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animal biotechnology

Lorena Bustamante-Córdova, Edgar A Melgoza-González, Jesús Hernández
The production of recombinant antibodies has had a tremendous impact on several research fields, most prominently in biotechnology, immunology and medicine, enabling enormous advances in each. Thus far, a broad diversity of recombinant antibody (rAb) forms have been designed and expressed using different expression systems. Even though the majority of rAbs approved for clinical use are targeted to humans, advances in veterinary medicine seem promising. The aim of this mini-review is to present an update regarding the rAbs in veterinary medicine reported to date, as well as their potential use in diagnostics, prophylaxis and therapeutics...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Svenja Nicolin Bolten, Ursula Rinas, Thomas Scheper
Heparin is a highly sulfated polysaccharide which belongs to the family of glycosaminoglycans. It is involved in various important biological activities. The major biological purpose is the inhibition of the coagulation cascade to maintain the blood flow in the vasculature. These properties are employed in several therapeutic drugs. Heparin's activities are associated with its interaction to various proteins. To date, the structural heparin-protein interactions are not completely understood. This review gives a general overview of specific patterns and functional groups which are involved in the heparin-protein binding...
August 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yu-Huei Cheng, Jiun-Jian Liaw, Che-Nan Kuo
BACKGROUND: Restriction enzymes are used frequently in biotechnology. However, manual mining of restriction enzymes is challenging. Furthermore, integrating available restriction enzymes into different bioinformatics systems is necessary for many biotechnological applications, such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Thus, in the present study, we developed the package REHUNT (Restriction Enzymes HUNTing), which mines restriction enzymes from the public database REBASE using a series of search operations...
August 10, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Yiming Feng, Yoshihito Kitaoku, Jun Tanaka, Toki Taira, Takayuki Ohnuma, Finn L Aachmann, Tamo Fukamizo
Euglena gracilis is a unicellular microalga showing characteristics of both plants and animals, and extensively used as a model organism in the research works of biochemistry and molecular biology. Biotechnological applications of E. gracilis have been conducted for production of numerous important compounds. However, chitin-mediated defense system intensively studied in higher plants remains to be investigated in this microalga. Recently, Taira et al. (Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 82:1090-1100, 2018) isolated a unique chitinase gene, comprising two catalytic domains almost homologous to each other (Cat1 and Cat2) and two chitin-binding domains (CBD1 and CBD2), from E...
August 6, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Javad Gharechahi, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Background: The diverse microbiome present in the rumen of ruminant animals facilitates the digestion of plant-based fiber. In this study, a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the microbes adhering to plant fiber in the camel rumen was undertaken to identify the key species contributing to lignocellulose degradation and short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA) fermentation. Results: The density of genes in the metagenome encoding glycoside hydrolases was estimated to be 25 per Mbp of assembled DNA, which is significantly greater than what has been reported in other sourced metagenomes, including cow rumen...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Karin Hoelzer, Lisa Bielke, Damer P Blake, Eric Cox, Simon M Cutting, Bert Devriendt, Elisabeth Erlacher-Vindel, Evy Goossens, Kemal Karaca, Stephane Lemiere, Martin Metzner, Margot Raicek, Miquel Collell Suriñach, Nora M Wong, Cyril Gay, Filip Van Immerseel
Vaccines and other alternative products are central to the future success of animal agriculture because they can help minimize the need for antibiotics by preventing and controlling infectious diseases in animal populations. To assess scientific advancements related to alternatives to antibiotics and provide actionable strategies to support their development, the United States Department of Agriculture, with support from the World Organisation for Animal Health, organized the second International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics...
July 31, 2018: Veterinary Research
Jesica R Canizo, Camila Vazquez Echegaray, Doris Klisch, Juan F Aller, Dante A Paz, Ricardo H Alberio, Ramiro Alberio, Alejandra S Guberman
OBJECTIVES: The use of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells as an alternative to embryonic stem cells to produce transgenic animals requires the development of a biotechnological platform for their generation. In this study, different strategies for the generation of bovine and porcine iPS cells were evaluated. Lentiviral vectors were used to deliver human factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC (OKSM) into bovine and porcine embryonic fibroblasts and different culture conditions were evaluated...
July 27, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Sally R Partridge, Vincenzo Di Pilato, Yohei Doi, Michael Feldgarden, Daniel H Haft, William Klimke, Samir Kumar-Singh, Jian-Hua Liu, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Arjun Prasad, Gian Maria Rossolini, Stefan Schwarz, Jianzhong Shen, Timothy Walsh, Yang Wang, Basil Britto Xavier
The initial report of the mcr-1 (mobile colistin resistance) gene has led to many reports of mcr-1 variants and other mcr genes from different bacterial species originating from human, animal and environmental samples in different geographical locations. Resistance gene nomenclature is complex and unfortunately problems such as different names being used for the same gene/protein or the same name being used for different genes/proteins are not uncommon. Registries exist for some families, such as bla (β-lactamase) genes, but there is as yet no agreed nomenclature scheme for mcr genes...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Vincent J Sewalt, Teresa F Reyes, Quang Bui
A safety assessment was conducted for a symthetic variant Cytophaga sp. α-amylase enzyme expressed in Bacillus licheniformis and formulated into two distinct product formats: whole broth (a preparation in which the production organism is completely inactivated, but containing residual cell debris) and clarified preparation (from which the production organism is completely removed). The enzyme was improved via modern biotechnology techniques for use in the endohydrolysis of starch, glycogen, related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides...
July 23, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Imran Hussain, Gajender Aleti, Ravi Naidu, Markus Puschenreiter, Qaisar Mahmood, Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Fang Wang, Shahida Shaheen, Jabir Hussain Syed, Thomas G Reichenauer
Environmental problems such as the deterioration of groundwater quality, soil degradation and various threats to human, animal and ecosystem health are closely related to the presence of high concentrations of organic xenobiotics in the environment. Employing appropriate technologies to remediate contaminated soils is crucial due to the site-specificity of most remediation methods. The limitations of conventional remediation technologies include poor environmental compatibility, high cost of implementation and poor public acceptability...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Manousos E Kambouris, Georgios Gaitanis, Yiannis Manoussopoulos, Michael Arabatzis, Maria Kantzanou, George D Kostis, Aristea Velegraki, George P Patrinos
Global governance of pathogens such as Ebola virus and infectious diseases is central to global health, and to innovation in systems medicine. Worrisomely, the gaps in human immunity and healthcare services combined with novel pathogens emerging by travel, biotechnological advances, or the rupture of the host-species barrier challenge infectious diseases' global governance. Such biorisks and biothreats may scale up to global catastrophic biological risks (GCBRs) spatiotemporally, either as individual or as collective risks...
July 23, 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Keiji Numata, Yoko Horii, Kazusato Oikawa, Yu Miyagi, Taku Demura, Misato Ohtani
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are used for various applications, especially in the biomedical field. Recently, CPPs have been used as a part of carrier to deliver proteins and/or genes into plant cells and tissues; hence, these peptides are attractive tools for plant biotechnological and agricultural applications, but require more efficient delivery rates and optimization by species before wide-scale use can be achieved. Here, we developed a library containing 55 CPPs to determine the optimal CPP characteristics for penetration of BY-2 cells and leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), poplar (hybrid aspen Populus tremula × tremuloides line T89), and rice (Oryza sativa)...
July 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ekaterina Donchenko, Ekaterina Trifonova, Nikolai Nikitin, Joseph Atabekov, Olga Karpova
Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) is a typical member of the Potexvirus genus in its morphology and genome structure; still it exhibits a number of unique features. They allow this virus to be considered a promising object for biotechnology. Virions and virus-like particles (VLPs) of AltMV are stable in a wide range of conditions, including sera of laboratory animals. AltMV VLPs can assemble at various pH and ionic strengths. Furthermore, AltMV virions and VLPs demonstrate high immunogenicity, enhancing the immune response to the target antigen thus offering the possibility of being used as potential adjuvants...
2018: Advances in Virology
Annamaria Sandomenico, Andrea Caporale, Nunzianna Doti, Simon Cross, Gabriele Cruciani, Angela Chambery, Sandro De Falco, Menotti Ruvo
Combinatorially generated molecular repertoires have been largely used to identify novel bioactive compounds. Ever more sophisticated technological solutions have been proposed to simplify and speed up such process, expanding the chemical diversity space and increasing the prospect to select new molecular entities with specific and potent activities against targets of therapeutic relevance. In this context, random mixtures of oligomeric peptides were originally used and since more than 25 years they represent a continuous source of bioactive molecules with potencies ranging from the subnM to microM concentration...
July 15, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Sameh A Abdelnour, Ayman A Swelum, Muhammad Arif
In the past few decades, enhancement of animal productivity has been gaining increasing attention among decisions-makers, politicians, mangers, and breeders, because of the increasing of world population and shortage of natural resources. The selection of high productivity animals is the main goal, through the application of genetic improvement programs. The use of molecular genetics has conferred significant breeding advantages over conventional breeding techniques. In this regard, many economic characteristics are controlled by a small number of multiple gene loci, each of which is responsible for trait diversity and hence they are referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Lin Hou, Jian Wang, Xinyue Li, Hu Wang, Guishu Liu, Bo Xu, Xingxing Mei, Xiuguo Hua, Ji Wu
Pigs share many anatomical and physiological features with humans, offering a unique and viable model for biomedical research. Although porcine female germline stem cells (FGSCs) were identified in the juvenile ovary, no reports described the isolation and purification of FGSCs from the pig at sexual maturity. Here, we isolated, purified, and cultured FGSCs from porcine ovaries at sexual maturity. Furthermore, we established and characterized the porcine FGSC (pFGSC) lines. In addition, we found that pFGSC lines could differentiate into oocytes when injection into tissue grafts, including human ovarian tissues...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Galina Pankratova, Dónal Leech, Lo Gorton, Lars Hederstedt
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) in microbial cells is essential for certain biotechnological applications and contributes to the biogeochemical cycling of elements and syntrophic microbial metabolism in complex natural environments. The Gram-positive lactic acid bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, an opportunistic human pathogen, is shown to be able to transfer electrons generated in fermentation metabolism to electrodes directly and indirectly via mediators. By exploiting E. faecalis wild-type and mutant cells, we demonstrate that reduced demethylmenaquinone in the respiratory chain in the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is crucial for the EET...
July 31, 2018: Biochemistry
Fernando Pérez-García, Volker F Wendisch
Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long and successful history in the biotechnological production of the amino acids l-glutamate and l-lysine. In the recent years, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a broad catalog of value-added compounds including organic acids, vitamins, terpenoids and proteins. Moreover, this bacterium has been engineered to realize a flexible carbon source concept enabling product formation from various second generation feedstocks without competing uses in human and animal nutrition...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Joilane Alves Pereira-Freire, George Laylson da Silva Oliveira, Layana Karine Farias Lima, Carla Lorena Silva Ramos, Stella Regina Arcanjo-Medeiros, Ana Cristina Silva de Lima, Sabrina Almondes Teixeira, Guilherme Antônio Lopes de Oliveira, Nárcia Mariana Fonseca Nunes, Vivianne Rodrigues Amorim, Luciano da Silva Lopes, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Joaquim Soares da Costa-Júnior, Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira
Mauritia flexuosa (Arecaceae), known as "Buriti," is a Brazilian palm tree with high economic potential for local communities. Herein, we investigated the phytochemistry profile and antioxidant potential of M. flexuosa fruits and determined the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds. Peels revealed upper values for phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, tannins, and ascorbic acid when compared to the pulps and endocarps. All samples showed capacity to scavenger free radicals (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Mohammad Taghi Ahady, Nasser Hoghooghi-Rad, Rasool Madani, Ahmad Reza Esmaeili Rastaghi
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii , which can infect humans and warm-blooded animals. This infection can lead to still birth and abortion among some susceptible hosts especially sheep and human in pregnancy. Development of a vaccine against T. gondii infection is very important-especially for use in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women, and sheep. Different antigens of T. gondii can be potential candidates for immunization...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
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