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Iris Eshed, Kay Geert A Hermann
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that utililises powerful magnets and radiofrequency to produce 3-dimentional images. MRI does not involve ionising radiation and has superb tissue resolution, enabling excellent delineation of anatomy as well as pathology in joints. This article briefly reviews the technical principle of magnetic resonance and discusses advantages and disadvantages of the technique, with particular attention to rheumatologic imaging. New information is summarised concerning the use of contrast media, dynamic, contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, cartilage imaging and whole-body MRI...
September 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Arif Jetha, Nels Thorsteinson, Yazen Jmeian, Ajitha Jeganathan, Patricia Giblin, Johan Fransson
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) candidates from high-throughput screening or binding affinity optimization often contain mutations leading to liabilities for further development of the antibody, such as aggregation-prone regions and lack of solubility. In this work, we optimized a candidate integrin α11-binding mAb for developability using molecular modeling, rational design, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). A homology model of the parental mAb Fv region was built, and this revealed hydrophobic patches on the surface of the complementarity-determining region loops...
August 2018: MAbs
Mahalakshmi Thillainayagam, Kullappan Malathi, Anand Anbarasu, Harpreet Singh, Renu Bahadur, Sudha Ramaiah
In the present study, we have explored the anti-malarial potential of epoxyazadiradione, the natural entity extracted from the neem seed oil and its chemical derivatives, against Plasmodium falciparum. The Surflex dock analysis of forty one compounds against an indispensable target, plasmepsin I revealed that around 70% of the compounds are found to have good binding capacity with the Consensus score of 5 to 4 with few hydrogen bonds. To elucidate the major structural requirements, vital for binding with the plasmepsin enzyme and to develop the predictive models, 3-Dimentional Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship - Comparative Molecular Field Analysis was carried out using Sybyl X...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Morgane Sébert, Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Muriel Quaranta, Claire Racaud-Sultan, Sophie Chabot, Philippe Lluel, Nicolas Monjotin, Laurent Alric, Guillaume Portier, Sylvain Kirzin, Delphine Bonnet, Audrey Ferrand, Nathalie Vergnolle
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombin is massively released upon tissue damage associated with bleeding or chronic inflammation. The effects of this thrombin on tissue regrowth and repair has been scarcely addressed and only in cancer cell lines. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to determine thrombin's pharmacological effects on human intestinal epithelium growth, proliferation and apoptosis, using three-dimensional cultures of human colon organoids. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Crypts were isolated from human colonic resections and cultured for 6 days, forming human colon organoids...
September 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Tingting Li, Jin'e Liu, Hao Cai, Baomei Wang, Yunfeng Feng, Jun Liu
Cell-matrix interactions play critical roles in cell adhesion, tissue remodeling and cancer metastasis. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen receptor belonging to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. It is a powerful regulator of collagen deposition in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although the oligomerization of DDR extracellular domain (ECD) proteins can affect matrix remodeling by inhibiting fibrillogenesis, it is still unknown how cellular DDR2 is incorporated into collagen matrix. Using 3-dimentional (3D) imaging for migrating cells, we identified a novel mechanism that explains how DDR2 incorporating into collagen matrix, which we named as posterior remnant tethering...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
David Dano, Monica Stiteler, Russell Giordano
Developments in 3-dimentional (3D) diagnostic technology and advanced digital optical imaging have improved the predictability, safety, and efficiency of restoratively driven implant dentistry. Surgical procedures may now be performed in a single visit utilizing chairside, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and in situations when a two-stage implant protocol is indicated as demonstrated in this case. The CEREC® GALILEOS® integration workflow system was used to prosthetically plan and place an implant in the lower right mandibular first molar site, No...
May 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Saowalak Onming, Wilawan Thongda, Chao Li, Orathai Sawatdichaikul, Nichanun McMillan, Sirawut Klinbunga, Eric Peatman, Supawadee Poompuang
Cathepsin B is a lysosomal proteolytic enzyme that has been suggested to play a role in pathological processes of immune system. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence of cathepsin B transcript in the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (MrCTSB) was obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of cDNAs from hepatopancreas and muscle. It was 1158 bp in length, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 987 bp corresponding to 328 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass and pI of MrCTSB protein was 36...
July 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
V S Fishman, P A Salnikov, N R Battulin
In this exciting era of "next-gen cytogenetics", the use of novel molecular methods such as comparative genome hybridization and whole genome and whole exome sequencing becomes more and more common in clinics. This results in generation of large amounts of high-resolution patient-specific data and challenges the development of new approaches for interpretation of obtained information. Usually, interpretation of chromosomal rearrangements is focused on alterations of linear genome sequence, underestimating the role of spatial chromatin organization...
April 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Dong Hoon Lee, Tae Mi Yoon, Joon Kyoo Lee, Sang Chul Lim
RATIONALE: Eagle syndrome is a rare clinical condition that can be associated with elongation of the styloid process. PATIENT CONCERN: A 55-year-old man was presented with vague throat discomfort for several years. DIAGNOSIS: 3-dimentional (3D) computed tomography (CT) reconstruction, and printing revealed bilateral elongated styloid processes. INTERVENTIONS: The patient has been treated medically, and continues to demonstrate improvement with conservative treatment for 2 years...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xin Gao, Hongyan Yue, Shanshan Song, Shuo Huang, Bing Li, Xuanyu Lin, Erjun Guo, Bao Wang, Enhao Guan, Hongjie Zhang, Pengfei Wu
The development of novel nanomaterials brings new opportunity and challenge for high sensing detection of biomolecules. The authors describe the preparation of 3-dimentional hollow graphene balls (3D HGBs) using nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) as the template. The Ni-NPs were synthesized by chemical reduction of nickel chloride and then graphene was coated onto their surface via carburization and carbonization. After etching Ni-NPs, 3D HGBs with few layers and a typical size of 100 nm were obtained. They were sprayed onto indium tin oxide glass to obtain a working electrode for electrochemical determination of levodopa in the presence of uric acid...
January 10, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Li-Jun Chen, Yu-Qi Zhang, Zhi-Rong Tong, Ai-Min Sun
Analysis of hemodynamics inside tricuspid atresia (TA) chamber is essential to the understanding of TA for optimal treatment. In this study, we introduced a combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate blood flow in the left ventricle (LV) to study the diastolic flow changes in TA.Real-time 3-dimentional echocardiography loops (ECHO) were acquired in normal control group, in TA patients before surgery (pre-op group) and after surgery (post-op group). ECHO loops were reconstructed and simulated by CFD, the geometric, volumetric changes, and vortices in the LV were studies and compare among 3 groups...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hongyi Zhan, Anna Ceguerra, Gui Wang, Julie Cairney, Matthew Dargusch
String-shaped morphologies consisting of preferentially aligned lath-shaped α precipitates were observed in the metastable β Ti-6Cr-5Mo-5V-4Al alloy after deformations at high strain rates and elevated temperatures. The morphology and 3-dimentional arrangement of this feature have been elaborated based on the characterizations via a combination of transmission electron microscopy, transmission kikuchi diffraction and atom probe tomography. The 2D projected morphology of the coalescent α laths observed in the etched samples by SEM depends on the metallographic section...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mojtaba Mahmoudi, Ali Reza Saidi, Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour, Parviz Amini
In post-core crown restorations, the significant mismatch between stiffness of artificial crowns and dental tissues leads to stress concentration at the interfaces. The aim of the present study was to reduce the destructive stresses by using a class of inhomogeneous materials called functionally graded materials (FGMs). For the purpose of the study, a 3-dimentional computer model of a premolar tooth and its surrounding tissues were generated. A post-core crown restoration with various crown materials, homogenous and FGM materials, were simulated and analyzed by finite element method...
February 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Y Hai, A X Pan, Y G Li, L Zang, S Yuan
Objective: To analyse the biomechanical effects on adjacent segments of different growing-rod (GR) fixation in early onset scoliosis through a finite element analysis method. Methods: A severe early-onset scoliosis patient was selected and the pre-operation and post-GR-operation (Upper instrumented levels: T(4), T(5). Lower instrumented levels: L(3), L(4)) whole spine 3-dimentional CT scan data were collected to build the finite models. Based on the different models, biomechanical differences on adjacent segments were analysed...
December 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Zhiqiang Chen, Mengqi Liu, Huiguang He, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: Imaging studies have provided valuable information in understanding the headache neuromechanism for medication-overuse headache (MOH), and the aim of this study is to investigate altered texture features of MR structural images over the whole brain in MOH using a 3-dimentional texture analysis. METHODS: Brain three-dimensional T1-weighted structural images were obtained from 44 MOH patients and 32 normal controls (NC). The imaging processing included two steps: gray matter (gray images) segment and a 3-dimensional texture features mapping...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
K Turunen, L Aaltonen, J Kumpumäki, E Portegijs, S Keikkala, M-L Kinnunen, T Finni, S Sipilä, R Nikander
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) decreases during hospitalization. In particular, the amount of PA engaged in by older people who are hospitalized following musculoskeletal injury is likely to be limited for months after discharge home. Given the importance of an active lifestyle for their recovery and the prevention of future adverse outcomes, there is clearly a need for interventions to increase PA. This article describes the protocol of a randomized controlled trial set up to investigate the effects of a physical activity oriented home rehabilitation program (ProPA) on PA and the restoration of mobility in community-dwelling older people...
November 21, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Marcela Munera, William Bertucci, Sebastien Duc, Xavier Chiementin
Vibration in cycling has been proved to have undesirable effects over health, comfort and performance of the rider. In this study, 15 participants performed eight 6-min sub-maximal pedalling exercises at a constant power output (150W) and pedalling cadence (80 RPM) being exposed to vibration at different frequencies (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 Hz) or without vibration. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), surface EMG activity of seven lower limb muscles (GMax, RF, BF, VM, GAS, SOL and TA) and 3-dimentional accelerations at ankle, knee and hip were measured during the exercises...
July 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Rosaliana Libro, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic lesion that can result in the loss of motor or sensory neurons. Stem cell (SC)-based therapies have been demonstrated to promote neuronal regeneration following SCI, by releasing a range of trophic factors that support endogenous repair or by differentiating into neurons, or glial cells in order to replace the damaged cells. However, numerous limitations remain for therapies based on SC transplantion alone, including a low rate of survival/engraftment. Nevertheless, scaffolds are 3-dimentional substrates that have revealed to support cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in vivo , by mimicking a more favorable endogenous microenvironment...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Daniel Cortez, Anneli Svensson, Jonas Carlson, Sharon Graw, Nandita Sharma, Francesca Brun, Anita Spezzacatene, Luisa Mestroni, Pyotr G Platonov
BACKGROUND: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) carries a risk of sudden death. We aimed to assess whether vectorcardiographic (VCG) parameters directed toward the right heart and a measured angle of the S-wave would help differentiate ARVD/C with otherwise normal electrocardiograms from controls. METHODS: Task Force 2010 definite ARVD/C criteria were met for all patients. Those who did not fulfill Task Force depolarization or repolarization criteria (-ECG) were compared with age and gender-matched control subjects...
October 13, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Yoshinobu Murasato, Takahiro Mori, Takayuki Okamura, Junya Shite
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: EuroIntervention
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