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Passive heating

Vienna E Brunt, Karen Wiedenfeld-Needham, Lindan N Comrada, Christopher T Minson
KEYPOINTS SUMMARY: Accumulating evidence indicates that passive heat therapy (chronic use of hot tubs or saunas) has widespread physiological benefits, including enhanced resistance against novel stressors ('stress resistance'). Using a cell culture model to isolate the key stimuli that likely underlie physiological adaptation with heat therapy, we showed that both mild elevations in temperature (to 39°C) and exposure to serum from human subjects who have undergone 8 weeks of heat therapy (i...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
S Iadanza, A P Bakoz, P K J Singaravelu, D Panettieri, S A Schulz, G C R Devarapu, S Guerber, C Baudot, F Boeuf, S Hegarty, L O'Faolain
In this paper, we show the experimental results of a thermally stable Si3 N4 external cavity (SiN EC) laser with high power output and the lowest SiN EC laser threshold to our knowledge. The device consists of a 250 μm sized reflective semiconductor optical amplifier butt-coupled to a passive chip based on a series of Si3 N4 Bragg gratings acting as narrow reflectors. A threshold of 12 mA has been achieved, with a typical side-mode suppression ratio of 45 dB and measured power output higher than 3 mW. Furthermore, we achieved a mode-hop free-lasing regime in the range of 15-62 mA and wavelength thermal stability up to 80°C...
August 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Tiancheng Han, Yuexia Liu, Lei Liu, Jin Qin, Ying Li, Jiayu Bao, Dongyuan Ni, Cheng-Wei Qiu
Impressive progresses have been achieved in the field of metamaterial to mimic the illusion or camouflage effects in nature. These include invisible cloaks and many other cloak-based illusion meta-devices. However, to date many experiments only present single, static or discretized functionalities. The dynamical control of multiple kinds of illusion signals can only be achieved by embedding complex active sources directly connected to external stimuli, leading to limited on/off switching effect in a contact fashion...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tong-Miin Liou, Chun-Sheng Wang
Simulations of passive scalar transport on a three-dimensional (3D) multiresolution grid are presented within the framework of single relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method. The combined modeling of the fluid flow and scalar transport is handled by a double distribution function approach in which the velocity in the fluid flow equation is solved first and then copied to the scalar equation to solve the corresponding scalar quantities. A 3D scaling technique, considering both external forces and scalar source terms, and two-dimensional bicubic interpolation scheme are developed for coupling nonequilibrium velocity and scalar distributions on the interfaces of different resolution grids...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
C Rühl, M Knödler, P Opdensteinen, J F Buyel
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) dominate the market for biopharmaceutical proteins because they provide active and passive immunotherapies for many different diseases. However, for most mAbs, two expensive manufacturing platforms are required. These are mammalian cell cultures for upstream production and Protein A chromatography for product capture during downstream processing. Here we describe a novel affinity ligand based on the fluorescent protein DsRed as a carrier for the linear epitope ELDKWA, which can capture the HIV-neutralizing antibody 2F5...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yu-Zhen Deng, Shiang-Feng Tang, Hong-Yuan Zeng, Zheng-Yuan Wu, Der-Kuo Tung
In this study, we study a heat transfer model, with the surface of the microbolometer device receiving radiation from blackbody constructed using a COMSOL Multiphysics simulator. We have proposed three kinds of L-type 2-leg and 4-leg with the pixel pitch of 35 μm based on vanadium oxide absorbent membrane sandwiched with top passivated and bottom Si₃N₄ supporting films, respectively. Under the blackbody radiation, the surface temperature changes and distributions of these samples are simulated and analyzed in detail...
August 8, 2018: Sensors
Anna Oue, Chie Asashima, Risa Oizumi, Tomoko Ichinose-Kuwahara, Narihiko Kondo, Yoshimitsu Inoue
PURPOSE: Little is known about why the attenuation of heat loss responses with aging begins in the lower limbs. This study sought to determine whether passive heating causes the age-related decrease and limb-specific difference of blood flow (BF) responses between conduit brachial and femoral arteries, which are related to differences of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) between the upper and lower limbs. METHOD: In 15 older and 12 younger males, BF in the brachial and femoral arteries was ultrasonically measured and CVC in the forearm and thigh was assessed during lower leg immersion in hot water at 42 °C (ambient temperature: 30 °C, relative humidity: 45%) for 40 min...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Chander Shekhar Sharma, Christos Stamatopoulos, Reto Suter, Philipp Rudolf von Rohr, Dimos Poulikakos
Enhancing the thermal efficiency of a broad range of condenser devices requires means of achieving sustainable dropwise condensation on metallic surfaces, where heat transfer can be further enhanced, by harvesting the advantage of the sweeping action of vapor flow over the surface, facilitating a reduction in the droplet departure diameter. Here, we present a rationally driven, hierarchical texturing process of copper surfaces, guided by fundamental principles of wettability and coalescence, which achieves controlled droplet departure under vapor flow conditions and thus significantly enhances phase change thermal transport...
August 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marina Baechtold, Leonardo da Cunha, Erick Souza, Marilisa Gabardo, Kauhanna de Oliveira, Flares Baratto-Filho, Denise Leonardi
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the fracture resistance of tooth crowns endodontically irrigated using different protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 76 bovine incisors were divided into four groups (n = 19): irrigation with distilled water (control; CON); conventional irrigation with positive apical pressure (PAP); passive ultrasonic irrigation using continuous flushing (PUI); and irrigation with PAP and heated sodium hypo-chlorite solution (PHS). The force required to fracture the crown was measured on a universal testing machine at an angle of 45°...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Guo Wang, Jiuhui Wang, Zixuan Zhou, Qiantao Wang, Qiong Wu, Xingyu Jiang, Efstathios Santana
This paper introduces a new combined technique for wind turbine islanding detection using the trajectory of state variables and wavelet transform in microgrid system. The proposed relay is utilized of energy variation state of time-frequency transform coefficients of local signals in two-dimensional space. In order to improve of the proposed relay performance, a signal selection method based on the correlation concept between islanding and non-islanding signals. From of all patterns, the best of them with high correlation in islanding status is selected for the proposed relay learning...
July 19, 2018: ISA Transactions
Nicole T Vargas, Julia Slyer, Christopher L Chapman, Blair D Johnson, Jennifer L Temple, Elizabeth G Mietlicki-Baase, Zachary J Schlader
We tested the hypothesis that the motivation to behaviorally thermoregulate in humans is dependent on the magnitude of changes in mean skin temperature. Ten healthy subjects (22 ± 3 y, 5 females) underwent 60 min of seated rest in a 32±1 °C or 42±1 °C environment (20% relative humidity). Trials were completed in a counterbalanced order. The motivation to behaviorally thermoregulate was measured using an operant behavior task on a fixed ratio schedule, in which subjects received thermal reinforcement after clicking a button 100 times...
October 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Lili Cai, Alex Y Song, Wei Li, Po-Chun Hsu, Dingchang Lin, Peter B Catrysse, Yayuan Liu, Yucan Peng, Jun Chen, Hongxia Wang, Jinwei Xu, Ankun Yang, Shanhui Fan, Yi Cui
Outdoor heat stress poses a serious public health threat and curtails industrial labor supply and productivity, thus adversely impacting the wellness and economy of the entire society. With climate change, there will be more intense and frequent heat waves that further present a grand challenge for sustainability. However, an efficient and economical method that can provide localized outdoor cooling of the human body without intensive energy input is lacking. Here, a novel spectrally selective nanocomposite textile for radiative outdoor cooling using zinc oxide nanoparticle-embedded polyethylene is demonstrated...
July 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ramesh Marasini, Arunkumar Pitchaimani, Tuyen Duong Thanh Nguyen, Jeffrey Comer, Santosh Aryal
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) possess unique photothermal properties due to their strong plasmonic absorption in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. They have been explored widely as an alternative or a complement to chemotherapy in cancer treatment. However, the use of AuNRs as an injectable medicine is greatly hindered by their stability in biological media. Therefore, studies have been focused on improving the stability of AuNRs by introducing biocompatible surface functionalizations such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) coatings...
July 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Chia-Hsin Liu, Chyung Ay, Jo-Chuan Kan, Maw-Tien Lee
Currently, greenhouses are widely used for the cultivation of various crops. However, in tropical and subtropical regions, undesired near-infrared radiation (NIR) causes heat loads inside the greenhouse. Recent works have demonstrated that radiative cooling, releasing energy via radiative heat exchange where the heat is dumped directly into outer space, can be achieved by using silica particles designed to emit in the infrared atmospheric transparency window. The purpose of this study is to improve the plastic greenhouse cladding to regulate the temperature inside the greenhouse, mainly by passive cooling...
July 9, 2018: Materials
Claire J Sully, G Stewart Walker, Neil E I Langlois
The forensic investigation of a deceased person retrieved following a fire includes measuring carboxyhemoglobin. A carboxyhemoglobin saturation above 10% is considered indicative of respiration during a fire, implying the person had been alive. This relies on the assumption that carbon monoxide will not diffuse into blood used for toxicological analysis. This project investigated the potential for carbon monoxide to passively diffuse into a body and if carboxyhemoglobin levels could become elevated post-mortem...
July 4, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Luís Miguel Silva, Henrique Pereira Neiva, Mário Cardoso Marques, Mikel Izquierdo, Daniel Almeida Marinho
BACKGROUND: In team sports, it is imperative that the warm-up improves acute explosive performance. However, the exact strategies, methods, and consequences of different warm-up practices remain unclear. A time delay between the warm-up and match and during half-time could negate the positive metabolic effects of the warm-up. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to synthesize and analyze the potential effects of strategies during a warm-up (before match), post-warm-up (time between the end of warm-up and the start of a match), and re-warm-up (half-time break within a match) on explosive performance in team sports...
July 2, 2018: Sports Medicine
Yuan-Li Ju, Pan-Liang Liu, Zhou-Suo Yu, Hong Gao, Xiao-Xuan Mao, Jian-Min Ma, Tao Huang
The atmospheric dry deposition flux pollution levels were determined and the sources apportioned for 15 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected at 13 sampling sites in the Lanzhou valley using passive sampling techniques. The results are as follows. The annual atmospheric dry deposition fluxes ranged from 7.48 to 53.94 μg·(m2 ·d)-1 , with a mean of 18.65 μg·(m2 ·d)-1 . The highest flux levels for both the heating and non-heating seasons, 60.85 μg·(m2 ·d)-1 and 47.03 μg·(m2 ·d)-1 , respectively, appeared at the traffic site (Donggang Bridge), where the heaviest traffic in the Lanzhou valley occurs...
August 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Li-Na Zhou, Han-Zhen Cai, Rong-Hua Li, Mei-Jing Wang, Jun-Chao Zhao, Quan Wang, Zeng-Qiang Zhang
Sewage sludge was amended with calcium-based bentonite with addition of no more than 10% in dry weight during the 52-day aerobic composting process, the variations of temperature, pH, organic carbon, EC, total nitrogen, nitrate(NH4 + -N) and ammonium(NO3 - -N) were investigated, as well as the compost detoxification(germination test), heavy metals(Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) passivation and estrone(E1) elimination. The results showed that the amendment facilitated the thermophilic phase, promoted the compost heat inactivation and brought the organic carbon mineral up to more than 15...
July 8, 2017: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Efstratios Mitridis, Thomas M Schutzius, Alba Sicher, Claudio U Hail, Hadi Eghlidi, Dimos Poulikakos
Inhibiting ice accumulation on surfaces is an energy-intensive task and is of significant importance in nature and technology where it has found applications in windshields, automobiles, aviation, renewable energy generation, and infrastructure. Existing methods rely on on-site electrical heat generation, chemicals, or mechanical removal, with drawbacks ranging from financial costs to disruptive technical interventions and environmental incompatibility. Here we focus on applications where surface transparency is desirable and propose metasurfaces with embedded plasmonically enhanced light absorption heating, using ultrathin hybrid metal-dielectric coatings, as a passive, viable approach for de-icing and anti-icing, in which the sole heat source is renewable solar energy...
July 24, 2018: ACS Nano
C B Shivley, J E Lombard, N J Urie, D M Haines, R Sargent, C A Kopral, T J Earleywine, J D Olson, F B Garry
Passive transfer of immunity is essential for the short- and long-term health of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with colostrum quality and passive transfer status of US heifer calves. This study included 104 operations in 13 states that participated in the calf component of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2014 study. This 18-mo longitudinal study included 1,972 Holstein heifer calves from birth to weaning. Multivariable mixed linear regression models were selected using backward elimination model selection after univariate screening to determine which factors were associated with colostrum IgG and serum IgG concentrations...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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