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microbiota intestinal

Xiao-Wei Feng, Wen-Ping Ding, Ling-Yun Xiong, Liang Guo, Jia-Ming Sun, Peng Xiao
Microbial constituents naturally inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract may influence the homeostasis of the gut environment. The presence or overabundance of some bacterial taxa has been reported to be associated with complex diseases, and the metabolites of certain bacteria may contribute to diverse disorders by influencing signaling pathways. Therefore, the study of gut microbial population has emerged as a crucial field and a new potential area of clinical significance. Advances in the methods of microbiota analysis have shed light upon the details including species diversity, microfloral activities as well as the entire gut microbiota...
December 2018: Current medical science
Yu-Feng Qi, Jun-Ning Sun, Lai-Feng Ren, Xue-Ling Cao, Jian-Hong Dong, Kai Tao, Xue-Mei Guan, Ya-Ni Cui, Wen Su
BACKGROUND: Many diseases have been associated with intestinal microbial dysbiosis. Host-microbial interactions regulate immune function, which influences the development of gastric cancer. AIMS: The aims were to investigate the characteristics of intestinal microbiota composition in gastric cancer patients and correlations between the intestinal microbiota and cellular immunity. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 116 gastric cancer patients and 88 healthy controls from Shanxi Province, China...
December 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Simone Rampelli, Kathrin Guenther, Silvia Turroni, Maike Wolters, Toomas Veidebaum, Yiannis Kourides, Dénes Molnár, Lauren Lissner, Alfonso Benitez-Paez, Yolanda Sanz, Arno Fraterman, Nathalie Michels, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Wolfgang Ahrens
It is widely accepted that the intestinal microbiome is connected to obesity, as key mediator of the diet impact on the host metabolic and immunological status. To investigate whether the individual gut microbiome has a potential in predicting the onset and progression of diseases, here we characterized the faecal microbiota of 70 children in a two-time point prospective study, within a four-year window. All children had normal weight at the beginning of this study, but 36 of them gained excessive weight at the subsequent check-up...
2018: Communications biology
Xuemei Li, Yongjiu Zhu, Einar Ringø, Xuge Wang, Jinling Gong, Deguo Yang
Bighead carps ( Aristichthys nobilis ) were divided into four groups with different feeding strategies: group A, nature live food only (fertiliser only, 200 g urea + 160 g ethylamine phosphate + 250 g Huangjintai bio-fertiliser); group B, nature live food + 1/2 formulated feed; group C, nature live food + formulated feed; and group D, formulated feed only. The intestinal microbiomes of the different groups were compared through the Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specific growth rate (SGR), survival and blood biochemical factors of the fish were also investigated...
2018: PeerJ
Eleni Christodoulou-Vafeiadou, Fotis Ioakeimidis, Margarita Andreadou, Giorgos Giagkas, George Stamatakis, Martin Reczko, Martina Samiotaki, Anastasios D Papanastasiou, Ioannis Karakasiliotis, Dimitris L Kontoyiannis
HuR is an abundant RNA-binding protein acting as a post-transcriptional regulator of many RNAs including mRNAs encoding inflammatory mediators, cytokines, death signalers and cell cycle regulators. In the context of intestinal pathologies, elevated HuR is considered to enhance the stability and the translation of pro-tumorigenic mRNAs providing the rationale for its pharmacological targeting. However, HuR also possesses specific regulatory functions for innate immunity and cytokine mRNA control which can oppose intestinal inflammation and tumor promotion...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yu Anne Yap, Eliana Mariño
The rising global incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions can be attributed to changes in the large portion of the immune system that belongs to our gastrointestinal tract (GI). The intestinal immune system serves as a gatekeeper to prevent pathogenic invasions and to preserve a healthier gut microbiota. The gut microbiota has been increasingly studied as a fundamental contributor to the state of health and disease. From food fermentation, the gut microbiota releases metabolites or short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which have anti-inflammatory properties and preserve gut homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
D B Holman, B L Bearson, H K Allen, D C Shippy, C L Loving, B J Kerr, S M D Bearson, B W Brunelle
Salmonella is estimated to cause 1.2 million cases of human foodborne illness each year in the United States, and pigs can often be asymptomatically colonized with Salmonella (>50% of farms). Recent reports state that 18.3% of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S Typhimurium) isolates are resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial classes, and multidrug resistant (MDR) strains are associated with an increased hospitalization rate and other complications. Chlortetracycline is commonly used in swine production to prevent/treat various diseases; therefore, chlortetracycline treatment of pigs unknowingly colonized with MDR Salmonella may have collateral effects on Salmonella (and other gut bacteria)...
December 7, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Chenzhang Shi, Hao Li, Xiao Qu, Linsheng Huang, Cheng Kong, Huanlong Qin, Zhenliang Sun, Xuebing Yan
Microtubule-actin cross-linking factor-1 (ACF7, or MACF1) regulates cytoskeletal focal adhesion dynamics and migration in various tissues. High fat diet (HFD) induces gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorders, and increases intestinal permeability and inflammatory response. Here we investigated the synergistic effects of intestinal ACF7 conditional knockout (ACF7 cKO) and HFD on metabolism phenotypes, gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function in mice. ACF7 cKO and control (ACF7fl/fl) mice (8-week-old) were fed with either chow diet or HFD, for 16 weeks...
December 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Lap Ho, Danyue Zhao, Kenjiro Ono, Kai Ruan, Ilaria Mogno, Mayumi Tsuji, Eileen Carry, Justin Brathwaite, Steven Sims, Tal Frolinger, Susan Westfall, Paolo Mazzola, Qingli Wu, Ke Hao, Thomas E Lloyd, James E Simon, Jeremiah Faith, Giulio M Pasinetti
The intestinal microbiota actively converts dietary flavanols into phenolic acids, some of which are bioavailable in vivo and may promote resilience to select neurological disorders by interfering with key pathologic mechanisms. Since every person harbors a unique set of gut bacteria, we investigated the influence of the gut microbiota's interpersonal heterogeneity on the production and bioavailability of flavonoid metabolites that may interfere with the misfolding of alpha (α)-synuclein, a process that plays a central role in Parkinson's disease and other α-synucleinopathies...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Simon Labarthe, Bastien Polizzi, Thuy Phan, Thierry Goudon, Magali Ribot, Beatrice Laroche
The gut microbiota, mainly located in the colon, is engaged in a complex dialogue with the large intestinal epithelium through which important regulatory processes for the health and well-being of the host take place. Imbalances of the microbial populations, called dysbiosis, are related to several pathological status, emphasizing the importance of understanding the gut bacterial ecology. Among the ecological drivers of the microbiota, the spatial structure of the colon is of special interest: spatio-temporal mechanisms can lead to the constitution of spatial interactions among the bacterial populations and of environmental niches that impact the overall colonization of the colon...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Zhuoan Bai, Tongjun Ren, Yuzhe Han, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Yanan Hu, Zequn Li, Zhiqiang Jiang
A 30-days feeding trail was conducted to determine the sensitivity of Carassius auratus to the toxicological effects of elevated dietary Selenomethionine (Se-Met). C. auratus averaging 23.56 ± 1.82 g were exposed to four Se-Met concentrations (mg Se/kg): 0 (Se-Met0), 5 (Se-Met5), 10 (Se-Met10) and 20 (Se-Met20) to estimate the effects on tissue selenium (Se) accumulation, blood biochemical profiles, transcript expression and intestinal microbiota. Se accumulated in the kidney, liver and muscle in a dose-dependent manner and followed this order: kidney > liver > muscle, the highest accumulation were obtained in kidney of Se-Met20 diet after 30 days of feeding...
December 4, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Mouna Hanachi, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Andreu Schoenenberger, Victoria Pascal, Florence Levenez, Nicole Cournède, Joël Doré, Jean-Claude Melchior
BACKGROUND: Functional intestinal disorders (FIDs) are frequently observed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Relationship between FIDs and a potential gut microbiota dysbiosis has been poorly explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine an association between FIDs severity and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota in a severely malnourished patient population with AN undergoing enteral nutrition. DESIGN: Faecal microbiota of AN (DSM IVr criteria) female inpatients were collected and compared to healthy controls based on 16S rRNA profiling...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ilaria Matarazzo, Elena Toniato, Iole Robuffo
Recently gut bacterial populations seem to be involved in many functions and in the pathogenesis of several medical conditions. Traditionally the intestinal microbiome has been recognized to play an important role in metabolizing food compounds in simpler chemical structures for the absorption of different nutrients, and in maintenance control on gastrointestinal pathogens species. Bacterial populations are implicated in a complicated network of interactions within the immune system, epithelial cells, local endocrine system, that affects the peripheral and the central nervous system, via blood circulation...
December 10, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Z F Ma, N Yusof, N Hamid, R M Lawenko, W M Z Wan Mohammad, M T Liong, H Sugahara, T Odamaki, J Xiao, Y Y Lee
Individuals in a community who developed irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) after major floods have significant mental health impairment. We aimed to determine if Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 was effective in improving symptoms, psychology and quality of life measures in flood-affected individuals with IBS and if the improvement was mediated by gut microbiota changes. Design was non-randomised, open-label, controlled before-and-after. Of 53 participants, 20 with IBS were given B. infantis M-63 (1×109 cfu/sachet/day) for three months and 33 were controls...
December 10, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Diego Bernardi Espinoza, Carlos Fernando Jiménez Guerrero, Pohl Milón Mayer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Thalita Lin Netto Candido, Josefina Bressan, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas
INTRODUCTION: diet plays a decisive role in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, allergies and inflammatory diseases. In addition to this, there are numerous investigations about the role of the microbiota in the genesis of metabolic diseases, especially obesity and its comorbidities. OBJECTIVE: the aim of this review is to discuss the influence of high-fat diets on dysbiosis and metabolic endotoxemia. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the intestinal microbial ecosystem has been shown to be essential in the performance of functions in the host organism, however, several factors can lead to an imbalance in the homeostasis of the microbiota, known as dysbiosis...
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mengting Chen, Suocheng Hui, Hedong Lang, Min Zhou, Yong Zhang, Chao Kang, Xianglong Zeng, Qianyong Zhang, Long Yi, Mantian Mi
SCOPE: Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) plays a protective role against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by improving hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction. Gut microbiota imbalance contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD, yet the underlying mechanism linking SIRT3 with gut microbiota in NAFLD progression remains obscure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type 129 mice and SIRT3 knockout (SIRT3KO) mice were under a chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD) treatment for 18-weeks. HFD resulted in a significantly increased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, which were exacerbated in SIRT3KO mice...
December 7, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Hengameh Chloé Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Katleen Vrankx, Jørgen Engberg, Alice Friis-Møller, Jørn Brynskov, Inge Nordgaard-Lassen, Andreas Munk Petersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt
Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally divided into Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is a relapsing non-transmural inflammatory disease that is restricted to the colon and is characterized by flare-ups of bloody diarrhea. CD is a chronic, segmental localized granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the entire gastrointestinal tract. Ileo-anal pouch is a procedure restoring functionality of the rectum after a colectomy. IBD is a multifactorial disease and flares of IBD are probably triggered by changes in the intestinal microbiota followed by an abnormal immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Rogatien Charlet, Clovis Bortolus, Melissandre Barbet, Boualem Sendid, Samir Jawhara
Background: The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Changes in crosstalk between the intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells and the microbiota are critically involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In the experimental mouse model, the development of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) promotes overgrowth of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata . Conversely, fungal colonization aggravates inflammatory parameters...
2018: Gut Pathogens
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