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Retina And Quantitative

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316018/the-clinical-relevance-of-visualising-the-peripheral-retina
#1
REVIEW
Nicola Quinn, Lajos Csincsik, Erin Flynn, Christine Curcio, Szilard Kiss, SriniVas R Sadda, Ruth Hogg, Tunde Peto, Imre Lengyel
Recent developments in imaging technologies now allow the documentation, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of peripheral retinal lesions. As wide field retinal imaging, capturing both the central and peripheral retina up to 200° eccentricity, is becoming readily available the question is: what is it that we gain by imaging the periphery? Based on accumulating evidence it is clear that findings in the periphery do not always associate to those observed in the posterior pole. However, the newly acquired information may provide useful clues to previously unrecognised disease features and may facilitate more accurate disease prognostication...
October 10, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315478/heterozygous-meg2-ablation-causes-intraocular-pressure-elevation-and-progressive-glaucomatous-neurodegeneration
#2
Jacqueline Reinhard, Susanne Wiemann, Stephanie C Joachim, Marina Palmhof, Julia Woestmann, Bernd Denecke, Yingchun Wang, Gregory P Downey, Andreas Faissner
Glaucomatous neurodegeneration represents one of the major causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Yet, the detailed molecular mechanisms that initiate optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss are not fully understood. Members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily are key players in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In order to investigate the potential functional relevance of the PTP megakaryocyte 2 (Meg2) in retinal neurodegeneration, we analyzed Meg2 knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET)-synonym protein-tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (Ptpn9)-mice...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300342/gene-expression-in-response-to-optical-defocus-of-opposite-signs-reveals-bidirectional-mechanism-of-visually-guided-eye-growth
#3
Tatiana V Tkatchenko, David Troilo, Alexandra Benavente-Perez, Andrei V Tkatchenko
Myopia (nearsightedness) is the most common eye disorder, which is rapidly becoming one of the leading causes of vision loss in several parts of the world because of a recent sharp increase in prevalence. Nearwork, which produces hyperopic optical defocus on the retina, has been implicated as one of the environmental risk factors causing myopia in humans. Experimental studies have shown that hyperopic defocus imposed by negative power lenses placed in front of the eye accelerates eye growth and causes myopia, whereas myopic defocus imposed by positive lenses slows eye growth and produces a compensatory hyperopic shift in refractive state...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294635/data-sets-of-eqtl-loci-correlation-analysis-and-overlapped-genes-among-gene-sets-that-their-expression-levels-are-closely-related-to-genes-of-vegf-family
#4
Jinglin Cui, Jing Li, Hang Lu, Hong Yu, Dongmei Wei, Yan Jiao, Monica M Jablonski, Weikuan Gu, Hong Chen
This data is generated from the analysis of similarities and differences in gene expression levels and pathways among genes (VegfA, VegfB, VegfC, and Pgf) in Vegf family using whole genome expression data generated from normal retina of eighty strains of mice. The results have been published in doi:10.1016/j.exer.2018.06.024 (Cui et al., 2018) [1]. Fig. 1 shows the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) that regulate the expression level of each gene in the Vegf family. The other three figure show the overlapped genes among the top 500 genes that their expression levels are most closely correlated to each of the Vegf genes...
October 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286110/non-invasive-evaluation-of-neurovascular-coupling-in-the-murine-retina-by-dynamic-retinal-vessel-analysis
#5
Walid Albanna, Konstantin Kotliar, Jan Niklas Lüke, Serdar Alpdogan, Catharina Conzen, Ute Lindauer, Hans Clusmann, Jürgen Hescheler, Walthard Vilser, Toni Schneider, Gerrit Alexander Schubert
BACKGROUND: Impairment of neurovascular coupling (NVC) was recently reported in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage and may correlate with disease severity and outcome. However, previous techniques to evaluate NVC required invasive procedures. Retinal vessels may represent an alternative option for non-invasive assessment of NVC. METHODS: A prototype of an adapted retinal vessel analyzer was used to assess retinal vessel diameter in mice. Dynamic vessel analysis (DVA) included an application of monochromatic flicker light impulses in predefined frequencies for evaluating NVC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286099/assessment-of-inner-and-outer-retinal-layer-metrics-on-the-cirrus-hd-oct-platform-in-normal-eyes
#6
Sruthi Arepalli, Sunil K Srivastava, Ming Hu, Peter M Kaiser, Neeley Dukles, Jamie L Reese, Justis P Ehlers
PURPOSE: Ellipsoid zone (EZ) and outer retinal integrity are strongly linked to visual prognosis, but quantitative normative data is lacking. This study evaluates the EZ, outer retina, and inner retina in eyes without macular disease across a wide age spectrum. METHODS: An IRB-approved study was performed for eyes without macular pathology undergoing Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) scans on the Cirrus HD-OCT system (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Oberkochen, Germany)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270647/mathematical-method-for-analysis-of-the-asymmetric-retinal-vascular-networks
#7
Zhipeng Zhu, Chao He, Yingli Zhang, Xiangji Yue, Dechun Ba
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively investigate the haemodynamics and oxygen transmission of the retina. METHODS: Considering the effect of Fåhraeus-Lindqvist effect on the apparent viscosity of blood and the actual haematocrit in blood vessels, this study used the currently known retinal parameters (e.g. blood flow obtained by Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, FD-OCT for short) to construct a retinal blood circulation model consisting of an asymmetric vascular network system...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252997/repeatability-of-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-in-measuring-blood-perfusion-in-the-human-eye
#8
Safal Khanal, Philip R K Turnbull, Ehsan Vaghefi, John R Phillips
BACKGROUND: Quantifying blood perfusion in ocular tissues is challenging, partly because the majority of the blood is carried by the choroid, which is difficult to visualize because it is located between the retina and sclera. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the intra- and interday repeatability of MRI measures of chorio-retinal blood perfusion. STUDY TYPE: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. POPULATION: Twenty young healthy adults (six male, age: 25 ± 5 years) scanned twice within a single session repeated at the same time of day on 2 days...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30250985/contribution-of-the-clock-gene-dec2-to-vegf-mrna-upregulation-by-modulation-of-hif1%C3%AE-protein-levels-in-hypoxic-mio-m1-cells-a-human-cell-line-of-retinal-glial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells
#9
Naoki Kusunose, Takahiro Akamine, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Shigeo Yoshida, Kenichi Kimoto, Sai Yasukochi, Naoya Matsunaga, Satoru Koyanagi, Shigehiro Ohdo, Toshiaki Kubota
PURPOSE: Clock genes are components of the molecular clock. Their malfunction is thought to increase the risk of numerous diseases, including cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has a pivotal role in angiogenesis, and its expression levels are controlled by clock genes in tumor cells. Ophthalmic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and neovascular glaucoma are also associated with abnormal angiogenesis followed by upregulation of VEGF in the eye...
September 24, 2018: Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30249795/pathway-specific-asymmetries-between-on-and-off-visual-signals
#10
Sneha Ravi, Daniel Ahn, Martin Greschner, E J Chichilnisky, Greg D Field
Visual processing is largely organized into ON and OFF pathways that signal stimulus increments and decrements, respectively. These pathways exhibit natural pairings based on morphological and physiological similarities, such as ON and OFF alpha ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. Several studies have noted asymmetries in the properties of ON and OFF pathways. For example, the spatial receptive fields (RFs) of OFF alpha cells are systematically smaller than ON alpha cells. Analysis of natural scenes suggests these asymmetries are optimal for visual encoding...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30243906/the-organization-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunopositive-cells-in-the-sparrow-retina
#11
Joo-Yeong Jeon, Eun-Shil Lee, Eun-Bee Park, Chang-Jin Jeon
The purpose of this study was to identify tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive (TH+) cells in the sparrow retina using immunocytochemistry and quantitative analysis. All TH+ cells were conventional amacrine cells. Based on dendritic morphology, at least two types were observed. The first type had a single thick primary process that descended from the cell body and many densely beaded processes in substrata (s) 1, less beaded processes in s3, and spiny processes in s4/5 of the inner plexiform layer. The dendrites of the second type appeared similar in each layer, but it displayed several primary processes that spread laterally away from the soma before descending to the inner plexiform layer...
September 20, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233136/17%C3%AE-estradiol-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-blue-light-emitting-diode-induced-retinal-degeneration-by-decreasing-apoptosis-and-enhancing-autophagy
#12
Qingquan Wei, Xiuwei Liang, Ye Peng, Donghui Yu, Ruiling Zhang, Huizi Jin, Jiaqi Fan, Wenting Cai, Chengda Ren, Jing Yu
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the effects of 17β-estradiol (βE2 ) on blue light-emitting diode (LED)-induced retinal degeneration (RD) in rats and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced retinal pigment epithelium cell injury in humans and elucidate the protective mechanism of βE2 underlying these processes. Methods: Female ovariectomized (OVX) rats were intravitreally injected with βE2 before blue LED exposure (3,000 lux, 2 hours). Retinal function and morphology were assayed via electroretinogram (ERG) and H&E, respectively...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30196693/quantitative-imaging-of-specific-proteins-in-the-human-retina-by-la-icp-ms-using-bioconjugated-metal-nanoclusters-as-labels
#13
Maria Cruz-Alonso, Beatriz Fernandez, Montserrat Garcia-Diaz, Hector Gonzalez-Iglesias, Rosario Pereiro
A sensitive methodology using antibody-conjugated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) was developed for the quantitative bioimaging of specific proteins in biological tissues by laser ablation (LA) coupled to inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Determination of metallothioneins (MT1/2 protein isoforms) images in human retina tissue sections was carried out as a proof of concept. AuNCs used as label were conjugated to the selected antibody through carbodiimide coupling. A stoichiometry "AuNCs:available antibody" of 1:1 was obtained...
September 9, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194931/the-blunt-end-surgical-challenges-of-gene-therapy-for-inherited-retinal-diseases
#14
Janet L Davis
PURPOSE: Review barriers to effective transduction of cells in the subretinal plane during gene therapy surgery for inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD). DESIGN: Perspective METHODS: Case-based learning in clinical trials and commercial applications of gene therapy in a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital. MEDLINE search for publications relevant to retinal surgical technique for gene therapy, clinical trials results for gene therapy of IRD, adenoviral-associated viral vector design, and immune response to viral vectors...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193308/photoreceptor-survival-is-regulated-by-gsto1-1-in-the-degenerating-retina
#15
Nilisha Fernando, Yvette Wooff, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Haihan Jiao, Catherine Dietrich, Matt Rutar, Melissa Rooke, Deepthi Menon, Janis T Eells, Krisztina Valter, Philip G Board, Jan Provis, Riccardo Natoli
Purpose: Glutathione-S-transferase omega 1-1 (GSTO1-1) is a cytosolic glutathione transferase enzyme, involved in glutathionylation, toll-like receptor signaling, and calcium channel regulation. GSTO1-1 dysregulation has been implicated in oxidative stress and inflammation, and contributes to the pathogenesis of several diseases and neurological disorders; however, its role in retinal degenerations is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of GSTO1-1 in modulating oxidative stress and consequent inflammation in the normal and degenerating retina...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187432/a-virtual-reality-approach-identifies-flexible-inhibition-of-motion-aftereffects-induced-by-head-rotation
#16
Jianying Bai, Min Bao, Tao Zhang, Yi Jiang
As we move in space, our retinae receive motion signals from two causes: those resulting from motion in the world and those resulting from self-motion. Mounting evidence has shown that vestibular self-motion signals interact with visual motion processing profoundly. However, most contemporary methods arguably lack portability and generality and are incapable of providing measurements during locomotion. Here we developed a virtual reality approach, combining a three-space sensor with a head-mounted display, to quantitatively manipulate the causality between retinal motion and head rotations in the yaw plane...
September 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30157773/short-term-optical-defocus-perturbs-normal-developmental-shifts-in-retina-rpe-protein-abundance
#17
Nina Riddell, Pierre Faou, Sheila G Crewther
BACKGROUND: Myopia (short-sightedness) affects approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide, and prevalence is increasing. Animal models induced by defocusing lenses show striking similarity with human myopia in terms of morphology and the implicated genetic pathways. Less is known about proteome changes in animals. Thus, the present study aimed to improve understanding of protein pathway responses to lens defocus, with an emphasis on relating expression changes to no lens control development and identifying bidirectional and/or distinct pathways across myopia and hyperopia (long-sightedness) models...
August 29, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151700/long-noncoding-rna-malat1-acts-as-a-competing-endogenous-rna-to-regulate-amadori-glycated-albumin-induced-mcp-1-expression-in-retinal-microglia-by-a-microrna-124-dependent-mechanism
#18
Ning Dong, Bing Xu, Hong Shi
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 may be involved in the inflammatory effect of Amadori-glycated albumin (AGA) in retinal microglia via a microRNA-124 (miR-124)-dependent mechanism. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in the retinas of rats was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 27, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136872/the-sheep-cornea-structural-and-clinical-characteristics
#19
Carol Ann Greene, Stuti Lonie Misra, Hannah Lee, James McKelvie, Kushant Kapadia, Robin McFarlane, Charles Ninian John McGhee, Colin Richard Green, Trevor Sherwin
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses to characterize the corneas of young, healthy sheep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy male sheep, 10 months to 1 year of age, were included as experimental subjects. Central corneal thickness was measured using a handheld pachymeter, and an Easygraph corneal topographer provided topographic maps. Microstructural imaging of corneal layers was achieved by using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III Rostock Corneal Module in vivo corneal microscope (IVCM)...
August 23, 2018: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126320/retinal-angiotensin-ii-and-angiotensin-1-7-response-to-hyperglycemia-and-an-intervention-with-captopril
#20
Preenie deS Senanayake, Vera L Bonilha, John W Peterson, Yoshiro Yamada, Sadashiva S Karnik, Firouz Daneshgari, K Bridget Brosnihan, Joe G Hollyfield
HYPOTHESIS: Hyperglycemia decreases angiotensin-(1-7), the endogenous counter-regulator of angiotensin II in the retina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The distribution and levels of retinal angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) were evaluated by confocal imaging and quantitative immunohistochemistry during the development of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. RESULTS: In the nondiabetic eye, Ang II was localized to the endfeet of Müller cells, extending into the cellular processes of the inner plexiform layer and inner nuclear layer; Ang-(1-7) showed a wider distribution, extending from the foot plates of the Müller cells to the photoreceptor layer...
July 2018: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
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