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Retina And Quantitative

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537745/a-novel-variant-of-the-fzd4-gene-in-a-chinese-family-causes-autosomal-dominant-familial-exudative-vitreoretinopathy
#1
Lisha Yang, Jiewen Fu, Jingliang Cheng, Chunli Wei, Qi Zhou, Iqra Ijaz, Hongbin Lv, Junjiang Fu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a complex hereditary eye disorder characterized by incomplete development of the retinal vasculature, thereby affecting retinal angiogenesis. METHODS: In this study, a Chinese autosomal dominant FEVR pedigree was recruited. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, targeted next-generation sequencing was used to identify the causative gene, and Sanger sequencing was conducted to verify the candidate mutation...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537069/induction-of-crmp-2-phosphorylation-by-cdk5-restricts-the-repair-of-damaged-optic-nerve
#2
Xiaofan Chen, Rongdi Yuan, Ling Gao, Chanjuan Huang, Wei Fan, Jian Ye, Chunlin Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) phosphorylation changes and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) expression after optic nerve injury. METHODS: Optic nerve injury rat models were constructed, the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CRMP-2 in optic nerve tissues was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after building models 0, 3, 7, and 14 days. The protein expression of CRMP-2, phospho-CRMP-2 (p-CRMP-2), and CDK5 were also determined by western blot analysis...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511784/aberrant-visual-pathway-development-in-albinism-from-retina-to-cortex
#3
Sarim Ather, Frank Anthony Proudlock, Thomas Welton, Paul S Morgan, Viral Sheth, Irene Gottlob, Rob A Dineen
Albinism refers to a group of genetic abnormalities in melanogenesis that are associated neuronal misrouting through the optic chiasm. We perform quantitative assessment of visual pathway structure and function in 23 persons with albinism (PWA) and 20 matched controls using optical coherence tomography (OCT), volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and visual evoked potentials (VEP). PWA had a higher streamline decussation index (percentage of total tractography streamlines decussating at the chiasm) compared with controls (Z = -2...
December 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487737/heterocellular-coupling-between-amacrine-cells-and-ganglion-cells
#4
Robert E Marc, Crystal Lynn Sigulinsky, Rebecca L Pfeiffer, Daniel Emrich, James Russell Anderson, Bryan William Jones
All superclasses of retinal neurons, including bipolar cells (BCs), amacrine cells (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs), display gap junctional coupling. However, coupling varies extensively by class . Heterocellular AC coupling is common in many mammalian GC classes. Yet, the topology and functions of coupling networks remains largely undefined. GCs are the least frequent superclass in the inner plexiform layer and the gap junctions mediating GC-to-AC coupling (GC::AC) are sparsely arrayed amidst large cohorts of homocellular AC::AC, BC::BC, GC::GC and heterocellular AC::BC gap junctions...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30479712/comparison-of-retinal-and-choroidal-involvement-in-sarcoidosis-related-chorioretinitis-using-fluorescein-and-indocyanine-green-angiography
#5
Ala'a El Ameen, Carl P Herbort
Purpose: To compare the involvement of the retina with that of the choroid in ocular sarcoidosis (OS) using dual fluorescein angiography (FA)/indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods: A retrospective study of 23 patients with the diagnosis of OS was performed. Angiographic signs were quantified following the established FA/ICGA scoring system for uveitis. Results: The choroid was predominantly involved in 19 (82.6%) patients or 87% (40/46) of the eyes, and the retina in 2 (8...
October 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457656/comparison-of-zeiss-cirrus-and-optovue-rtvue-oct-angiography-systems-a-quantitative-and-qualitative-approach-examining-the-three-capillary-networks-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
Christopher S Chung, Peter L Nesper, Justin J Park, Amani A Fawzi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Construct a method for visualizing the middle capillary plexus (MCP) using Zeiss optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and compare to established segmentation methods using the Optovue system. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty eyes with diabetic retinopathy were imaged. Visualization of the MCP, image artifacts, preservation of pathological changes, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and vessel length density (VLD) were compared between devices...
November 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457653/quantitative-comparison-between-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-and-fundus-fluorescein-angiography-images-effect-of-vessel-enhancement
#7
Thirumalesh Mochi, Neha Anegondi, Molleti Girish, Chaitra Jayadev, Abhijit Sinha Roy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To compare the vascular parameters derived from optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) images. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients were imaged with OCTA and FFA. FFA images were cropped to the same dimension as OCTA images after registration. Vessel enhancement using a Frangi filter and local fractal analysis was applied to the superficial layer of the OCTA and cropped FFA images...
November 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30455627/whole-brain-monosynaptic-afferent-projections-to-the-cholecystokinin-neurons-of-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#8
Xiang-Shan Yuan, Hao-Hua Wei, Wei Xu, Lu Wang, Wei-Min Qu, Rui-Xi Li, Zhi-Li Huang
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal pacemaker driving the circadian rhythms of physiological behaviors. The SCN consists of distinct neurons expressing neuropeptides, including arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), cholecystokinin (CCK), and so on. AVP, VIP, and GRP neurons receive light stimulation from the retina to synchronize endogenous circadian clocks with the solar day, whereas CCK neurons are not directly innervated by retinal ganglion cells and may be involved in the non-photic regulation of the circadian clock...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424795/reduced-ampk-activation-and-increased-hcar-activation-drive-anti-inflammatory-response-and-neuroprotection-in-glaucoma
#9
Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid, Denise M Inman
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a chronic degenerative disease for which inflammation is considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression. In this study, we examined the impact of a ketogenic diet on the inflammation evident in glaucoma as a follow-up to a recent set of experiments in which we determined that a ketogenic diet protected retinal ganglion cell structure and function. METHODS: Both sexes of DBA/2J (D2) mice were placed on a ketogenic diet (keto) or standard rodent chow (untreated) for 8 weeks beginning at 9 months of age...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401922/aii-amacrine-cells-in-the-primate-fovea-contribute-to-photopic-vision
#10
Enrica Strettoi, Rania A Masri, Ulrike Grünert
The AII amacrine cell is known as a key interneuron in the scotopic (night-vision) pathway in the retina. Under scotopic conditions, rod signals are transmitted via rod bipolar cells to AII amacrine cells, which split the rod signal into the OFF (via glycinergic synapses) and the ON pathway (via gap junctions). But the AII amacrine cell also has a "day job": at high light levels when cones are active, AII connections with ON cone bipolar cells provide crossover inhibition to extend the response range of OFF cone bipolar cells...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30400306/carotenoid-content-in-human-colostrum-is-associated-to-preterm-full-term-birth-condition
#11
Ana A O Xavier, Elena Díaz-Salido, Isabel Arenilla-Vélez, Josefa Aguayo-Maldonado, Juan Garrido-Fernández, Javier Fontecha, Alicia Sánchez-García, Antonio Pérez-Gálvez
Factors such as lactation stage and premature and small-for-gestational conditions could lead to great inter-individual variability in the carotenoid content of human milk. The aim was to analyze the carotenoid content in colostrum and mature milk of preterm (PT) and full-term (FT) mothers to establish whether they are significantly different and, if so, the stage of lactation when the differences are established. Samples of blood, colostrum, and mature milk were collected from Spanish donating mothers who gave birth to PT or FT infants...
November 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30399364/transgenic-lysyl-oxidase-homolog-1-overexpression-in-the-mouse-eye-results-in-the-formation-and-release-of-protein-aggregates
#12
Patrick Zadravec, Barbara M Braunger, Benjamin Melzer, Markus Kroeber, Michael R Bösl, Herbert Jägle, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ernst R Tamm
Sequence variants in LOXL1 coding for the secreted enzyme lysyl oxidase homolog 1 (LOXL1) associate with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome, a condition that is characterized by the deposition of extracellular fibrillar PEX material in the anterior eye and other parts of the body. Since the specific role of LOXL1 in the pathogenesis of PEX is unclear, and an increase in its expression was reported for early stages of PEX syndrome, we generated and studied transgenic mice with ocular overexpression of its mouse ortholog Loxl1...
November 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30397118/expression-of-abca4-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-its-implications-for-stargardt-macular-degeneration
#13
Tamara L Lenis, Jane Hu, Sze Yin Ng, Zhichun Jiang, Shanta Sarfare, Marcia B Lloyd, Nicholas J Esposito, William Samuel, Cynthia Jaworski, Dean Bok, Silvia C Finnemann, Monte J Radeke, T Michael Redmond, Gabriel H Travis, Roxana A Radu
Recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1) is an inherited blinding disorder caused by mutations in the Abca4 gene. ABCA4 is a flippase in photoreceptor outer segments (OS) that translocates retinaldehyde conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine across OS disc membranes. Loss of ABCA4 in Abca4 -/- mice and STGD1 patients causes buildup of lipofuscin in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and degeneration of photoreceptors, leading to blindness. No effective treatment currently exists for STGD1. Here we show by several approaches that ABCA4 is additionally expressed in RPE cells...
November 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383198/three-dimensional-transport-model-for-intravitreal-and-suprachoroidal-drug-injection
#14
Yu Zhang, Hojjat Bazzazi, Raquel Lima E Silva, Niranjan B Pandey, Jordan J Green, Peter A Campochiaro, Aleksander S Popel
Purpose: Quantitative understanding of the transport of therapeutic macromolecules following intraocular injections is critical for the design of efficient strategies in treating eye diseases, such as neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and macular edema (ME). Antiangiogenic treatments, such as neutralizing antibodies against VEGF or recently characterized antiangiogenic peptides, have shown promise in slowing disease progression. Methods: We developed a comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) transport model for intraocular injections using published data on drug distribution in rabbit eyes following intravitreal and suprachoroidal (SC) injection of sodium fluorescein (SF), bevacizumab, and ranibizumab...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383197/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-alters-rat-ophthalmic-artery-reactivity-through-oxidative-stress-endothelin-and-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarizing-pathways
#15
Marielle Mentek, Jessica Morand, Marie Baldazza, Gilles Faury, Florent Aptel, Jean Louis Pepin, Diane Godin-Ribuot, Christophe Chiquet
Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea recently has been associated with a higher frequency of ischemic optic neuropathies. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been proposed as a major component of obstructive sleep apnea cardiovascular consequences. However, there currently are no pathophysiologic data regarding the effect of IH on the ocular vascular system. Thus, we assessed the impact of chronic IH exposure on the morphology and vascular reactivity of the rat ophthalmic artery (OA). Methods: Rats were exposed to 14 days of IH or normoxia (NX)...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30381411/antisense-oligonucleotides-targeting-mutant-ataxin-7-restore-visual-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-7
#16
Chenchen Niu, Thazah P Prakash, Aneeza Kim, John L Quach, Laryssa A Huryn, Yuechen Yang, Edith Lopez, Ali Jazayeri, Gene Hung, Bryce L Sopher, Brian P Brooks, Eric E Swayze, C Frank Bennett, Albert R La Spada
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar and retinal degeneration, and is caused by a CAG-polyglutamine repeat expansion in the ATAXIN-7 gene. Patients with SCA7 develop progressive cone-rod dystrophy, typically resulting in blindness. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are single-stranded chemically modified nucleic acids designed to mediate the destruction, prevent the translation, or modify the processing of targeted RNAs. Here, we evaluated ASOs as treatments for SCA7 retinal degeneration in representative mouse models of the disease after injection into the vitreous humor of the eye...
October 31, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374862/investigating-the-nanodomain-organization-of-rhodopsin-in-native-membranes-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#17
Subhadip Senapati, Paul S-H Park
Membrane proteins play an integral role in cellular communication. They are often organized within the crowded cell membrane into nanoscale domains (i.e., nanodomains), which facilitates their function in cell signaling processes. The visualization of membrane proteins and nanodomains within biological membranes under physiological conditions presents a challenge and is not possible using conventional microscopy methods. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides an opportunity to study the organization of membrane proteins within biological membranes with sub-nanometer resolution...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370660/transmembrane-protein-215-promotes-angiogenesis-by-maintaining-endothelial-cell-survival
#18
Yuan Liu, Qijun Zheng, Guangbin He, Mei Zhang, Xianchun Yan, Ziyan Yang, Peiran Zhang, Lili Wang, Jiankang Liu, Liang Liang, Hua Han
Sprouting angiogenesis is a major form of neovascularization of tissues suffering from hypoxia and other related stress. Endothelial cells (ECs) undergo proliferation, differentiation, programmed death, and migration during angiogenic sprouting, but the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating ECs in angiogenesis have been incompletely elucidated. Here we report that the transmembrane protein 215 (TMEM215) is involved in angiogenesis by regulating EC survival. The murine TMEM215 gene, which possesses two transcriptional starting sites as determined by 5'-rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends (RACE), encodes a two-pass TMEM...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30357398/decreased-d-serine-levels-prevent-retinal-ganglion-cell-apoptosis-in-a-glaucomatous-animal-model
#19
Xuejin Zhang, Rong Zhang, Xujiao Zhou, Jihong Wu
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine d-Serine and d-Serine synthetase serine racemase (SR) expression and whether decreased d-Serine expression has protective effects on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in a glaucomatous animal model. Methods: The rat chronic intraocular hypertension (COH) model was generated as a glaucomatous animal model by cauterizing three episcleral veins. Quantitative analysis of RGC survival was determined by the counting of retrograde FluoroGold-labeled RGCs...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339266/quantitative-fundus-autofluorescence-in-non-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#20
Jorge Orellana-Rios, Sho Yokoyama, Julia M Agee, Nayanika Challa, K Bailey Freund, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, R Theodore Smith
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To use quantitative fundus autofluorescence (qAF) to analyze different stages of non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, 38 pseudophakic patients and 36 age-matched controls participated. We performed near-infrared, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and qAF imaging on 31 pseudophakic eyes and controls of participants older than 60 years with non-neovascular AMD phenotypes using the Spectralis HRA + OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany)...
October 15, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
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