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Passive heating

Filip Mejza, Paweł Nastałek, Zbigniew Doniec, Wojciech Skucha
Introduction Chronic bronchitis (CB) symptoms are commonly reported in subjects without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but CB is rarely diagnosed in these subjects. Objectives We aimed to determine CB prevalence, burden and risk factors in population without COPD. Patients and methods Data from "Action Health - lung cancer prevention and health care improvement program" held in the Proszowice county was used. All county inhabitants aged 40 or above were invited to participate. A questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and risk factors, along with spirometry, both baseline and post bronchodilator, were administered as a part of the program...
October 10, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
Amy L Kimball, Patrick M McCue, Michael A Petrie, Richard K Shields
AIM: Exercise modulates glucose tolerance and homeostasis in both healthy and diabetic individuals. Heat stress is a fundamental element of exercise. The acute glycemic response and alterations in glucose clearance following whole body passive heat stress in the absence of muscle activity has yet to be examined in humans. Knowledge of this relationship may prove useful, particularly in populations with compromised glucoregulation from reduced activity. PURPOSE: To determine insulin/glucose levels before and after an acute bout of heat stress in healthy, lean individuals and examine the effects of whole body heat stress (WBHS) and exercise on acute glucose tolerance in an expanded cohort...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Takamasa Hashizaki, Yukihide Nishimura, Kenzo Teramura, Yasunori Umemoto, Manabu Shibasaki, C A Leicht, Ken Kouda, Fumihiro Tajima
OBJECTIVES: Passive rise in core body temperature achieved by head-out hot water immersion (HHWI) results in acute increases in serum interleukin (IL)-6 but no change in plasma adrenaline in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism of heat stress-induced increase in serum IL-6. SETTING: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study subjects were nine with CSCI, ten with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (TLSCI) and eight able-bodied (AB) subjects...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Sane Rohit, Mandole Rahul
BACKGROUND: Heart failure reversal therapy (HFRT) is designed to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. OBJECTIVES: The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of HFRT that uses herbal procedure (panchakarma) and allied therapies, in CHF patients with low ejection fraction. METHODS: This efficacy study was conducted in CHF patients (aged: 25-65 years, ejection fraction (EF) 10-30%) wherein HFRT (60-75 min) consisting of snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy), hrudaydhara (concoction dripping treatment) and basti (enema) was administered twice daily for 7 days...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Guo Jiang, Liang Chen, Shuidong Zhang, Han-Xiong Huang
For faster and greener anti-icing/deicing, new generation anti-icing materials are expected to possess both passive anti-icing properties and active de-icing properties. The photothermal effect of CNTs is used in the field of photothermal cancer therapy, while the application in anti-icing/deicing is seldom investigated. Superhydrophobic SiC/CNTs coatings with photothermal deicing and passive anti-icing properties were first prepared by a simple spray-coating method. The results of 3D profile and microstructure observed via scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the micro-nanostructure combined with peak-like SiC microstructure and villiform CNTs nanostructure makes the coatings surface superhydrophobic, exhibiting a water contact angle of up to 161° and a roll angle as low as 2°...
October 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
J Mandal, Y Fu, A Overvig, M Jia, K Sun, N Shi, H Zhou, X Xiao, N Yu, Y Yang
Passive daytime radiative cooling (PDRC) involves spontaneously cooling a surface by reflecting sunlight and radiating heat to the cold outer space. Current PDRC designs are promising alternatives to electrical cooling, but are either inefficient or have limited applicability. We present a simple, inexpensive and scalable phase-inversion-based method for fabricating hierarchically porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VdF-HFP)HP ) coatings with excellent PDRC capability. High, substrate-independent hemispherical solar reflectances (0...
September 27, 2018: Science
Nobuto Nakanishi, Jun Oto, Taiga Itagaki, Emiko Nakataki, Mutsuo Onodera, Masaji Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Most heat-and-moisture exchangers (HMEs) for patients with tracheostomy and spontaneously breathing are small and have suction ports that allow some expiratory gas to escape, which loses vapor held in the expired gas. Recently, a heated-and-humidified high-flow system for spontaneously breathing patients with tracheostomy was developed. Little is known, however, about the humidifying performance of HMEs or heated-and-humidified high-flow systems for spontaneous breathing patients with a tracheostomy...
September 25, 2018: Respiratory Care
Alexander L Kupershtokh, Dmitry A Medvedev, Igor I Gribanov
An alternative method to simulate heat transport in the multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is proposed. To solve the energy transport equation when phase boundaries are present, the method of a passive scalar is considerably modified. The internal energy is represented by an additional set of distribution functions, which evolve according to an LB-like equation simulating the transport of a passive scalar. Parasitic heat diffusion near boundaries with a large density gradient is suppressed by using special "pseudoforces" which prevent the spreading of energy...
August 2018: Physical Review. E
Songjie Du, Lin Jing, Xiaohua Cheng, Ye Yuan, Jianxu Ding, Tianliang Zhou, Xiaoyuan Zhan, Hongzhi Cui
Organic-inorganic hybrid methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3 ) has attracted extensive attention in a series of optoelectronic devices. The photoelectric properties of the MAPbI3 single crystal have been revealed to be much better than those of it polycrystalline counterparts. However, its poor moisture and heat resistance severely limited further development. The introduction of Cs+ into polycrystalline films has shown to be an effective way to enhance its moisture resistance through a passivation effect...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Tomomasa Matsuyama, Yutaka Fukuda, Tomokazu Takano, Takamitsu Sakai, Chihaya Nakayasu
Ichthyobacterium seriolicida is the causative agent of bacterial hemolytic jaundice (BHJ) in Japanese amberjack, Seriola quinqueradiata. Fish recovering from BHJ acquire protective immunity against reinfection. In this study, fish were passively immunized to determine whether serum antibody is involved in protection against BHJ. The susceptibility of I. seriolicida to the bactericidal activity of Japanese amberjack serum was also investigated. In passive immunization tests, significantly lower mortality was noted in fish that received convalescent serum...
September 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Matthew A Borgman, Morten Zaar, James K Aden, Zachary J Schlader, Daniel Gagnon, Eric Rivas, Jena Kern, Victor A Convertino, Andrew P Cap, Craig G Crandall
Heat stress followed by an accompanying hemorrhagic challenge may influence hemostasis. We tested the hypothesis that hemostatic responses are increased by passive heat stress, and exercise-induced heat stress, each with accompanying central hypovolemia to simulate a hemorrhagic insult. In Aim 1, subjects were exposed to passive heating or normothermic time control, each followed by progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to pre-syncope. In Aim 2 subjects exercised in hyperthermic environmental conditions, with and without accompanying dehydration, each also followed by progressive LBNP to pre-syncope...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ki Joo Pahk, Pierre Gélat, Hyungmin Kim, Nader Saffari
Boiling histotripsy is a non-invasive, cavitation-based ultrasonic technique which uses a number of millisecond pulses to mechanically fractionate tissue. Though a number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of boiling histotripsy for fractionation of solid tumours, treatment monitoring by cavitation measurement is not well studied because of the limited understanding of the dynamics of bubbles induced by boiling histotripsy. The main objectives of this work are to (a) extract qualitative and quantitative features of bubbles excited by shockwaves and (b) distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion in the liver...
September 15, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Huaqin Zuo, Junxian Tao, Hua Shi, Jian He, Zhengyang Zhou, Chao Zhang
W18 O49 -mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) are limited by the easily oxidized property and tumor hypoxia. Here, we report the development of platelet membranes as nanocarriers to co-load W18 O49 nanoparticles (NPs) and metformin (PM-W18 O49 -Met NPs). Platelet membranes can protect W18 O49 from oxidation and immune evasion, and increase the accumulation of W18 O49 in tumor sites via the passive EPR effect and active adhesion between platelets and cancer cells. The introduction of metformin (Met), a typical anti-diabetic drug, can alleviate the tumor hypoxia through reducing oxygen consumption...
September 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Hyo Jeong Um, Gyu Don Kong, Hyo Jae Yoon
Top contacts for molecular-scale electronic devices should exhibit reliable and reproducible electronic performance. This goal is challenging and difficult to achieve because metals are usually evaporated under high-energy conditions that easily damage delicate organic surfaces, and complicated nanofabrication processes are needed for achieving geometrically defined small contact areas. Soft top contacts that are made by users under ambient conditions can circumvent this problem but often show user-dependence...
October 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yigit Ozan Aydin, Vincent Fortin, Réal Vallée, Martin Bernier
We report the demonstration of a 2824 nm passively cooled erbium-doped fluoride fiber laser delivering a record average output power of 41.6 W in continuous-wave operation. The splice-less cavity is based on intra-core fiber Bragg gratings written directly in the active erbium-doped fluoride fiber, which is bidirectionally pumped at 980 nm to reduce heat load. To the best of our knowledge, this result is the highest average output power achieved with a mid-infrared fiber laser. The long-term performance of different protective endcaps is also investigated at high-power operation...
September 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Dahee Jung, Yung-Bin Kim, Jeong-Beom Lee, Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed, Joo-Young Lee
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of humidity on regional sweating secretion and active sweat gland density on the scalp during passive heating in hot environments. METHODS: Eight male subjects shaved their heads prior to expose to dry (30%RH; H30%) and humid (85%RH; H85%) conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C. Total sweat rate, local sweat rates (frontal, vertex, temporal, and occipital regions), active sweat glands on the scalp (2 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, and 1 vertex), and rectal and skin temperatures were measured during leg immersion in 42 °C water for 60 min...
September 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
A P Louie, J D Rowe, W J Love, T W Lehenbauer, S S Aly
Heat stress has the potential to adversely affect the physiology, passive immunity, and growth of preweaning dairy calves, increasing their risk of respiratory disease. The effect of heat stress on the risk for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) may be mediated in part through housing, ventilation, and management factors. As a result, differences may exist in meteorological measures recorded in the calf-rearing area (macroenvironment) and within a calf's enclosure (microenvironment). The objective of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate and compare the association between exposure to temperature and humidity measured at the macro- and microenvironment, and BRD in preweaning dairy calves; a secondary objective was to evaluate the correlation between the macro- and microenvironment...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jianrong Qi, Meixin Hu, Hongxia Li, Ruan Jing, Guangxia Shen
Due to the dual role as an electron acceptor and an electron donor in solution, carbon dots (Cdots) have broad applications in environmental analysis, biological detection, and biosensors. Herein, we report a facile-green strategy for a large-scale synthesis of fluorescent N, P-doped carbon dots (N, P-Cdots) with an absolute quantum yield of 66.08% by a simple one-step thermal decomposition. Glucose was selected as a carbon precursor and tryptophan (Trp) as an N-doping and passivation reagent. Organic polar solvents with a high boiling point, i...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jingbo Yang, Zhipeng Chen, Rui Ye, Jiyu Li, Yinyan Lin, Jie Gao, Lei Ren, Bin Liu, Lelun Jiang
To date, only approximately 20 drugs synthesized with small molecules have been approved by the FDA for use in traditional transdermal patches (TTP) owing to the extremely low permeation rate of the skin barrier for macromolecular drugs. A novel touch-actuated microneedle array patch (TMAP) was developed for transdermal delivery of liquid macromolecular drugs. TMAP is a combination of a typical TTP and a solid microneedle array (MA). High doses of liquid drug formulations, especially heat-sensitive compounds can be easily filled and stored in the drug reservoir of TMAPs...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Jae Hyeon Park, Joshua A Jackman, Abdul Rahim Ferhan, Gamaliel Junren Ma, Bo Kyeong Yoon, Nam-Joon Cho
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is the most widely used protein for surface passivation applications, although it has relatively weak, nonsticky interactions with hydrophilic surfaces such as silica-based materials. Herein, we report a simple and versatile method to increase the stickiness of BSA protein molecules adsorbing onto silica surfaces, resulting in up to a 10-fold improvement in blocking efficiency against serum biofouling. Circular dichroism spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and nanoparticle tracking analysis showed that temperature-induced denaturation of BSA proteins in bulk solution resulted in irreversible unfolding and protein oligomerization, thereby converting weakly adhesive protein monomers into a more adhesive oligomeric form...
September 26, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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