of these resistant microbes, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae , emerge from the intestinal lumen and invade the bloodstream of vulnerable patients, causing disseminated infection...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
David J Supeck, Senait Assefa, William Meek, J Thomas Curtis, Gerwald A Köhler
Intestinal epithelium develops during gestation and continues to mature post-natally into a selective barrier that will protect the individual while still allowing passage of nutrients. Until fully mature, the risk of translocation of microorganisms, toxins or antigens into the sub-epithelial tissue is high and could result in pathologies with life-altering consequences, or even premature death. Because of their monogamous mating system, prairie voles are an emerging model for studying the role of the intestinal microbiota in modulating social behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain-behavior axis...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Elisa Borghi, Valentina Massa, Marco Severgnini, Grazia Fazio, Laura Avagliano, Elena Menegola, Gaetano Pietro Bulfamante, Giulia Morace, Francesca Borgo
The widely accepted dogma of intrauterine sterility and initial colonization of the newborn during birth has been blurred by recent observations of microbial presence in meconium, placenta, and amniotic fluid. Given the importance of a maternal-derived in utero infant seeding, it is crucial to exclude potential environmental or procedural contaminations and to assess fetal colonization before parturition. To this end, we analyzed sterilely collected intestinal tissues, placenta, and amniotic fluid from rodent fetuses and tissues from autoptic human fetuses...
October 11, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J Wilson, Annelise Madison
Couples influence each other's mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples' relationships, the partners' individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples' shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another...
October 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Awad Mahalhal, Jonathan M Williams, Sophie Johnson, Nicholas Ellaby, Carrie A Duckworth, Michael D Burkitt, Xuan Liu, Georgina L Hold, Barry J Campbell, D Mark Pritchard, Chris S Probert
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with anaemia and oral iron replacement to correct this can be problematic, intensifying inflammation and tissue damage. The intestinal microbiota also plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, and iron supplementation likely influences gut bacterial diversity in patients with IBD. Here, we assessed the impact of dietary iron, using chow diets containing either 100, 200 or 400 ppm, fed ad libitum to adult female C57BL/6 mice in the presence or absence of colitis induced using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), on (i) clinical and histological severity of acute DSS-induced colitis, and (ii) faecal microbial diversity, as assessed by sequencing the V4 region of 16S rRNA...
2018: PloS One
Ghazaleh Mohammadi, Leila Dargahi, Amir Peymani, Yazdan Mirzanejad, Safar Ali Alizadeh, Taghi Naserpour, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
OBJECTIVE: The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), via the gut-brain axis has recently been demonstrated; hence, modification of the intestinal microbiota composition by probiotic biotherapy could be a therapeutic target for these conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) on inflammatory and memory processes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rats, one of the animal models used in peripherally induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
October 11, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Katherine J P Schwenger, Colin M Bolzon, Carrie Li, Johane P Allard
Non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered one of the leading causes of liver disease worldwide and is associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. There are several factors contributing to the disease state. Recent research suggests that the intestinal microbiota (IM) and bacterial products may play a role through several mechanisms which include increased energy uptake, intestinal permeability and chronic inflammation. In addition to diet and exercise, treatment options targeting the IM are being investigated and include the use of pre-, pro- and synbiotics as well as the possibility of fecal microbial transfers...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Mengxue Dong, Zhefeng Meng, Kudelaidi Kuerban, Feilong Qi, Jiayang Liu, Yuxi Wei, Qian Wang, Shanshan Jiang, Meiqing Feng, Li Ye
Diosgenin, a natural steroidal saponin, can exert antitumor effect by regulating immune function and improving intestinal microbiota. The response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy is associated with intestinal microbiota and effector T cells in tumor microenvironment. We hypothesize that the modulation of diosgenin on intestinal microbiota can facilitate antitumor immunity and the therapeutic efficacy of PD-1 antibody. In melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice, we observed that the anti-melanoma effect of diosgenin relied more on antitumor immunity than direct tumor inhibition activity evidenced by obvious CD4+ /CD8+ T-cell infiltration and IFN-γ expression in tumor tissues, and it could improve the compositions of intestinal microbiota...
October 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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