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Carola Romberg, Susan Bartko, Jürgen Wess, Lisa M Saksida, Timothy J Bussey
RATIONALE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are known to play key roles in mediating cognitive processes, and impaired muscarinic cholinergic neurotransmission is associated with normal ageing processes and Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific contributions of the individual muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1-M5) to cognition are presently not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of M2-type muscarinic receptor signalling to sustained attention, executive control and learning and memory...
October 16, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Lucy Sykes, Josephine Haddon, Thomas M Lancaster, Arabella Sykes, Karima Azzouni, Niklas Ihssen, Anna L Moon, Tzu-Ching E Lin, David E Linden, Michael J Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Trevor Humby, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genetic variation in CACNA1C, which encodes the alpha-1 subunit of Cav1.2 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), has been strongly linked to risk for psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. How genetic variation in CACNA1C contributes to risk for these disorders is however not fully known. Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with impairments in reversal learning (RL), which may contribute to symptoms seen in these conditions. We used a translational RL paradigm to investigate whether genetic variation in CACNA1C affects RL in both humans and transgenic rats...
October 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Francys Subiaul, Eric M Patterson, Laura Zimmermann, Rachel Barr
Does imitation involve specialized mechanisms or general-unspecialized-learning processes? To address this question, preschoolers (3- and 4-year-olds) were assigned to one of four "practice" groups. Before and after the practice phases, each group was tested on a novel Spatial Imitation sequence. During the practice phase, children in the Spatial Imitation group practiced jointly attending, vicariously encoding, and copying the novel spatial sequences. In the Item Imitation group, children practiced jointly attending, vicariously encoding, and copying novel item sequences...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Andrew J Roebuck, Wendie N Marks, Max C Liu, Nimra B Tahir, Nadine K Zabder, Terrance P Snutch, John G Howland
RATIONALE: Currently available antipsychotics are unsatisfactory given their side effects and limited efficacy for the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Many currently available drugs, such as haloperidol, are T-type calcium channel antagonists in addition to their well-established antagonism of dopamine D2 receptors. Thus, preclinical research into the effects of T-type calcium channel antagonists/blockers in behavioral assays related to schizophrenia may inform novel therapeutic strategies...
September 24, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Michael A Grandner, Nathaniel F Watson, Matthew Kay, Demi Ocaño, Julie A Kientz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Sleep Health
Trang T Ly, Jennifer E Layne, Lauren M Huyett, David Nazzaro, Jason B O'Connor
The Omnipod DASH™ Insulin Management System (Insulet Corp, Billerica, MA) is a discreet, tubeless, wearable insulin pump that holds up to 200 units of U-100 insulin and delivers therapy through customizable basal rates and bolus amounts. This recently FDA-cleared system consists of the insulin pump ("Pod"), which is worn on body and delivers insulin, and the Personal Diabetes Manager (PDM), which is a handheld device used to wirelessly control and monitor the Pod functionality. The PDM can also be paired with the CONTOUR® NEXT ONE blood glucose (BG) meter (Ascensia Diabetes Care, Basel, Switzerland) to wirelessly receive BG readings...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Brittney R Lins, Jessica L Hurtubise, Andrew J Roebuck, Wendie N Marks, Nadine K Zabder, Gavin A Scott, Quentin Greba, Wojciech Dawicki, Xiaobei Zhang, Christopher D Rudulier, John R Gordon, John G Howland
Influenza during pregnancy is associated with the development of psychopathology in the offspring. We sought to determine whether maternal cytokines produced following administration of viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) to pregnant rats were predictive of behavioral abnormalities in the adult offspring. Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received a single intravenous injection of 4-mg/kg polyI:C or saline on gestational day (GD)15. Blood was collected 3 h later for serum analysis of cytokine levels with ELISA...
July 2018: ENeuro
Cara M Hueston, James D O'Leary, Alan E Hoban, Danka A Kozareva, Lauren C Pawley, Olivia F O'Leary, John F Cryan, Yvonne M Nolan
Understanding the long-term consequences of chronic inflammation in the hippocampus may help to develop therapeutic targets for the treatment of cognitive disorders related to stress, ageing and neurodegeneration. The hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a mediator of neuroinflammation, with elevated levels implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and in stress-related disorders such as depression...
September 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jinook Oh, Vedrana Šlipogor, W Tecumseh Fitch
Experimenters often use images of real objects to simulate interactions between animal subjects or visual stimuli on a touchscreen to test animal cognition. However, the degree to which nonhuman animals recognize 2-D images as representing the corresponding real objects remains debated. The common marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus ) has been described as a species that spontaneously shows natural behaviors to 2-D images, for example, grasping behaviors to insects and fear responses to snakes. In this study, we tested 10 monkeys with their favorite food item (crickets), 2-D images (a photo and videos of a cricket), and a 3-D plastic model to reevaluate marmoset's spontaneous responses to 2-D images and to explore which artificial visual stimuli can motivate spontaneous interactions...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Elie Cattan, Pascal Perrier, François Bérard, Silvain Gerber, Amélie Rochet-Capellan
Direct touch finger interaction on a smartphone or a tablet is now ubiquitous. However, the latency inherent in digital computation produces an average feedback delay of ~ 75 ms between the action of the hand and its visible effect on digital content. This delay has been shown to affect users' performance, but it is unclear whether users adapt to this delay and whether it influences skill learning. Previous work studied adaptation to feedback delays but only for longer delays, with hidden hand or indirect devices...
September 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Raymond Vagell, Vance J Vagell, Rachel L Jacobs, James Gordon, Andrea L Baden
This article introduces the open-source Subject-Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (SMARTA) for visual discrimination tasks, which aims to streamline and ease data collection, eliminate or reduce observer error, increase interobserver agreement, and automate data entry without the need for an internet connection. SMARTA is inexpensive and easy to build, and it can be modified to accommodate a variety of experimental designs. Here we describe the utility and functionality of SMARTA in a captive setting...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
James L Butler, Steve W Kennerley
Training nonhuman primates (NHPs) to perform cognitive tasks is essential for many neuroscientific investigations, yet laboratory training is a time-consuming process with inherent limitations. Habituating NHPs to the laboratory staff and experimental equipment can take months before NHPs are ready to proceed to the primary tasks. Laboratory training also necessarily separates NHPs from their home-room social group and typically involves some form of restraint or limited mobility, and data collection is often limited to a few hours per day so that multiple NHPs can be trained on the same equipment...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Benjamin Keep, Helen E Zulch, Anna Wilkinson
Visual illusions are objects that are made up of elements that are arranged in such a way as to result in erroneous perception of the objects' physical properties. Visual illusions are used to study visual perception in humans and nonhuman animals, since they provide insight into the psychological and cognitive processes underlying the perceptual system. In a set of three experiments, we examined whether dogs were able to learn a relational discrimination and to perceive the Müller-Lyer illusion. In Experiment 1, dogs were trained to discriminate line lengths using a two-alternative forced choice procedure on a touchscreen...
September 5, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Seth P Johnson, Joshua D Yates, Zachary B Frederich, Jonathon T Hill
Zebrafish and other aquatic organisms depend on careful monitoring and adjustment of water quality for health and survival. This ideally includes continuous monitoring of several water parameters, including temperature, pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen. However, manual readings can be laborious, and commercially available monitors are cost-prohibitive for many installations, especially in small laboratories and classrooms. To address these issues, we have created ZeMo, a high-end open-source water monitoring system that includes a touchscreen, web interface, and email alerts-making continuous water quality monitoring attainable for a wide range of aquarium installations...
September 5, 2018: Zebrafish
Saeram Lee, Jong Youl Kim, Eosu Kim, KyoungYul Seo, Youn Jae Kang, Jae Young Kim, Chul-Hoon Kim, Ho Taek Song, Lisa M Saksida, Jong Eun Lee
Obesity-related metabolic disorders can affect not only systemic health but also brain function. Recent studies have elucidated that amyloid beta deposition cannot satisfactorily explain the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that dysregulation of glucose metabolism is a critical factor for the sporadic onset of non-genetic AD. Identifying the pathophysiology of AD due to changes in brain metabolism is crucial; however, it is limited in measuring changes in brain cognitive function due to metabolic changes in animal models...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Jennifer L Tennison, Zachary S Carril, Nicholas A Giudice, Jenna L Gorlewicz
Touchscreen-based, multimodal graphics represent an area of increasing research in digital access for individuals with blindness or visual impairments; yet, little empirical research on the effects of screen size on graphical exploration exists. This work probes if and when more screen area is necessary in supporting a pattern-matching task. PURPOSE: Larger touchscreens are thought to have distinct benefit over smaller touchscreens for the amount of space available to convey graphical information nonvisually...
September 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Lena-Sophie Martis, Claudia Brision, Megan C Holmes, Ove Wiborg
Depression-associated cognitive impairments persist after remission from affective symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), decreasing quality of life and increasing risk of relapse in patients. Conventional antidepressants are ineffective in restoring cognitive functions. Therefore, novel antidepressants with improved efficacy for ameliorating cognitive symptoms are required. For tailoring such antidepressants, translational animal models are in demand. The chronic mild stress (CMS) model is a well-validated preclinical model of depression and known for eliciting the MDD core symptom "anhedonia" in stress-susceptible rats...
August 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Noa Givon Shaham, Shelley Sternberg, Debbie Rand
BACKGROUND: The use of touchscreen tablets has become common in healthcare. This technology has the potential to be used as a motivational tool for cognitive training. Age-related decline in executive functioning (EF) and dexterity may lead to poor performance using tablet applications (apps), but the impact on performance of app-based puzzles has not been studied. OBJECTIVES: (1) To characterize and compare the experience performance of playing tablet apps of older and younger adults, (2) To determine if EF and dexterity contribute to performance of app-based puzzles...
August 2018: Games for Health
R López-Blanco, J Benito-León, S Llamas-Velasco, M D Del Castillo, J I Serrano, E Rocon, J P Romero, M A Velasco
INTRODUCTION: Smartphones use in biomedical research is becoming more prevalent in different clinical settings. We performed a pilot study to obtain information on smartphone use by patients with essential tremor (ET) and healthy controls, with a view to determining whether performance of touchscreen tasks is different between these groups and describing touchscreen interaction factors. METHOD: A total of 31 patients with ET and 40 sex- and age-matched healthy controls completed a descriptive questionnaire about the use of smartphones...
August 10, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Samuel J Levulis, Patricia R DeLucia, So Young Kim
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated three interface input methods for a simulated manned-unmanned teaming (MUM-T) supervisory control system designed for Air Mission Commanders (AMCs) in Black Hawk helicopters. BACKGROUND: A key component of the U.S. Army's vision for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is to integrate UAVs into manned missions, called MUM-T (Department of Defense, 2010). One application of MUM-T is to provide the AMC of a team of Black Hawk helicopters control of multiple UAVs, offering advanced reconnaissance and real-time intelligence of flight routes and landing zones...
July 31, 2018: Human Factors
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