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animal biotechnology

Long Xie, Zhenping Lu, Dongyang Chen, Mengmeng Yang, Yuying Liao, Wenrong Mao, Lifen Mo, Juanjuan Sun, Wenhao Yang, Huiyan Xu, Kehuan Lu, Yangqing Lu
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are promising genetic resources for avian studies including modified animals. However, chicken PGCs are slow to proliferate and gradually lose germline competency after long-term culture, which hinders their application in avian biotechnology. Thus, we developed a robust method for the isolation and rapid propagation of PGCs using an indirect co-culture system. PGCs derived from a pair of embryonic chicken gonads were expanded to 1 × 106 within 2 weeks, and no sex bias was observed in...
September 15, 2018: Theriogenology
Cheryl Suwen Law, Siew Yee Lim, Andrew D Abell, Nicolas H Voelcker, Abel Santos
Optical sensors are a class of devices that enable the identification and/or quantification of analyte molecules across multiple fields and disciplines such as environmental protection, medical diagnosis, security, food technology, biotechnology, and animal welfare. Nanoporous photonic crystal (PC) structures provide excellent platforms to develop such systems for a plethora of applications since these engineered materials enable precise and versatile control of light⁻matter interactions at the nanoscale...
October 4, 2018: Nanomaterials
Fiamma Gláucia-Silva, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Karla Samara Rocha Soares, Igor Zumba Damasceno, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
Snakebite envenoming is a tropical disease neglected worldwide. In Brazil, the Crotalus durissus cascavella (CDC) snake belongs to a genus with venom of highest lethality. A search for new immunoadjuvants aimed to expand the therapeutic alternatives to improve vaccines and antivenom. This approach proposed to produce small and narrow-sized cationic CDC venom-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CHNP) able to induce antibody response against the CDC venom. The ionic gelation method induced the formation of stable and slightly smooth spherical nanoparticles (<160 nm) with protein loading efficiency superior to 90%...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Gabriela Lago Biscoto, Douglas Ferreira Sales-Medina, Hortênsia Gomes Leal, Pedro Ferreira Pinto Brandão-Dias, Sued Eustáquio Mendes Miranda, Carla Jeane Aguiar, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso, André Luis Branco de Barros, Carlos Chávez-Olortégui, M Fátima Leite, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
Scorpion sting envenoming impacts millions of people worldwide, with cardiac effects being one of the main causes of death on victims. Here we describe the first Ca2+ channel toxin present in Tityus serrulatus (Ts) venom, a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) named CPP-Ts. We show that CPP-Ts increases intracellular Ca2+ release through the activation of nuclear InsP3R of cardiomyocytes, thereby causing an increase in the contraction frequency of these cells. Besides proposing a novel subfamily of Ca2+ active toxins, we investigated its potential use as a drug delivery system targeting cancer cell nucleus using CPP-Ts's nuclear-targeting property...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Azadeh Beygmoradi, Ahmad Homaei, Roohullah Hemmati, Paloma Santos-Moriano, Daniel Hormigo, Jesús Fernández-Lucas
Chitinolytic enzymes are capable to catalyze the chitin hydrolysis. Due to their biomedical and biotechnological applications, nowadays chitinolytic enzymes have attracted worldwide attention. Chitinolytic enzymes have provided numerous useful materials in many different industries, such as food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, or biomedical industry. Marine enzymes are commonly employed in industry because they display better operational properties than animal, plant, or bacterial homologs. In this mini-review, we want to describe marine chitinolytic enzymes as versatile enzymes in different biotechnological fields...
October 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Celso Gaspar Litholdo, Guilherme Cordenonsi da Fonseca
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of noncoding RNAs that have been extensively explored in the past few years. The advent of new high-throughput sequencing technologies coupled with bioinformatics tools revealed the presence of these molecules in the transcriptome of a wide range of organisms. In animals, circRNAs can modulate gene expression and act as sponges of miRNAs to inhibit their activity. It has been demonstrated that they have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers as their expression is closely associated to human diseases, such as Alzheimer and cancer...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marcos de la Peña
Circular DNAs are frequent genomic molecules, especially among the simplest life beings, whereas circular RNAs have been regarded as weird nucleic acids in biology. Now we know that eukaryotes are able to express circRNAs, mostly derived from backsplicing mechanisms, and playing different biological roles such as regulation of RNA splicing and transcription, among others. However, a second natural and highly efficient pathway for the expression in vivo of circRNAs has been recently reported, which allows the accumulation of abundant small (100-1000 nt) non-coding RNA circles through the participation of small self-cleaving RNAs or ribozymes called hammerhead ribozymes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Guanwei Wu, Xiaoyan Cui, Hui Chen, Justin B Renaud, Kangfu Yu, Xin Chen, Aiming Wang
Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking regulate the proteins targeted to the plasma membrane and play essential roles in diverse cellular processes including responses to pathogen attack. Here, we report the identification of an endocytosis dynamin-like protein 5A (GmSDL5A) associated with purified soybean mosaic virus (SMV) virions from soybean using a top-down proteomics approach. Knock-down of GmSDL5A and its homologous gene GmSDL12A inhibits SMV infection in soybean. The role of analogous dynamin-like proteins in potyvirus infection was further confirmed and investigated using the Arabidopsis/turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) pathosystem...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Virology
Natalia Ingrid Oliveira da Silva, Ezequiel Aparecido Salvador, Isabella Rodrigues Franco, Gabriel Augusto Pires de Souza, Stella Maria de Souza Morais, Raissa Prado Rocha, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Patrícia Paiva Corsetti, Luiz Cosme Cotta Malaquias, Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho
Albumin is a natural, biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic polymer and due to these features, nanoparticles made of albumin are a good system for drug or antigen delivery. Polymeric nanoparticles are being widely explored as new vaccines platforms due to the capacity of those nanoparticles to prime the immune system by providing sustained release of the antigen after injection. Biodegradable nanoparticles associated with proteins represent a promising method for in vivo delivery of vaccines. In our previous studies, bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA-NPs) were identified as a promising system for in vivo delivery of microbial antigens...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jean-Etienne Rl Morlighem, Gandhi Radis-Baptista
Since the beginning of written history, diverse texts have reported the use of enzymatic preparations in food processing and have described the medicinal properties of crude and fractionated venoms to treat various diseases and injuries. With the biochemical characterization of enzymes from distinct sources and bioactive polypeptides from animal venoms, the last sixty years have testified the advent of industrial enzymology and protein therapeutics, which are currently applicable in a wide variety of industrial processes, household products, and pharmaceuticals...
September 26, 2018: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Sharon de Toledo Martins, Paulo Szwarc, Samuel Goldenberg, Lysangela Ronalte Alves
The comprehension of fungal biology is important for several reasons. Besides being used in biotechnological processes and in the food industry, fungi are also important animal and vegetal pathogens. Fungal diseases in humans have a great importance worldwide, and understanding fungal biology is crucial for treatment and prevention of these diseases, especially because of emerging antifungal resistance that poses great epidemiological risks. Communication through extracellular vesicles is a ubiquitous mechanism of molecule transfer between cells and is used to transport proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and other biologically active molecules...
September 22, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Christine Wrenzycki
Over the past decades in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos has been significantly improved and in particular bovine IVP is now widely applied under field conditions. This in vitro technique provides new opportunities for cattle producers, particularly in the dairy industry, to overcome infertility and to increase dissemination of animals with high genetic merit. Improvements in OPU/IVP resulted in large-scale international commercialization. More than half a million IVP embryos are generated on the yearly basis demonstrating the enormous potential of this technology...
September 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Salvatore G De-Simone, Hilton J Nascimento, Isis C Prado, Aniesse S Aguiar, Anibal R Melgarejo, Jorge L S Pina, Patricia F Ferreira, David W Provance
The availability of purified antibodies is a prerequisite for many applications and the appropriate choice(s) for antibody-purification is crucial. Numerous methods have been developed for the purification of antibodies from different sources with affinity chromatography-based methods being the most extensively utilized. These methods are based on high specificity, easy reversibility and biological interactions between two molecules (e.g., between receptor and ligand or antibody and antigen). However, no simple techniques have yet been described to characterize and purify subclasses of immunoglobulins (Ig) from some animals of biotechnology importance such as equines, which are frequently used to produce biotherapeutic antibodies...
November 15, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Faiza Amin, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Muhammad Bilal
Pectinases, member of the hydrolases family of enzymes, are one of the important enzymes of the biotechnological sector with 25% share in the global food and beverage enzyme market. They hold a leading position among the commercially produced industrial enzymes. These enzymes are sustainable and environmentally-friendly tool of nature with wide application perspective in many industrial processes, such as, retting and degumming of plant fibers, fermentation of tea and coffee, oil extraction, clarification of fruit juices and wine, valorization of industrial wastes, debasement of cellulosic biomass for biofuel production, wastewater remediation, desizing, scouring and bleaching of fabric, animal feed production, and protoplast fusion technology etc...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gregory S Keller, Andrea M Park
The use of biologicals for clinical use is rapidly increasing. One of the logical questions is what constitutes a biological? The official definition of biological products by the Food and Drug Administration is "Biological products can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids, or a combination of these substances. They may also be living entities, such as cells and tissues. Biologics are made from a variety of natural resources-human, animal, and microorganism-and may be produced by biotechnology methods...
November 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Gabina Calderón-Rosete, Juan Antonio González-Barrios, Manuel Lara-Lozano, Celia Piña-Leyva, Leonardo Rodríguez-Sosa
The freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an animal model employed for physiological and immunological studies and is also of great economic importance in aquaculture. Although it is a species of easy husbandry, a high percentage of its production is lost annually as a result of infectious diseases. Currently, genetic information about the immune system of crustaceans is limited. Therefore, we used the abdominal nerve cord from P. clarkii to obtain its transcriptome using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to identify proteins that participate in the immune system...
September 12, 2018: High-throughput
A L Van Eenennaam
For centuries, animal breeders have intentionally selected the parents of the next generation based on their concept of the 'ideal' animal. The dramatic differences seen in the appearance and productivity of different breeds show the power of such selection on DNA sequence variations. Unfortunately, the global furore over the use of modern biotechnologies to introduce desired genetic variations into animal breeding programmes, and the regulatory uncertainty associated with these recombinant DNA techniques, has effectively precluded the use of these technologies in food animal breeding programmes...
April 2018: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Andrew J Waters, Paolo Capriotti, David C A Gaboriau, Philippos Aris Papathanos, Nikolai Windbichler
The ability to erect rationally-engineered reproductive barriers in animal or plant species promises to enable a number of biotechnological applications such as the creation of genetic firewalls, the containment of gene drives or novel population replacement and suppression strategies for genetic control. However, to date no experimental data exist that explores this concept in a multicellular organism. Here we examine the requirements for building artificial reproductive barriers in the metazoan model Drosophila melanogaster by combining CRISPR-based genome editing and transcriptional transactivation (CRISPRa) of the same loci...
September 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amelia Sedjahtera, Lydia Gunawan, Lisa Bray, Lin Wai Hung, Jack Parsons, Nobuyuki Okamura, Victor L Villemagne, Kazuhiko Yanai, Xiang M Liu, Jacky Chan, Ashley I Bush, David I Finkelstein, Kevin J Barnham, Robert A Cherny, Paul A Adlard
Tauopathies are characterized by the pathological accumulation of the microtubule associated protein tau within the brain. We demonstrate here that a copper/zinc chaperone (PBT2, Prana Biotechnology) has rapid and profound effects in the rTg(tauP301L)4510 mouse model of tauopathy. This was evidenced by significantly improved cognition, a preservation of neurons, a decrease in tau aggregates and a decrease in other forms of "pathological" tau (including phosphorylated tau and sarkosyl-insoluble tau)...
September 19, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Gavin J Knott, Jennifer A Doudna
The diversity, modularity, and efficacy of CRISPR-Cas systems are driving a biotechnological revolution. RNA-guided Cas enzymes have been adopted as tools to manipulate the genomes of cultured cells, animals, and plants, accelerating the pace of fundamental research and enabling clinical and agricultural breakthroughs. We describe the basic mechanisms that set the CRISPR-Cas toolkit apart from other programmable gene-editing technologies, highlighting the diverse and naturally evolved systems now functionalized as biotechnologies...
August 31, 2018: Science
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