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microbiota intestinal

Yueting Ge, Wei Liu, Haiteng Tao, Yu Zhang, Lina Liu, Zhenhua Liu, Bin Qiu, Tongcheng Xu
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that industrially originated trans-fatty acids (iTFAs) are associated with several chronic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Because gut microbiota play a critical role in human health, diet competent induced gut microbiota dysbiosis may contributing to disease pathogenesis. Therefore, the present study examined the impact of iTFA on gut microbiota, help understanding the underling mechanism of iTFA-associated chronic diseases...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Hirokazu Fukui, Tadayuki Oshima, Yoshiki Tanaka, Yosuke Oikawa, Yutaka Makizaki, Hiroshi Ohno, Toshihiko Tomita, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Although gut microbiota and early life events are likely involved in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it remains unclear how these factors interact in the pathophysiology of IBS. In the present study, using rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) as a model of IBS, we investigated interrelationships among gut microbiota, stress susceptibility and intestinal permeability, and examined the effect of the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) on those interrelationships. When compared with the controls at postnatal day 20, MS rats showed hypercorticosteronemia, enhanced intestinal permeability and changes in gut microbiota structure...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sarah A Pötgens, Hélène Brossel, Martina Sboarina, Emilie Catry, Patrice D Cani, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne, Laure B Bindels
Cancer cachexia is a complex multi-organ syndrome characterized by body weight loss, weakness, muscle atrophy and fat depletion. With a prevalence of 1 million people in Europe and only limited therapeutic options, there is a high medical need for new approaches to treat cachexia. Our latest results highlighted microbial dysbiosis, characterized by a bloom in Enterobacteriaceae and altered gut barrier function in preclinical models of cancer cachexia. They also demonstrated the potential of targeting the gut microbial dysbiosis in this pathology...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexis Bretin, Cécily Lucas, Anaïs Larabi, Guillaume Dalmasso, Elisabeth Billard, Nicolas Barnich, Richard Bonnet, Hang Thi Thu Nguyen
A high prevalence of adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) in the intestinal mucosa of Crohn's disease patients has been shown. AIEC colonize the intestine and induce inflammation in genetically predisposed mouse models including CEABAC10 transgenic (Tg) mice expressing human CEACAM6-receptor for AIEC and eif2ak4-/- mice exhibiting autophagy defect in response to AIEC infection. Here, we aimed at investigating whether gut microbiota modification contributes to AIEC-induced intestinal inflammation in these mouse models...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ahmed S I Hamed, Andrew C Miller
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) colitis is an opportunistic infection that occurs in individuals whose normal gut microbiota has been disrupted. Antibiotics can disturb the normal intestinal microflora, thereby reducing pathogen resistance to the gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus. When a person takes antibiotics, good germs that protect against infection are destroyed for several months.1 During this time, patients can get sick from C. difficile, a gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacillus picked up from contaminated surfaces or spread from a health care provider's hands...
August 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Tamaki Ito, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Norimi Kishi, Akifumi Yamashita, Makoto Kuroda
Recent metagenomic analysis has revealed that our gut microbiota plays an important role in not only the maintenance of our health but also various diseases such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. However, most intestinal bacteria are considered 'unculturable' bacteria, and their functions remain unknown. Although culture-independent genomic approaches have enabled us to gain insight into their potential roles, culture-based approaches are still required to understand their characteristic features and phenotypes...
August 17, 2018: Gut Microbes
Shuqiang Ren, Yan Hui, Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Anne B Brandt, Witold Kot, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild, Duc Ninh Nguyen
Preterm infants have immature organ functions that predispose them to gut and immune disorders. Developmental delays at preterm birth may affect various organs differently at term-corrected age. We hypothesized that gut and immune maturation in moderately preterm neonates depends more on birth and postnatal factors than on advancing post-conceptional age (PCA). Using preterm pigs as models, we investigated how gut and immune parameters develop until term-corrected age, and how these differ from those in term counterparts...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Michela Palla, Monica Agnolucci, Antonella Calzone, Manuela Giovannetti, Raffaella Di Cagno, Marco Gobbetti, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Erica Pontonio
The increasing demand for healthy baked goods boosted studies on sourdough microbiota with beneficial metabolic traits, to be used as potential functional starters. Here, yeast populations of traditional sourdoughs collected from four Tuscan bakeries were investigated. Among 200 isolated strains, 78 were randomly selected and molecularly characterized. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant, representing the only species detected in three out of the four sourdoughs. The fourth one harbored also Kazachstania humilis...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Lindsay Joy Spielman, Deanna Lynn Gibson, Andis Klegeris
The number of bacterial cells living within the human body is approximately equal to, or greater than, the total number of human cells. This dynamic population of microorganisms, termed the human microbiota, resides mainly within the gastrointestinal tract. It is widely accepted that highly diverse and stable microbiota promote overall human health. Colonization of the gut with maladaptive and pathogenic microbiota, a state also known as dysbiosis, is associated with a variety of peripheral diseases ranging from type 2 diabetes mellitus to cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel disease...
August 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Brett R Loman, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Ruopeng An, R Scott Rector
Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent and underdiagnosed comorbidity of many chronic diseases that is associated with altered intestinal bacterial communities. This association has prompted research into alternative treatments aimed at modulating intestinal microbiota. Given the novelty of these treatments, scarce evidence regarding their effectiveness in clinical populations exists. Objective: This meta-analysis sought to systemically review and quantitatively synthesize evidence on prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic therapies for patients with NAFLD in randomized controlled trials...
August 3, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Junli Gong, Wei Qiu, Qin Zeng, Xiyuan Liu, Xiaobo Sun, Huijuan Li, Yu Yang, Aimin Wu, Jian Bao, Yuge Wang, Yaqing Shu, Xueqiang Hu, Joseph A Bellanti, Song Guo Zheng, Yongjun Lu, Zhengqi Lu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota is an important environmental factor in the initiation and progression of autoimmune diseases. However, investigations on the gut microbiome in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are relatively insufficient, especially for that of the Asia population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether or not the intestinal microbiota of NMOSD patients had specific microbial signatures. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing and gas chromatography were employed to compare the fecal microbial composition and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) spectrum between patients with NMOSD ( n = 84) and healthy controls ( n = 54)...
August 16, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Thomas E Ichim, Santosh Kesari, Kim Shafer
There are numerous downstream consequences of marketed drugs like antineoplastic agents on the gut microbiome, an effect that is suggested to contribute to adverse event profiles and may also influence drug responses. In cancer, progress is needed toward modulation of the host microbiome to prevent off-target side effects of drugs such as gastrointestinal mucositis that result from gut dysbiosis. The objective of this study was evaluation of the bioactivity of a supplement consisting of capsules with a blend of 9 probiotic organisms of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium plus 10 digestive enzymes, in protecting the human gastrointestinal tract from chemotherapy and an antibiotic...
July 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Leimin Qian, Renyuan Gao, Leiming Hong, Cheng Pan, Hao Li, Jianming Huang, Huanlong Qin
Environmental exposure, including a high-fat diet (HFD), contributes to the high prevalence of colorectal cancer by changing the composition of the intestinal microbiota. However, data examining the interaction between dietary habits and intestinal microbiota of the Chinese population is sparse. We assessed dietary habits using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in native Chinese community volunteers. Based on the dietary fat content determined using the FFQ, the volunteers were divided into HFD group (≥40% of dietary calories came from fat) or low-fat diet (LFD) group (<40%)...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Beibei He, Yu Bai, Lili Jiang, Wei Wang, Tiantian Li, Ping Liu, Shiyu Tao, Jiangchao Zhao, Dandan Han, Junjun Wang
Oat bran has drawn great attention within human research for its potential role in improving gut health. However, research regarding the impact of oat bran on nutrient utilization and intestinal functions in pigs is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oat bran on nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbiota, and inflammatory responses in the hindgut of growing pigs. Twenty-six growing pigs were fed either a basal diet (CON) or a basal diet supplemented with 10% oat bran (OB) within a 28 day feeding trial...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gabriella Leung, Aleixo M Muise
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, most notably in young children. The development of disease is a combination of several factors, including genetics, environment, the microbiota, and immune system. Recently, next-generation sequencing has allowed for the identification of novel genetic causes for intestinal disease, including pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). These IBD genes can generally be grouped into genes causing either primary immunodeficiency or intestinal epithelial defects (the focus of this review)...
September 1, 2018: Physiology
Yolande Bertin, Audrey Segura, Gregory Jubelin, Lysiane Dunière, Alexandra Durand, Evelyne Forano
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of healthy cattle is the main reservoir of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Therefore, it is crucial to better understand the physiology of EHEC in the bovine GIT. In this study, we demonstrate that aspartate present in bovine small intestine content (BSIC), was exhausted after incubation of the reference EHEC strain EDL933 but was poorly assimilated by the endogenous microbiota. Furthermore, the bovine commensal E. coli strain BG1 appeared less efficient than EDL933 in aspartate assimilation suggesting a competitive ability of EHEC to assimilate this amino acid...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Javad Sahandi, Hojatollah Jafaryan, Mehdi Soltani, Pouneh Ebrahimi
This study aims to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium animalis PTCC-1631 and Bifidobacterium lactis PTCC-1736 on growth, nutrient digestibility, carcass composition, and intestinal microbiota of Oncorhynchus mykiss fry, which had initial body weights of 0.58 ± 0.19 g. Four iso-nitrogenous diets with probiotics, namely T1 (1 × 107  CFU g-1 ), T2 (2 × 107  CFU g-1 ), T3 (3 × 107  CFU g-1 ), and control without probiotics were obtained. Total 480 fish were randomly divided in four treatments (three experimental treatments and a control), each with 4 replicates including 16 tanks each filled with 15 L-1 of water (water exchange rate of 2 L min-1 and aerated with air stone) with a density of 2 fry L-1 ...
August 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Beibei Zhang, Zengpeng Lv, Zhui Li, Weiwei Wang, Guang Li, Yuming Guo
Our previous reports suggested that Dietary l-arginine supplementation attenuated gut injury of broiler chickens infected with Clostridium perfringens by enhancing intestinal immune responses, absorption and barrier function, but its effect on the gut microbiome of broiler chickens remains unclear. This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of Dietary l-arginine supplementation on the gut bacterial community composition and function of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens . In total, 105 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were assigned to three groups: Control (CTL), C...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ping Dong, Jing-Jing Feng, Dong-Yong Yan, Yu-Jing Lyu, Xiu Xu
Increasing evidence suggests that perturbations in the intestinal microbiota in early infancy are implicated in the pathogenesis of food allergy (FA); existing evidence on the structure and composition of the intestinal microbiota in human beings with FA is limited and conflicting. The main object of the study was to compare the faecal microbiota between healthy and cow's milk allergy (CMA) infants at the baseline immediately after the diagnosis, and to evaluate the changes in the faecal microbiota after 6 months of treatment of CMA infants with hypoallergenic formula (HF), compared with healthy children fed on standard milk formulae...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Kuppan Gokulan, Matthew G Arnold, Jake Jensen, Michelle Vanlandingham, Nathan C Twaddle, Daniel R Doerge, Carl E Cerniglia, Sangeeta Khare
Intestinal microbiota composition and gut-associated immune response can contribute to the toxicity of arsenic. We investigated the potential toxicity of short-term arsenic exposure on gut microbiome composition, intestinal immune status, microbial arsenic resistance gene, and arsenic metabolic profiles in adult and developmental stages of CD-1 mice. The potential toxicity of arsenite [As(III)] was determined for two life stages: (i) adult animals at 24 or 48 h after single gavage (0.05 mg/kg body weight [b...
August 14, 2018: MBio
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