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constipation treatment

Qi Wang, Bo Xiang, Siyuan Chen, Yi Ji
Recently, several studies have reported their experience in using oral atenolol in patients with infantile haemangioma (IH), especially as an alternative to propranolol, but the efficacy and safety of oral atenolol has not been evaluated. We searched PubMed (Medline), Central, Embase, Web of Science and EBSCOhost (until May 2018) for the eligible studies reporting more than 10 IH patients who were treated with oral atenolol with detailed original data, including outcomes, regimens and adverse events (AEs). The data was standardised and analysed by using R software with meta-package...
December 4, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Youngsun Cho, Yoomi Lee, Youjin Choi, Sujin Jeong
There is no treatment of choice for irritable bowel syndrome, which affects up to 20% of school-aged children. This cross-sectional study evaluated the difference in the average vitamin D level between subtypes of irritable bowel syndrome, and the relationship between the vitamin D level as well as the severity of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. We included 124 adolescents aged 10⁻17 years (68 boys, 56 girls; mean age 12.29 ± 1.92 years) from 2014 to 2016. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome were diagnosed by Rome III criteria and classified by clinical manifestation: irritable bowel syndrome with constipation ( n = 29), irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea ( n = 63), and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation and diarrhea ( n = 32)...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Michael E Mullins, Charles J Gerardo, Sean P Bush, S Rutherfoord Rose, Spencer Greene, Eugenia B Quackenbush, Brandon Lewis, Victoria E Anderson, Kurt C Kleinschmidt, Richard B Schwarz, Nathan P Charlton, Eric A Toschlog, Kapil Sharma, David A Denning, Eric J Lavonas
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions following copperhead envenomation treated with Fab antivenom (FabAV) or placebo. METHODS: Patients with copperhead snakebites received treatment and follow-up in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of FabAV or placebo. The treatment allocation ratio was 2:1 (FabAV:placebo). All of the included patients received at least one dose of study treatment. We reviewed all treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) using a previously published scale to classify likely hypersensitivity reactions as mild, moderate, or severe...
December 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Jee Soo Park, Yong Seung Lee, Cho Nyeong Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Sang Woon Kim, Sang Won Han
PURPOSE: Antimuscarinics are the first pharmacological treatment option for neurogenic bladder in children with spina bifida but side effects limit their use. Mirabegron, a new β-3 adrenoceptor agonist with a distinct mechanism of action, is a potential agent for the treatment of neurogenic bladder; however, it has yet to be studied in the pediatric population. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of mirabegron for treating neurogenic bladder in children with spina bifida. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical and urodynamic parameters were retrospectively studied in 66 children (under 18 years of age) with spina bifida who were treated for neurogenic bladder with mirabegron at Severance Children's Hospital between July 2015 and December 2017...
December 3, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Simon Portsmouth, David van Veenhuyzen, Roger Echols, Mitsuaki Machida, Juan Camilo Arjona Ferreira, Mari Ariyasu, Peter Tenke, Tsutae Den Nagata
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria represent the highest priority for addressing global antibiotic resistance. Cefiderocol (S-649266), a new siderophore cephalosporin, has broad activity against Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, including carbapenem-resistant strains. We assessed the efficacy and safety of cefiderocol versus imipenem-cilastatin for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection in patients at risk of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections...
December 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Charlie Fairhurst, Adam Shortland, Susie Chandler, Elspeth Will, David Scrutton, Emily Simonoff, Gillian Baird
AIM: We explored factors associated with pain and its severity in a population cohort of young people with bilateral cerebral palsy, comparing parent/carer and young people self-reports. METHOD: Of 278 survivors (mean age 16y 8mo, SD 1y 4mo, range 13y 8mo-19y 3mo) from the South Thames in the Study of Hips and Physical Experience cohort of 338 young people with bilateral cerebral palsy, 212 parents/carers and 153 young people completed questionnaires on the presence, severity, timing, site, associated factors, impact, and treatment of pain...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
José Ulisses Manzzini Calegaro, João Batista Monteiro Tajra, Janaína França De Magalhães Souto, Flávia Ribeiro Marciano, Danielle Cicarini De Landa, Sung Boon Bae, Hélio Buzon Filho
The aim of this study was to assess the colonic transit in children and teenagers with chronic constipation. Twenty patients from 1.5 to 16 years old were included (mean age = 6.9 years). Chronic constipation etiologies were as follows: congenital megacolon in 6; surgical treatment in 5 (imperforate anus 2, hip dysplasia 1, sacral teratoma 1, and paraspinal neuroblastoma 1); idiopathic chronic constipation in 5; sacral myelomeningocele in 3; and intestinal duplication in 1. Static images on the anterior projection of the abdomen were performed 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after the radiotracer oral administration...
October 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Zhonghua Yang, Linlin Gao, Huimin Jia, Yuzuo Bai, Weilin Wang
BACKGROUND: Postoperative incontinence and constipation still remain the major complications of anorectal malformations (ARMs), despite improvements in their treatment. One of the most important factors that affect postoperative anorectal function is malformations in the lumbosacral spinal cord. However, far too little attention has been paid to the underlying mechanism that produces these malformations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh), patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), and zinc finger-containing transcription factors 1 (Gli1) expression were investigated in the lumbosacral spinal cord in ethylenethiourea-exposed rat fetus with ARMs, and Shh, Ptch1, and Gli1 expression was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and western blot analyses during lumbosacral spinal cord development both in the ARMs and normal rat embryos...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Marjolijn E W Timmerman, Monika Trzpis, Paul M A Broens
Introduction: Many children with acute abdominal pain and suspicion of appendicitis are diagnosed with constipation. Nevertheless, it can be difficult to differentiate between acute constipation and acute appendicitis because of similar symptoms and lack of diagnostic criteria. Consequently, constipation is often missed despite repeated consultations at the emergency department. We hypothesise that the diagnostic process can be improved and adequate treatment accelerated by supporting faecal evacuation in children with acute abdominal pain...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Orkide Guzel, Utku Uysal, Nur Arslan
PURPOSE: Ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective non-pharmacological treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, tolerability and complications of olive oil-based KD in epileptic children. METHOD: In this single-center, prospective study, patients were followed up at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after KD initiation. Initially, blood ketone levels were measured daily, and as needed thereafter to maintain the levels between 4 and 5 mmol/L...
November 20, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Chul Sang Lee, Pei Lei Tan, Ju Young Eor, Da Hye Choi, Miri Park, Sung Keum Seo, Seokmin Yoon, Siyoung Yang, Sae Hun Kim
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the in vivo prophylactic effect of probiotic chocolate on constipation. Rats were administered with chocolate containing 2.5 × 1010 CFU g-1 of probiotics daily for four weeks and treated with loperamide (5 mg kg-1 ) daily at the fourth week of treatment. RESULTS: Probiotic chocolate treatments significantly (P < 0.05) increased the intestinal motility, colon length, fecal moisture content, and the number of excreted fecal pellets in the constipated rats...
November 28, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Antony Brayan Campos-Salazar, Fabiana Dalla Vecchia Genvigir, Claudia Rosso Felipe, Helio Tedesco-Silva, José Medina-Pestana, Gabriela Vieira Monteiro, Rodrigo de Gouveia Basso, Alvaro Cerda, Mario Hiroyuki Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo Hirata
Monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs, such as calcineurin and mTOR inhibitors, is essential to avoid undesirable kidney transplant outcomes. Polymorphisms in pharmacokinetics-related genes have been associated with variability in blood levels of immunosuppressive drugs and adverse effects, but influence of pharmacodynamics-related genes remains to be elucidated. The influence of polymorphisms in genes of the mTOR and calcineurin signaling pathways on long-term clinical outcomes was investigated in Brazilian kidney transplant recipients within the 1-year post-transplant...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Christina Marciniak, Michael C Munin, Allison Brashear, Bruce S Rubin, Atul T Patel, Jaroslaw Slawek, Angelika Hanschmann, Reinhard Hiersemenzel, Elie P Elovic
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated incobotulinumtoxinA injections for the treatment of upper-limb post-stroke spasticity in adults. METHODS: Adults 18-80 years of age with post-stroke upper-limb spasticity who completed the 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled main period (MP) of a phase 3 trial (NCT01392300) were eligible to enrol in the 36-week open-label extension period (OLEX). The OLEX included three treatment cycles at fixed 12-week injection intervals; subjects were injected with 400 U incobotulinumtoxinA into the affected upper limb...
November 27, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Anthony Lamanna, Lauren D Dughetti, Julie A Jordan-Ely, Kyla M Dobson, Megan Dynan, Adeline Foo, Louise M P Kooiman, Naomi Murakami, Kaic Fiuza, Siavash Foroughi, Marcelo Leal, Suzanna Vidmar, Anthony G Catto-Smith, John M Hutson, Bridget R Southwell
Background and Aim: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the gold standard for fecal disimpaction in constipation. A regimen of PEG combined with the stimulant laxative sodium picosulphate (SPS) produced fecal disimpaction in chronically constipated children in the community, but it is unknown if it is effective for more severe constipation. To determine the stool output and effect of a combined PEG and SPS regimen on fecaloma in children with severe constipation and impaction. Methods: Children with symptoms for a duration of ≥2 years, a palpable fecaloma, and enlarged rectum on X-ray (rectal: pelvic ratio > 0...
August 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Paul-Jer Chen
Generally regarding as a safe treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) for the past 20 years, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is also an example of precision medicine where surgeons need to titrate individual patient's stimulating electrodes one by one down to the scale of micrometer for the maximum therapeutic effect. In order to prevent operation induced psychiatric complications and minimize any other potential side effects, we have followed 103 patients received this treatment provided by a single surgeon in the same medical institution from 2004 to 2017...
December 2018: BioMedicine
Reda H ElMazoudy, Azza A Attia
BACKGROUND: Due to renowned medicinal properties, Ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) used traditionally in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, muscular aches, constipation, indigestion, hypertension, dementia, fever, and infectious diseases. As an antiemetic, Ginger is consumed by approximately 80% of pregnant women to treat nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of ginger extract on the oestrous cycle and implantation in female mice...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Naohiro Itoh, Toshinaga Tsuji, Mitsuhiro Ishida, Toshimitsu Ochiai, Shinichi Konno, Yuji Uchio
Purpose: To assess whether patients with knee osteoarthritis pain who have early pain reduction or treatment-related adverse events of special interest (TR-AESIs; constipation, decreased appetite, malaise, nausea, somnolence, thirst) with duloxetine treatment are more likely to have later improvements in pain and quality of life (QOL) relative to placebo than patients without these early indicators. Patients and methods: This was a post hoc analysis of 14-week randomized trial of Japanese patients with knee osteoarthritis pain (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]-Severity average pain score ≥4) receiving duloxetine 60 mg/day (n=177 analyzed) or placebo (n=176)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Kabir Mody, Aaron S Mansfield, Lalitha Vemireddy, Peter Nygren, Joachim Gulbo, Mitesh Borad
Introduction VLX600 is a novel iron chelator designed to interfere with intracellular iron metabolism, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetic catastrophe and resultant tumor cell death. Methods We conducted a multicenter, phase 1, dose escalation study to determine the safety and adverse event profile and the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose of VLX600. Other endpoints included pharmacokinetics, and preliminary evidence of anti-cancer efficacy as assessed according to RECIST 1...
November 21, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
Sameh Hany Emile, Steven D Wexner
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing has been recognized as a revolutionary technological innovation that has benefitted numerous disciplines, including medicine. The present systematic review aimed to demonstrate the current applications of 3D printing in colorectal surgery along with the limitations and potential future applications of this innovation. METHODS: A PRISMA-compliant systematic literature search of studies that applied 3D printing in colorectal surgery in the period January 1990 through to July 2018 was conducted...
November 20, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Susanna Every-Palmer, Stephen J Inns, Eve Grant, Pete M Ellis
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal hypomotility in people taking clozapine is common, poorly understood and potentially dangerous. It causes distress and sometimes sudden death, with greater associated morbidity than the better known adverse effect of clozapine, agranulocytosis. Neither the mechanism nor prevalence of clozapine-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility is well understood. Previous studies show clozapine impedes colon transit, likely owing to anticholinergic and anti-serotonergic properties...
November 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
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