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Passive heating

Craig G Crandall, Caroline A Rickards, Blair D Johnson
Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death in the military and civilian settings and approximately 85% of potentially survivable battlefield deaths are hemorrhage related. Both Soldiers and civilians are exposed to a number of environmental and physiological conditions that have the potential to alter tolerance to a hemorrhagic insult. The objective of this review article is to summarize the known impact of commonly encountered environmental and physiological conditions on hemorrhagic tolerance, primarily in humans...
December 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Seonghyun Park, Janghoo Seo
Improved quality of life has led to a growing demand for better indoor air quality (IAQ). Buildings are becoming more airtight and insulated in order to minimize energy consumption. The importance of both energy conservation and IAQ improvement has been recognized and addressed by many studies. Bake-out is the process of using indoor heating to remove volatile compounds present in building materials and furnishings so that they can be vented out into the atmosphere. Indiscriminate use of heating to increase the surface temperature of materials during this process can result in significant loss of energy...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Katherine V Heifferon, Timothy E Long
In an effort to slow the progress of climate change, the current scientific community has focused on the reduction of greenhouse gases in order to limit the global average temperature inflation to less than 2 °C. The improvement of thermally controlled construction materials can potentially result in lower energy homes/reduced emissions, and lowering the thermal conductivity of insulation materials improves home energy efficiency. Nanoporous insulation foams impart a drastic decrease in thermal conductivity but many polymer properties must be assessed to produce these materials...
November 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Christopher P Woods, Zenon J Czenze, R Mark Brigham
Compared to mammals, there are relatively few studies examining heterothermy in birds. In 13 bird families known to contain heterothermic species, the common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii) is the only species that ostensibly hibernates. We used temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters to collect roost and skin temperature (Tskin ) data, and winter roost preferences for free-ranging poorwills in southern Arizona. Further, to determine the effect of passive rewarming on torpor bout duration and active rewarming (i...
November 20, 2018: Oecologia
Kyoko Fujimoto, Leonardo M Angelone, Elena Lucano, Sunder S Rajan, Maria Ida Iacono
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the need for high-resolution detailed anatomical modeling to correctly estimate radio-frequency (RF) safety during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RF-induced heating near metallic implanted devices depends on the electric field tangential to the device ( Etan ). Etan and specific absorption rate (SAR) were analyzed in blood vessels of an anatomical model to understand if a standard gel phantom accurately represents the potential heating in tissues due to passive vascular implants such as stents...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthew D White
The human autonomic nervous system participates in the control of thermoregulatory responses that are employed to regulate core temperature following deviations of skin temperature and/or core temperature from their respective resting values. This permits a regulation of the core temperature (TC ) at 37.0 ± 1°C with superimposed circadian variations in both sexes and menstrual cycle-associated variations in premenopausal women. When rendered hyperthermic, passively by heat exposure while at rest or actively during exercise, humans engage heat loss or thermolytic responses, including eccrine sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Oliver R Barley, Dale W Chapman, Anthony J Blazevich, Chris R Abbiss
Introduction/Purpose: This study examined the influence of acute dehydration on neuromuscular function. Methods: On separate days, combat sports athletes experienced in acute dehydration practices ( n = 14) completed a 3 h passive heating intervention (40°C, 63% relative humidity) to induce dehydration (DHY) or a thermoneutral euhydration control (25°C, 50% relative humidity: CON). In the ensuing 3 h ad libitum fluid and food intake was allowed, after which participants performed fatiguing exercise consisting of repeated unilateral knee extensions at 85% of their maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque until task failure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Zheng Mei, Qi An, Feng-Qi Zhao, Si-Yu Xu, Xue-Hai Ju
Aluminized explosives have important applications in civil construction and military armaments, but their thermal decomposition mechanisms are not well characterized. Here, the thermal decomposition of TNT, RDX, HMX and CL-20 on Al nanoparticles is examined by reactive dynamics simulations using a newly parameterized reactive force field with low gradient correction (ReaxFF-lg). Partially passivated Al nanoparticles were constructed and mixed with TNT, RDX, HMX and CL-20 crystals and then the mixed systems are heated to a high temperature in which the explosives are fully decomposed...
November 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shichao Jia, Yang Fu, Yishu Su, Yungui Ma
Radiative thermal rectifiers capable of realizing asymmetric heat flux transfer have attracted a lot of research interests recently, mainly focusing on the engineering of the emissivity spectra. In this Letter, we propose a far-field radiative thermal rectifier utilizing the phase change material vanadium dioxide (VO2 ). The thermal rectifier consists of a metamaterial infrared absorber and a two-layer thin-film structure acting as the active and the passive components, respectively. Numerical optimization has been carried out to control the emissivity spectra of both parts and maximize the overall rectification effect...
November 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Runling Guo, Ying Wang, Yaoyong Wang, Yongqiang Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of oxygen therapy with Venturi combined with MR850 heating humidifier on patients without mechanical ventilation after tracheotomy. METHODS: Eighty patients (≥ 18 years old) who had undergone tracheotomy and without mechanical ventilation admitted to Fenyang Hospital of Shanxi Province from June 2016 to December 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into control group and observation group according to random number table method, with 40 patients in each group...
October 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Benjamin T Diroll, Peijun Guo, Richard D Schaller
The transfer of thermal energy from the ligand passivating layer to the inorganic core of colloidal nanocrystals is observed using infrared-pump, electronic-probe (IPEP) spectroscopy. Inorganic nanocrystals are excellent model systems for organic-inorganic hybrid interfaces as they have much larger surface-to-volume ratios than bulk solids, which facilitate spectroscopic measurements of weak signals. Such interfaces between disparate materials are challenging to probe by traditional methods. Here, resonant excitation of the hydrocarbon ligand vibrational absorptions results in a transient red-shift of the CdSe nanocrystal excitonic features consistent with heating, as demonstrated by steady-state absorption measurements, which provide a calibration of the pump-induced temperature rise...
November 15, 2018: Nano Letters
Orlando Laitano, Laila H Sheikh, Alex J Mattingly, Kevin O Murray, Leonardo F Ferreira, Thomas L Clanton
Hyperthermia and dehydration can occur during exercise in hot environments. Nevertheless, whether elevations in extracellular osmolality contributes to the increased skeletal muscle tension, sarcolemmal injury, and oxidative stress reported in warm climates remains unknown. We simulated osmotic and heat stress, in vitro , in mouse limb muscles with different fiber compositions. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) were dissected from 36 male C57BL6J and mounted at optimal length in tissue baths containing oxygenated buffer...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
B Dautzenberg, M-D Dautzenberg
INTRODUCTION: The tobacco industry (TI) reports that heated tobacco reduces risk of tobacco use and will replace cigarettes. An analysis of the scientific literature was conducted in order to enlighten professionals and decision-makers. METHOD: After a Medline query in February 2018, a systematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 100 papers published in 2008-2018, 75 have authors affiliated or linked to TI. Emissions contain gases, droplets and solid particles, so are smokes...
November 11, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Nihal S Elbialy, Mohamed M Fathy, Reem Al-Wafi, Reem Darwesh, Umama A Abdel-Dayem, Musab Aldhahri, Abdulwahab Noorwali, Attieh A Al-Ghamdi
Abundant efforts have recently been made to design potent theranostic nanoparticles, which combine diagnostic and therapeutic agents, for the effective treatment of cancer. In this study, we developed multifunctional magnetic gold nanoparticles (MGNPs) that are able to (i) selectively deliver the drug to the tumor site in a controlled-release manner, either passively or by using magnetic targeting; (ii) induce photothermal therapy by producing heat by near-infrared (NIR) laser absorption; and (iii) serve as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (imaging-guided therapy)...
November 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zongqing Ren, Ziqi Yu, Jae Choon Kim, Jaeho Lee
The trends toward higher power, higher frequency, and smaller scale electronics are making heat dissipation ever more challenging. Passive thermal management based on high thermal conductivity materials or through-silicon vias (TSVs) may not provide sufficient cooling for hot spots reaching 1 kW cm-2 , and active thermal management by thermoelectric cooling (TEC) may require large power consumption or suffer from a large off-state thermal resistance of thermoelectric materials. Here we address these issues by integrating a holey silicon-based TEC with a TSV that directly draws heat from a hot spot to combine active and passive cooling approaches...
January 18, 2019: Nanotechnology
Barbara Piekarska, Bożena L Stankiewicz-Choroszucha, Adam J Sybilski, Konrad Furmańczyk, Stanisław Jaworski, Artur Z Białoszewski, Anna Kłak, Agnieszka Lipiec, Artur Walkiewicz, Aneta Tomaszewska, Filip Raciborski, Bolesław K Samoliński
Background: Indoor air pollution may have an impact on asthma. Objective: To evaluate the influence of indoor air pollution on the natural history of asthma. Methods: Data collection by using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood standardized questionnaire (N = 18,617) and medical examinations (N = 4783) in selected Polish regions was used. Statistical analysis was performed by using the χ² test. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant...
November 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Ismail Altinbasak, Roxana Jijie, Alexandre Barras, Bianka Golba, Rana Sanyal, Julie Bouckaert, Djamel Drider, Rostyslav O Bilyy, Tetiana Dumych, Solomiya Paryzhak, Volodymyr Ivanovych Vovk, Rabah Boukherroub, Amitav Sanyal, Sabine Szunerits
The steady increase of antimicrobial resistance in different pathogens requires the development of alternative treatment strategies next to the oral delivery of antibiotics. A photo-thermally activated platform based on reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)-embedded polymeric nanofiber mats for on-demand release of antibiotics upon irradiation in the near-infrared is fabricated. Crosslinked hydrophilic nanofibers, obtained by electrospinning a mixture of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and rGO, show excellent stability in aqueous media...
October 30, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei Jiao, Jiaxing Zhu, Yun Ling, Mingli Deng, Yaming Zhou, Pingyun Feng
Heteroatom doping and surface modification with oxides are both important strategies to improve the photoelectrochemical (PEC) activities of TiO2 photoelectrodes. However, it is difficult to combine the two strategies into a single synthesis process. Herein, a simple one-pot synthesis method was developed to modify a TiO2 photoelectrode surface by N-doping while simultaneously modifying the surface with In2O3 and NiO. This method involved growing MOF onto a TiO2 surface with N-containing organic ligands and In and Ni salts as metal precursors, followed by heat treatment at 600 °C...
November 8, 2018: Nanoscale
C Pasquarella, M Barchitta, D D'Alessandro, M L Cristina, I Mura, M Nobile, F Auxilia, A Agodi
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have questioned the role of unidirectional airflow ventilation system in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) in prosthetic implant surgery. The aim of the ISChIA study ("Infezioni del Sito Chirurgico in Interventi di Artroprotesi" which means "Surgical site infections in arthroplasty surgery") was to evaluate, as a contribution to this debate, the association between heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, microbial air contamination and surgical site infection in hip and knee arthroplasty...
September 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Linxing Meng, Dewei Rao, Wei Tian, Fengren Cao, Xiaohong Yan, Liang Li
Elemental doping and introduction of vacancies are two effective strategies to manipulate the energy band structure and surface reaction dynamics for improved performance of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Herein, we report the facile hydrothermal synthesis of Zn10In16S34 atomically thin nanosheet arrays on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass (FTO) substrates. Through controlling the heat-treatment condition in the air, we can simultaneously introduce O-doping and Zn, S vacancies in Zn10In16S34 nanosheets with adjusted phase, morphology, chemical compositions, and energy level distribution...
October 29, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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