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Nicole K Horst, Bianca Jupp, Angela C Roberts, Trevor W Robbins
Behavioral flexibility, which allows organisms to adapt their actions in response to environmental changes, is impaired in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including obsessive-compulsive disorder and addiction. Studies in human subjects and monkeys have reported correlations between individual differences in dopamine D2-type receptor (D2R) levels in the caudate nucleus and performance in a discrimination reversal task, in which established contingent relationships between abstract stimuli and rewards (or punishments) are reversed...
November 15, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mehmet Ayyildiz, Michele Scaraggi, Omer Sirin, Cagatay Basdogan, Bo N J Persson
The understanding and control of human skin contact against technological substrates is the key aspect behind the design of several electromechanical devices. Among these, surface haptic displays that modulate the friction between the human finger and touch surface are emerging as user interfaces. One such modulation can be achieved by applying an alternating voltage to the conducting layer of a capacitive touchscreen to control electroadhesion between its surface and the finger pad. However, the nature of the contact interactions between the fingertip and the touchscreen under electroadhesion and the effects of confined material properties, such as layering and inelastic deformation of the stratum corneum, on the friction force are not completely understood yet...
November 27, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Crystal L Egelkamp, Stephen R Ross
In the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of zoo-based touchscreen studies of animal cognition around the world. Such studies have contributed to the field of comparative cognition despite the fact research has only been performed at a relatively small number of institutions and with a narrow range of species. Nonetheless, zoo-based touchscreen studies are increasingly recognized as both having the potential to be enriching for captive animals by providing them with opportunities for choice, as well as potentially being a tool with which to measure changes in welfare...
November 27, 2018: Zoo Biology
Jonathan M Hailwood, Christopher J Heath, Benjamin U Phillips, Trevor W Robbins, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
Disruptions to motivated behaviour are a highly prevalent and severe symptom in a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Current treatment options for these disorders have little or no effect upon motivational impairments. We assessed the contribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors to motivated behaviour in mice, as a novel pharmacological target for motivational impairments. Touchscreen progressive ratio (PR) performance was facilitated by the nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine as well as the more subtype-selective antagonists biperiden (M1) and tropicamide (M4)...
November 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Avner Caspi, Merav Daniel, Gitit Kavé
The current study aims to examine the effect of technology use on the assessment of subjective age across the adult lifespan, with the assumption that using technology might make older people feel older. One-hundred and fifty-one participants (ages 18-83) assessed their subjective age before and after using familiar and unfamiliar applications on a touchscreen tablet. Subjective age was assessed either by line marking or by numerical response. The oldest participants felt older after the manipulation relative to their pre-manipulation baseline, unlike the youngest participants in the sample...
November 26, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Louise V Coutts, Katherine L Plant, Mark Smith, Luke Bolton, Katie J Parnell, James Arnold, Neville A Stanton
Use of touchscreens in the flight deck has been steadily increasing, however their usability may be severely impacted when turbulent conditions arise. Most previous research focusses on using touchscreens in static conditions, therefore this study assessed touchscreen use whilst undergoing turbulent representative motion, generated using a 6-axis motion simulator. Touchscreens were tested in centre, side and overhead positions, to investigate how turbulence affected: (1) error rate, movement times and accuracy, (2) arm fatigue and discomfort...
November 23, 2018: Ergonomics
Eun-Hyoung Cho, Hyun Joon Kim, Bon Won Koo, Seog Woo Hong, Jung Yeon Won, Hae-Sung Kim, Hong Suk Kim, Seok-Whan Chung, Yong Sung Kim, Byung-Kyu Lee, Chang Seung Lee
The display quality of touchscreen devices with on-screen fingerprint sensors is reduced by moiré patterns, interference phenomena caused by an overlap between the pixel pattern of the display, and the electrode pattern of the fingerprint sensor. A promising strategy for resolving this issue is to reduce the visibility of the moiré pattern, by including a filling layer with a transmittance similar to that of the electrodes, between the different patterns. We propose a moiré-free fingerprint sensor that uses an oxide-metal-oxide (IZO/Ag/IZO) multilayer as a highly transparent electrode...
September 17, 2018: Optics Express
Elisa M Maffioli, Manoj Mohanan
When making decisions under uncertainty, individuals may form subjective expectations about probabilities of events relevant for their choice. Accurate measurement of subjective expectations is critical for high-quality data needed to analyze individual behavior. This paper reports the development and validity of a new method of eliciting point subjective expectations in developing countries. We developed a touchscreen-based application that combines an animated slider along with dynamic images that change relative sizes based on the probability indicated by the respondent...
2018: PloS One
Xiao Zhang, Yong Bao, Qing Xie, Chuanxin M Niu
Humans typically move slower if the movement needs to be more accurate. Such a tradeoff between movement speed and accuracy is quantified in Fitts' Law as a linear relationship between the movement time (MT) and the index of difficulty (ID). For patients with stroke, the detailed pattern of speed-accuracy tradeoff is likely affected due to disrupted neuromuscular control in stroke. In this study, we adapted a previously published iPad software program designed for the test of Fitts' Law in children with dystonia...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Takehito Kikuchi, Tomoya Nagata, Chihiro Sato, Isao Abe, Akio Inoue, Shintaro Kugimiya, Tetsuya Ohno, Shinnosuke Hatabe
Upper-limb rehabilitation training for hemiplegic patients has been primarily conducted by human therapists, and, hence, their use of training methods and conditions strongly depends on their expertise. The force control and motion sensing functions of rehabilitation robots are expected to be used for the qualitative training/assessment in the next-generation computerized rehabilitation. In this study, we developed a desktop rehabilitation robot for upper limbs (D-SEMUL). In addition, we also assessed the usability of its user interface and the affinity (acceptance) of the training program with a questionnaire for elderly hemiplegic/non-hemiplegic participants (nine hemiplegic, five males and four females and seven non-hemiplegic, two males and five females)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Simon R O Nilsson, Christopher J Heath, Samir Takillah, Steve Didienne, Kim Fejgin, Vibeke Nielsen, Jacob Nielsen, Lisa M Saksida, Jean Mariani, Philippe Faure, Michael Didriksen, Trevor W Robbins, Timothy J Bussey, Adam C Mar
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) confers high risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. These disorders are associated with attentional impairment, the remediation of which is important for successful therapeutic intervention. We assessed a 22q11.2DS mouse model (Df(h22q11)/+) on a touchscreen rodent continuous performance test (rCPT) of attention and executive function that is analogous to human CPT procedures. Relative to wild-type littermates, Df(h22q11)/+ male mice showed impaired attentional performance as shown by decreased correct response ratio (hit rate) and a reduced ability to discriminate target stimuli from non-target stimuli (discrimination sensitivity, or d')...
November 14, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Ariel M Zeleznikow-Johnston, Thibault Renoir, Leonid Churilov, Shanshan Li, Emma L Burrows, Anthony J Hannan
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has been implicated in certain forms of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice and mGlu5 antagonists have been previously used to study the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as they have been shown respectively to display or induce endophenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. While schizophrenia presents with generalized cognitive impairments, the cognitive phenotype of mice lacking mGlu5 has so far only been explored using largely hippocampal-dependent spatial and contextual memory tasks...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kristin S Fuglerud, Richard Chan, Hilde T Sørli
This paper reports on a study of older people with visual impairments learning to use a mainstream smartphone with touchscreen. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the EziSmart solution could facilitate the use of a standard off-the-shelf smartphone, and thus stimulate more social contact and digital participation for this group. The EziSmart solution consists of Ezi-Pad and Ezi-Smart Apps. The Ezi-Pad is a flip-casing with a receptacle for the smartphone. When the casing is flipped open it reveals an integrated keyboard with large ergonomic physical keys...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Pattanasin Areeudomwong, Konnika Oapdunsalam, Yupadee Havicha, Sawit Tantai, Vitsarut Buttagat
Background: Prolonged neck flexion during smartphone use is known as a factor of neck pain and alteration of neck muscle activity. Studies on the effects of shoulder taping on neck discomfort and neck muscle responses while texting on a smartphone are still lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of shoulder taping on neck discomfort using a numerical rating scale, and neck muscle activity and fatigue using a surface electromyography during a texting task on a touchscreen smartphone...
September 2018: Safety and Health At Work
Carola Romberg, Susan Bartko, Jürgen Wess, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
RATIONALE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are known to play key roles in mediating cognitive processes, and impaired muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with normal ageing processes and Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific contributions of the individual muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1-M5) to cognition are presently not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of M2-type muscarinic receptor signalling to sustained attention, executive control and learning and memory...
December 2018: Psychopharmacology
Lucy Sykes, Josephine Haddon, Thomas M Lancaster, Arabella Sykes, Karima Azzouni, Niklas Ihssen, Anna L Moon, Tzu-Ching E Lin, David E Linden, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Trevor Humby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which encodes the alpha-1 subunit of Cav1.2 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), has been strongly linked to risk for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. How genetic variation in CACNA1C contributes to risk for these disorders is however not fully known. Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with impairments in reversal learning (RL), which may contribute to symptoms seen in these conditions. We used a translational RL paradigm to investigate whether genetic variation in CACNA1C affects RL in both humans and transgenic rats...
October 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Francys Subiaul, Eric M Patterson, Laura Zimmermann, Rachel Barr
Does imitation involve specialized mechanisms or general-unspecialized-learning processes? To address this question, preschoolers (3- and 4-year-olds) were assigned to one of four "practice" groups. Before and after the practice phases, each group was tested on a novel Spatial Imitation sequence. During the practice phase, children in the Spatial Imitation group practiced jointly attending, vicariously encoding, and copying the novel spatial sequences. In the Item Imitation group, children practiced jointly attending, vicariously encoding, and copying novel item sequences...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Andrew J Roebuck, Wendie N Marks, Max C Liu, Nimra B Tahir, Nadine K Zabder, Terrance P Snutch, John G Howland
RATIONALE: Currently available antipsychotics are unsatisfactory given their side effects and limited efficacy for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Many currently available drugs, such as haloperidol, are T-type calcium channel antagonists in addition to their well-established antagonism of dopamine D2 receptors. Thus, preclinical research into the effects of T-type calcium channel antagonists/blockers in behavioral assays related to schizophrenia may inform novel therapeutic strategies...
November 2018: Psychopharmacology
Michael A Grandner, Nathaniel F Watson, Matthew Kay, Demi Ocaño, Julie A Kientz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Sleep Health
Trang T Ly, Jennifer E Layne, Lauren M Huyett, David Nazzaro, Jason B O'Connor
The Omnipod DASH™ Insulin Management System (Insulet Corp, Billerica, MA) is a discreet, tubeless, wearable insulin pump that holds up to 200 units of U-100 insulin and delivers therapy through customizable basal rates and bolus amounts. This recently FDA-cleared system consists of the insulin pump ("Pod"), which is worn on body and delivers insulin, and the Personal Diabetes Manager (PDM), which is a handheld device used to wirelessly control and monitor the Pod functionality. The PDM can also be paired with the CONTOUR® NEXT ONE blood glucose (BG) meter (Ascensia Diabetes Care, Basel, Switzerland) to wirelessly receive BG readings...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
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