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animal biotechnology

Beti Vidmar, Maša Vodovnik
Keratin is a complex and structurally stable protein found in human and animal hard tissues, such as feathers, wool, hair, hoof and nails. Some of these, like feathers and wool, represent one of the main sources of protein-rich waste with significant potential to be transformed into value-added products such as feed, fertilizers or bioenergy. A major limitation impeding valorization of keratinous substrates is their recalcitrant structure and resistance to hydrolysis by common proteases. However, specialized keratinolytic enzymes produced by some microorganisms can efficiently degrade these substrates...
September 2018: Food Technology and Biotechnology
S D Portbury, A Sedjahtera, K Perrones, C Sgambelloni, M Zhang, P J Crack, D I Finkelstein, P A Adlard
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to assess the potential efficacy of a novel class of metal chaperone on the outcomes in an animal model of a controlled cortical impact. This work was predicated on previous observations that this class of compound has exhibited neuroprotective potential in other models of aging and neurodegeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN: The study employed a controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in three month old mice with subsequent behavioral and cellular assessments to determine therapeutic efficacy...
December 3, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Roxana-Andreea Ilica, Lenuţa Kloetzer, Anca-Irina Galaction, Dan Caşcaval
Fumaric acid is a valuable compound used in foods, beverages, detergents, animal feed, pharmaceuticals and miscellaneous industrial products. It is produced on a large scale by the petrochemical route but the current tendency is towards implementing "green production" and environmental friendly technologies like biotechnological production of fumaric acid using low-cost raw materials. In this context, numerous studies focus on improving the fermentation process not only by using renewable raw material and genetically modified microorganisms, but also by developing and applying different downstream techniques for easy recovery of fumaric acid from the fermented broth...
December 1, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Alessio Mancini, Filmon Eyassu, Maxwell Conway, Annalisa Occhipinti, Pietro Liò, Claudio Angione, Sandra Pucciarelli
BACKGROUND: The study of cell metabolism is becoming central in several fields such as biotechnology, evolution/adaptation and human disease investigations. Here we present CiliateGEM, the first metabolic network reconstruction draft of the freshwater ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. We also provide the tools and resources to simulate different growth conditions and to predict metabolic variations. CiliateGEM can be extended to other ciliates in order to set up a meta-model, i.e. a metabolic network reconstruction valid for all ciliates...
November 30, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Dorothy Jane Dankel
Salmon farming is a key industry in Norway, with firsthand value of more than 60 billion Norwegian crowns in 2017. The salmon industry is a driving force for biotechnological applications in the marine sector. The recent release of the Atlantic salmon reference genome offers new opportunities to solve major aquaculture bottlenecks that currently limit expansion of the industry. One major bottleneck is the genetic impact of escaped farmed salmon on wild populations. To solve this problem, the industry can use sterile salmon in production...
2018: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Vipin Chandra Kalia, Sanjay K S Patel, Yun Chan Kang, Jung-Kul Lee
The mechanisms through which microbes communicate using signal molecules has inspired a great deal of research. Microbes use this exchange of information, known as quorum sensing (QS), to initiate and perpetuate infectious diseases in eukaryotic organisms, evading the eukaryotic defense system by multiplying and expressing their pathogenicity through QS regulation. The major issue to arise from such networks is increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, resulting from QS-dependent mediation of the formation of biofilm, the induction of efflux pumps, and the production of antibiotics...
November 22, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Wendy A Harwood
Barley has a number of unique features among our crop plants. It was one of the earliest plants to be domesticated and continues to play an important role in modern agriculture today. It is a versatile crop, used both for human nutrition and for animal feed, and plays an important role as an experimental model plant allowing advances in plant genetics, plant physiology, plant pathology, plant biochemistry, and more recently in plant biotechnology. In this introductory chapter, the key features of barley as both crop and model plant are considered...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rosueti Diógenes Oliveira-Filho, Angelo Roncalli Avles E Silva, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Nadia Accioly Pinto Nogueira
BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) and their volatile components (VCs) have varied biological and pharmacological activities, but the low solubility and bioavailability hamper their applications, so that the inclusion in cyclodextrins (CDs) is likely to improve their physicochemical properties and pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the biological activities and pharmacological applications of essential oils and their volatile components complexed with cyclodextrins...
November 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Karim El-Sabrout, Sarah Aggag, João Batista Freire de Souza
The rabbit is gaining attention in the biotechnology field because it offers several advantages as a specific experimental model. Both wild and domestic rabbits exist. They are prey, browsers and ecosystem keystone species, and they also exhibit high production. Rabbit biotechnology is a branch of animal biotechnology in which molecular biology techniques are used to modify living organisms and make products. The advances in biotechnology have created new applications in rabbit genetics. These applications have moved from measuring the phenotype to assessing the genotype and are now based on the science of genetic engineering...
November 19, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
Laura Marín, Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Rodrigo Entrialgo-Cadierno, Claudio J Villar, Felipe Lombó
Flavonols are a flavonoid subfamily widely distributed in plants, including several ones of great importance in human and animal diet (apple, tomato, broccoli, onion, beans, tea). These polyphenolic nutraceuticals exert potent antimicrobial (membrane potential disruptors), antioxidant (free-radical scavengers), pharmacokinetic (CYP450 modulators), anti-inflammatory (lipoxygenase inhibitors), antiangiogenic (VEGF inhibitors) and antitumor (cyclin inhibitors) activities. Biotechnological production of these nutraceuticals, for example via heterologous biosynthesis in industrial actinomycetes, is favored since in plants these polyphenols appear as inactive glycosylated derivatives, in low concentrations or as part of complex mixtures with other polyphenolic compounds...
2018: PloS One
Fatma Chaari, Semia Ellouz Chaabouni
β-1,3-1,4-glucanases (or lichenases, EC are one of the main enzymes used in industry during the last decades. These enzymes hydrolyze β-glucans containing β -1,3 and β -1,4 linkages such as cereal β-glucans and lichenan. The β-1,3-1,4-glucanases are known to be produced by a variety of bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. A large number of microbial β-1,3-1,4-glucanases have a potential application in industrial processes such as feed, food and detergent industries. This present review summarizes the studies on β-1,3-1,4-glucanases production conditions, enzyme biochemical properties, and potential industrial applications...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Helena Debiazi Zomer, Kelly Cs Roballo, Thais Borges Lessa, Fabiana Fernandes Bressan, Natália Nardeli Gonçalves, Flávio Vieira Meirelles, Andrea Gonçalves Trentin, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio
Introduction: Owing to their similarity with humans, rabbits are useful for multiple applications in biotechnology and translational research from basic to preclinical studies. In this sense, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known for their therapeutic potential and promising future in regenerative medicine. As many studies have been using rabbit adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) as a model of human ASCs (hASCs), it is fundamental to compare their characteristics and understand how distinct features could affect the translation to human medicine...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
Erick Bermúdez-Méndez, Albert Fuglsang-Madsen, Sofie Føns, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Andreas Hougaard Laustsen
Snakes, scorpions, and spiders are venomous animals that pose a threat to human health, and severe envenomings from the bites or stings of these animals must be treated with antivenom. Current antivenoms are based on plasma-derived immunoglobulins or immunoglobulin fragments from hyper-immunized animals. Although these medicines have been life-saving for more than 120 years, opportunities to improve envenoming therapy exist. In the later decades, new biotechnological tools have been applied with the aim of improving the efficacy, safety, and affordability of antivenoms...
November 2, 2018: Toxins
Hanna J Wagner, Sarah Wehrle, Etienne Weiss, Marco Cavallari, Wilfried Weber
Nanobodies, the smallest possible antibody format, have become of considerable interest for biotechnological and immunotherapeutic applications. They show excellent robustness, are non-immunogenic in humans, and can easily be engineered and produced in prokaryotic hosts. Traditionally, nanobodies are selected from camelid immune libraries involving the maintenance and treatment of animals. Recent advances have involved the generation of nanobodies from naïve or synthetic libraries. However, such approaches demand large library sizes and sophisticated selection procedures...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Deborah Carbonera Guedes, Aline Kuhn Sbruzzi Pasquali, João Carlos Minozzo, Craig Faulds, Ricardo Rasmussen Petterle, Carlos Ricardo Soccol, Vanete Thomaz Soccol
A skin test is a widely used tool in diagnostic evaluations to investigate cutaneous leishmaniases (CL). The actual antigen (Montenegro skin test [MST] antigen) presents some difficulties that pertain to its manufacturing and validation. To contribute to overcoming this problem, we propose the application of new-generation molecules that are based on skin antigen tests. These antigens were obtained through biotechnology pathways by manufacturing synthetic mimetic peptides. Three peptides, which were selected by phage display, were tested as skin test antigens in an animal model (Cavia porcellus) that was immunized with Leishmania amazonensis or Leishmania braziliensis...
November 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
M V Shepelev, S V Kalinichenko, A V Deykin, I V Korobko
The use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for the synthesis of the recombinant proteins secreted into milk is a current trend in the development of biotechnologies. Advances in genetic engineering, in particular the emergence of targeted genome editing technologies, have provided new opportunities and significantly improved efficiency in the generation of animals that produce recombinant proteins in milk, including economically important animals. Here, we present a retrospective review of technologies for generating transgenic animals, with emphasis on the creation of animals that produce recombinant proteins in milk...
July 2018: Acta Naturae
Kewal K Jain
Over the past century, treatment of malignant tumors of the brain has remained a challenge. Refinements in neurosurgical techniques, discovery of powerful chemotherapeutic agents, advances in radiotherapy, applications of biotechnology, and improvements in methods of targeted delivery have led to some extension of length of survival of glioblastoma patients. Refinements in surgery are mentioned because most of the patients with glioblastoma undergo surgery and many of the other innovative therapies are combined with surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yanhong Li, Chunxiao Zhang, Fengxiang Luo, Biyu Peng
Leather biotechnology based on enzyme is one of the main directions toward clean technology in the leather manufacturing process. Proteins such as collagen, elastin, and keratin are important components in animal hides or skins, and proteases are most frequently used in the leather manufacturing process for the removal of interfibrillar substance and opening-up of collagen fiber instead of toxic chemicals. Elastin is an important and highly elastic structural protein in the animal hides or skins and significantly affects the properties of the final leather product...
October 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Aldo Nicosia, Alexander Mikov, Matteo Cammarata, Paolo Colombo, Yaroslav Andreev, Sergey Kozlov, Angela Cuttitta
Blue biotechnologies implement marine bio-resources for addressing practical concerns. The isolation of biologically active molecules from marine animals is one of the main ways this field develops. Strikingly, cnidaria are considered as sustainable resources for this purpose, as they possess unique cells for attack and protection, producing an articulated cocktail of bioactive substances. The Mediterranean sea anemone Anemonia viridis has been studied extensively for years. In this short review, we summarize advances in bioprospecting of the A...
October 25, 2018: Marine Drugs
Isabel Viera, Antonio Pérez-Gálvez, María Roca
The benefit of carotenoids to human health is undeniable and consequently, their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. Additionally, the nutraceutical properties of carotenoids have attracted attention of the food industry, especially in a new market area, the 'cosmeceuticals.' Marine organisms (microalgae, seaweeds, animals, etc.) are a rich source of carotenoids, with optimal properties for industrial production and biotechnological manipulation. Consequently, several papers have reviewed the analysis, characterization, extraction and determination methods, biological functions and industrial applications...
October 22, 2018: Marine Drugs
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